Results for 'The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine'

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  1.  41
    Petition to Include Cephalopods as “Animals” Deserving of Humane Treatment Under the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.New England Anti-Vivisection Society, American Anti-Vivisection Society, The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, The Humane Society of the United States, Humane Society Legislative Fund, Jennifer Jacquet, Becca Franks, Judit Pungor, Jennifer Mather, Peter Godfrey-Smith, Lori Marino, Greg Barord, Carl Safina, Heather Browning & Walter Veit - forthcoming - Harvard Law School Animal Law and Policy Clinic:1–30.
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  2. Sex Selection and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis: A Response to the Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine.Edgar Dahl & Julian Savulescu - 2000 - Human Reproduction 15 (9):1879-1880.
    In its recent statement 'Sex Selection and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis', the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine concluded that preimplantation genetic diagnosis for sex selection for non-medical reasons should be discouraged because it poses a risk of unwarranted gender bias, social harm, and results in the diversion of medical resources from genuine medical need. We critically examine the arguments presented against sex selection using preimplantation genetic diagnosis. We argue that sex selection should be available, at (...)
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  3.  59
    Attitudes on Euthanasia, Physician-Assisted Suicide and Terminal Sedation -- A Survey of the Members of the German Association for Palliative Medicine.H. C. Müller-Busch, Fuat S. Oduncu, Susanne Woskanjan & Eberhard Klaschik - 2005 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 7 (3):333-339.
    Background: Due to recent legislations on euthanasia and its current practice in the Netherlands and Belgium, issues of end-of-life medicine have become very vital in many European countries. In 2002, the Ethics Working Group of the German Association for Palliative Medicine has conducted a survey among its physician members in order to evaluate their attitudes towards different end-of-life medical practices, such as euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and terminal sedation. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was sent to the 411 DGP (...), consisting of 14 multiple choice questions on positions that might be adopted in different hypothetical scenarios on situations of “intolerable suffering” in end-of-life care. For the sake of clarification, several definitions and legal judgements of different terms used in the German debate on premature termination of life were included. For statistical analysis t-tests and Pearson-correlations were used. Results: The response rate was 61%. The proportions of the respondents who were opposed to legalizing different forms of premature termination of life were: 90% opposed to EUT, 75% to PAS, 94% to PAS for psychiatric patients. Terminal sedation was accepted by 94% of the members. The main decisional bases drawn on for the answers were personal ethical values, professional experience with palliative care, knowledge of alternative approaches, knowledge of ethical guidelines and of the national legal frame. Conclusions: In sharp contrast to similar surveys conducted in other countries, only a minority of 9.6% of the DGP physicians supported the legalization of EUT. The misuse of medical knowledge for inhumane killing in the Nazi period did not play a relevant role for the respondents’ negative attitude towards EUT. Palliative care needs to be stronger established and promoted within the German health care system in order to improve the quality of end-of-life situations which subsequently is expected to lead to decreasing requests for EUT by terminally ill patients. (shrink)
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  4.  32
    Limitation of Treatment at the End of Life: An Empirical-Ethical Analysis Regarding the Practices of Physician Members of the German Society for Palliative Medicine.Jan Schildmann, Julia Hoetzel, Anne Baumann, Christof Mueller-Busch & Jochen Vollmann - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (6):327-332.
    Objectives To determine the frequencies and types of limitation of medical treatment performed by physician members of the German Society for Palliative Medicine and to analyse the findings with respect to clinical and ethical aspects of end-of-life practices. Design Cross-sectional postal survey. Setting Data collection via the secretary of the German Society for Palliative Medicine using the German language version of the EURELD survey instrument. Subjects All 1645 physician members of the German Society for Palliative Medicine. Main (...)
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  5.  7
    The POLST (Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment) Paradigm to Improve End-of-Life Care: Potential State Legal Barriers to Implementation.Susan E. Hickman, Charles P. Sabatino, Alvin H. Moss & Jessica Wehrle Nester - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (1):119-140.
    The Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment Paradigm is designed to improve end-of-life care by converting patients’ treatment preferences into medical orders that are transferable throughout the health care system. It was initially developed in Oregon, but is now implemented in multiple states with many others considering its use. Accordingly, an observational study was conducted in order to identify potential legal barriers to the implementation of a POLST Paradigm. Information was obtained from experts at state emergency medical services and long-term care (...)
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  6.  12
    Physicians Have a Responsibility to Meet the Health Care Needs of Society.Allan S. Brett - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (3):526-531.
    In one of the televised debates among Republican primary candidates for the 2012 U.S. presidential election, moderator Wolf Blitzer presented this hypothetical case to candidate Ron Paul:A healthy 30 year old young man has a good job, makes a good living, but decides — you know what — ‘I’m not going to spend 200 or 300 dollars a month for health insurance because I’m healthy, I don’t need it.’ But something terrible happens, all of a sudden he needs it. Who’s (...)
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  7.  27
    Chronic Illness and the Physician-Patient Relationship: A Response to the Hastings Center's "Ethical Challenges of Chronic Illness".D. A. Moros, R. Rhodes, B. Baumrin & J. J. Strain - 1991 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 16 (2):161-181.
    The following article is a response to the position paper of the Hastings Center, “Ethical Challenges of Chronic Illness”, a product of their three year project on Ethics and Chronic Care. The authors of this paper, three prominent bioethicists, Daniel Callahan, Arthur Caplan, and Bruce Jennings, argue that there should be a different ethic for acute and chronic care. In pressing this distinction they provide philosophical grounds for limiting medical care for the elderly and chronically ill. We give a critical (...)
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  8.  5
    Climate Change and the Different Roles of Physicians: A Critical Response to "A Planetary Health Pledge for Health Professionals in the Anthropocene".Urban Wiesing - 2022 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (1):161-164.
    The article critically responds to "A Planetary Health Pledge for Health Professionals in the Anthropocene" which was published by Wabnitz et al. in The Lancet in November 2020. It focuses on the different roles and responsibilities of a physician. The pledge is criticised because it neglects the different roles, gives no answers in case of conflicting goals, and contains numerous inconsistencies. The relationship between the Planetary Health Pledge and the Declaration of Geneva is examined. It is argued that the Planetary (...)
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  9.  32
    Uncertainty, Responsibility, and the Evolution of the Physician/Patient Relationship.M. S. Henry - 2006 - Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (6):321-323.
    The practice of evidence based medicine has changed the role of the physician from information dispenser to gatherer and analyser. Studies and controlled trials that may contain unknown errors, or uncertainties, are the primary sources for evidence based decisions in medicine. These sources may be corrupted by a number of means, such as inaccurate statistical analysis, statistical manipulation, population bias, or relevance to the patient in question. Regardless of whether any of these inaccuracies are apparent, the uncertainty of (...)
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  10.  15
    Chronic Illness and the Physician-Patient Relationship: A Response to the Hastings Center's "Ethical Challenges of Chronic Illness".J. Strain James - 1991 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 16 (2).
    The following article is a response to the position paper of the Hastings Center, "Ethical Challenges of Chronic Illness", a product of their three year project on Ethics and Chronic Care. The authors of this paper, three prominent bioethicists, Daniel Callahan, Arthur Caplan, and Bruce Jennings, argue that there should be a different ethic for acute and chronic care. In pressing this distinction they provide philosophical grounds for limiting medical care for the elderly and chronically ill. We give a critical (...)
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  11.  3
    The Physician as Captain of the Ship a Critical Reappraisal.N. M. King, L. R. Churchill & Alan W. Cross - 1987 - Springer.
    "The fixed person for fixed duties, who in older societies was such a godsend, in the future ill be a public danger." Twenty years ago, a single legal metaphor accurately captured the role that American society accorded to physicians. The physician was "c- tain of the ship." Physicians were in charge of the clinic, the Operating room, and the health care team, responsible - and held accountabl- for all that happened within the scope of their supervision. This (...)
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  12.  8
    Reframing the Conflicts of Interest Debacle: Academic Medicine, the Healing Alliance and the Physician's Moral Imperative.N. J. Kachuck - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (9):526-527.
    The recent committee report from the Institute of Medicine in Washington, DC, containing proposals for controlling conflicts of interest 1 reflects the medical profession’s limited understanding of the actual scope of the issues and demonstrates how reactive academic physicians have become to media and congressional priorities instead of those of the medical field. The near-exclusive focus on the compromising of medical decision-making by the receipt of fungible support from the commercial sector fails to identify critical interdependencies of (...)
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  13.  22
    Views Regarding the Training of Ethics Consultants: A Survey of Physicians Caring for Patients in ICU.E. Chwang, D. C. Landy & R. R. Sharp - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (6):320-324.
    Background: Despite the expansion of ethics consultation services, questions remain about the aims of clinical ethics consultation, its methods and the expertise of those who provide such services.Objective: To describe physicians’ expectations regarding the training and skills necessary for ethics consultants to contribute effectively to the care of patients in intensive care unit .Design: Mailed survey.Participants: Physicians responsible for the care of at least 10 patients in ICU over a 6-month period at a 921-bed private teaching hospital (...)
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  14.  9
    The UNESCO Bioethics Declaration ‘Social Responsibility ’ Principle and Cost-Effectiveness Price Evaluations for Essential Medicines.Thomas Alured Faunce - 2005 - Monash Bioethics Review 24 (3):10-19.
    The United Nations Scientific, Education and Cultural Organisation has commenced drafting a Universal Bioethics Declaration. Some in the relevant UNESCO drafting committee have previously desired to restrict its content to general principles concerning the application of science and technology. As potentially a crucial agenda-setting statement of global bioethics, however, it is arguably important the Universal Bioethics Declaration transparently address major bioethical dilemmas in the field of public health, such as universal access to affordable, essential medicines. Article 13 of the (...)
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  15. The Physician-Patient Relationship: Models and Criticisms.Howard Brody - 1987 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 2 (2).
    A review of the philosophical debate on theoretical models for the physician-patient relationship over the past fifteen years may point to some of the more productive questions for future research. Contractual models have been criticized for promoting a legalistic and minimalistic image of the relationship, such that another form of model (such as convenant) is required. Shifting from a contractual to a contractarian model (in keeping with Rawls' notion of an original position) provides an adequate response to many criticisms of (...)
     
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  16.  1
    Operation of a triage committee for advanced life support during the COVID-19 pandemic.Benjamín Herreros, Rafael Ruiz de Luna, Natalia de la Calle, Diego Gayoso, Paula Martínez, Karmele Olaciregui Dague & Gregorio Palacios - 2022 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 17 (1):1-8.
    BackgroundDuring the first weeks of March 2020 in Spain, the cases of severe respiratory failure progressively increased, generating an imbalance between the clinical needs for advanced life support measures and the effective availability of ALS resources. To address this problem, the creation of triage committees was proposed, whose main function is to select the best candidates to receive ALS. The main objective of our study is to describe the clinical characteristics of the patients evaluated by the TC of the Alcorcón (...)
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  17.  14
    Bringing Transparency to Medicine: Exploring Physicians' Views and Experiences of the Sunshine Act.Susan Chimonas, Nicholas J. DeVito & David J. Rothman - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (6):4-18.
    The Physician Payments Sunshine Act requires health care product manufacturers to report to the federal government payments more than $10 to physicians. Bringing unprecedented transparency to medicine, PPSA holds great potential for enabling medical stakeholders to manage conflicts of interest and build patient trust—crucial responsibilities of medical professionalism. The authors conducted six focus groups with 42 physicians in Chicago, IL, San Francisco, CA, and Washington, DC, to explore attitudes and experiences around PPSA. Participants valued the concept of (...)
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  18.  22
    The Physician's Role in the Protection of Human Research Subjects.Professor John R. Williams - 2006 - Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (1):5-12.
    Responsibility for the protection of human research subjects is shared by investigators, research ethics committees, sponsors/funders, research institutions, governments and, the focus of this article, physicians who enrol patients in clinical trials. The article describes the general principles of the patient-physician relationship that should regulate the participation of physicians in clinical trials and proposes guidelines for determining when and how such participation should proceed. The guidelines deal with the following stages of the trial: when first considering participation, when (...)
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  19.  28
    The Physician’s Role in the Protection of Human Research Subjects.John R. Williams - 2006 - Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (1):5-12.
    Responsibility for the protection of human research subjects is shared by investigators, research ethics committees, sponsors/funders, research institutions, governments and, the focus of this article, physicians who enrol patients in clinical trials. The article describes the general principles of the patient-physician relationship that should regulate the participation of physicians in clinical trials and proposes guidelines for determining when and how such participation should proceed. The guidelines deal with the following stages of the trial: when first considering participation, when (...)
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  20.  41
    Physicians' and Nurses' Expectations and Objections Toward a Clinical Ethics Committee.Maximiliane Jansky, Gabriella Marx, Friedemann Nauck & Bernd Alt-Epping - 2013 - Nursing Ethics 20 (7):0969733013478308.
    The study aimed to explore the subjective need of healthcare professionals for ethics consultation, their experience with ethical conflicts, and expectations and objections toward a Clinical Ethics Committee. Staff at a university hospital took part in a survey (January to June 2010) using a questionnaire with open and closed questions. Descriptive data for physicians and nurses (response rate = 13.5%, n = 101) are presented. Physicians and nurses reported similar high frequencies of ethical conflicts but rated the (...)
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  21.  23
    The Roles and Responsibilities of Physicians in Patients' Decisions About Unproven Stem Cell Therapies.Aaron D. Levine & Leslie E. Wolf - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (1):122-134.
    Capitalizing on the hype surrounding stem cell research, numerous clinics around the world offer “stem cell therapies” for a variety of medical conditions. Despite questions about the safety and efficacy of these interventions, anecdotal evidence suggests a relatively large number of patients are traveling to receive these unproven treatments — a practice called “stem cell tourism.” Because these unproven treatments pose risks to individual patients and to legitimate translational stem cell research, stem cell tourism has generated substantial policy concern and (...)
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  22.  72
    The Desired Moral Attitude of the Physician: (III) Care. [REVIEW]Petra Gelhaus - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (2):125-139.
    In professional medical ethics, the physician traditionally is obliged to fulfil specific duties as well as to embody a responsible and trustworthy personality. In the public discussion, different concepts are suggested to describe the desired moral attitude of physicians. In a series of three articles, three of the discussed concepts are presented in an interpretation that is meant to characterise the morally emotional part of this attitude: “empathy”, “compassion” and “care”. In the first article of the series, “empathy” (...)
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  23.  53
    The Desired Moral Attitude of the Physician: (II) Compassion. [REVIEW]Petra Gelhaus - 2012 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (4):397-410.
    Professional medical ethics demands of health care professionals in addition to specific duties and rules of conduct that they embody a responsible and trustworthy personality. In the public discussion, different concepts are suggested to describe the desired implied attitude of physicians. In a sequel of three articles, a set of three of these concepts is presented in an interpretation that is meant to characterise the morally emotional part of this attitude: “empathy”, “compassion” and “care”. In the first article (...)
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  24. A “We” Problem for Bioethics and the Social Sciences: A Response to Barbara Prainsack.Bob Simpson - 2018 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 43 (1):45-55.
    In her article “The ‘We’ in the Me: Solidarity in the Era of Personalized Medicine,” Barbara Prainsack develops an earlier interest in the relationship between solidarity and autonomy and the way that these notions operate once passed through the lens of bioethical thought and practice. In his response to this article, Simpson introduces the perspective of two South Asian physicians on these issues. The piece highlights issues of personhood upon which the informed consent transaction is based and draws (...)
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  25.  2
    The Ethics of Practicing Defensive Medicine in Jordan: A Diagnostic Study.Hassan A. E. Al-Balas & Qosay A. E. Al-Balas - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-7.
    BackgroundDefensive medicine practice refers to the ordering or prescription of unnecessary treatments or tests while avoiding risky procedures for critically ill patients with the aim to alleviate the physician’s legal responsibility and preserve reputation. Although DM practice is recognized, its dimensions are still uncertain. The subject has been highly investigated in developed countries, but unfortunately, many developing countries are unable to investigate it properly. DM has many serious ramifications, exemplified by the increase in treatment costs for patients and health (...)
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  26.  12
    Ethics Committees in France.François-André Isambert - 1989 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (4):445-456.
    Leading biologists and physicians in France have been considering bioethical problems for several decades. In 1983 an important new forum for bioethical discussion in France was created, with the establishment of the Comité Consultatif National d'Ethique pour les Sciences de la Vie et de la Santé. This committee has produced numerous important opinions and reports on such topics as research involving human subjects, fetal tissue research, and the new reproductive technologies. At the local level the discussion of bioethical (...)
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  27. Physicians and Nurses: Roles and Responsibilities in Caring for the Critically Ill Patient.Inge B. Corless - 1982 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 10 (2):72-76.
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  28.  34
    “I Am the Author and Must Take Full Responsibility”: Abraham Verghese, Physicians as the Storytellers of the Body, and the Renewal of Medicine.Abraham M. Nussbaum - 2016 - Journal of Medical Humanities 37 (4):389-399.
    Abraham Verghese proposes to renew medicine by training physicians to read the right texts—literary fiction and patients' bodies—with skilled attention. Analyzing Verghese's proposal with reference to Foucault's idea of the "clinical gaze," I find that Verghese conceives of patients as texts that only physicians can read, meaning that physicians become the storytellers of the bodies, lives, and deaths of the people they meet as patients. I conclude that Verghese's project is unsustainable and alternatively propose thinking analogically (...)
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  29.  25
    Editorial for the Thematic Section “Social Responsibility and Health”.Stefano Semplici - 2011 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (4):353-354.
    The contributions collected in this section deal with some of the most crucial issues addressed in the Report on “Social Responsibility and Health” of the International Bioethics Committee: the importance of ‘social responsibility’ in the promotion of health, i.e. far beyond the context of the ethics of management and private companies where the term was introduced at first; the role of solidarity as a necessary presupposition for a genuinely universalistic morality of justice; the content of the right to health (...)
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  30.  7
    Physicians and Nurses: Roles and Responsibilities in Caring for the Critically Ill Patient.Inge B. Corless - 1982 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 10 (2):72-76.
  31.  16
    Medicine and Technology. Remarks on the Notion of Responsibility in the Technology-Assisted Health Care.Waldemar Kwiatkowski - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (2):197-205.
    The introduction of the modern diagnostic and therapeutic procedures to the medical practice provided a new challenge for the medicine. The art of medicine, with its default purpose of acting for the benefit of health, is therefore required to derive from technological progress effectively and rationally. As a result, the medical ethics has been engaged with the rules of economy and management of deficit medical procedures as well as their rational and fair distribution. The above suggests, that medics, (...)
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  32.  21
    Models of the Doctor-Patient Relationship and the Ethics Committee: Part Two.David C. Thomasma - 1994 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 3 (1):10-26.
    Past ages of medical care are condemned in modern philosophical and medical literature as being too paternalistic. The normal account of good medicine in the past was, indeed, paternalistic in an offensive way to modern persons. Imagine a Jean Paul Sartre going to the doctor and being treated without his consent or even his knowledge of what will transpire during treatment! From Hippocratic times until shortly after World War II, medicine operated in a closed, clubby manner. The knowledge (...)
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  33.  55
    Models of the Doctor-Patient Relationship and the Ethics Committee: Part One.David C. Thomasma - 1992 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 1 (1):11.
    Past ages of medical care are condemned in modern philosophical and medical literature as being too paternalistic. The normal account of good medicine in the past was, indeed, paternalistic in an offensive way to modern persons. Imagine a Jean Paul Sartre going to the doctor and being treated without his consent or even his knowledge of what will transpire during treatment! From Hippocratic times until shortly after World War II, medicine operated in a closed, clubby manner. The knowledge (...)
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  34.  38
    The Virtue of Moral Responsibility and the Obligations of Patients.Candace Cummins Gauthier - 2005 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (2):153 – 166.
    The American Medical Association has provided a list of patient responsibilities, said to be derived from patient autonomy, without providing any justification for this derivation. In this article, the virtue of moral responsibility is proposed as a way to justify these kinds of limits on respect for individual autonomy. The need for such limits is explained by examining the traditional principles of health care ethics. What is missing in health care decision making, and can be provided by the virtue of (...)
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  35.  23
    “Tailored-to-You”: Public Engagement and the Political Legitimation of Precision Medicine.Alessandro Blasimme & Effy Vayena - 2016 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (2):172-188.
    Some patients tolerate a given drug well, without adverse reactions. For others, though, an identical dose of the same medication can have toxic effects. Moreover, while a drug can be effective at relieving symptoms for some patients, it may fail to do the same for others suffering with the same disease. With such variability in treatment responses, tailoring medical interventions to individual patients has long been an aspiration of medicine. Until recently, however, medicine lacked a clear understanding of (...)
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  36.  50
    Confidentiality, Consent and Autonomy in the Physician-Patient Relationship.Beverly Woodward - 2001 - Health Care Analysis 9 (3):337-351.
    In the practice of medicine there has long been a conflict between patient management and respect for patient autonomy. In recent years this conflict has taken on a new form as patient management has increasingly been shifted from physicians to insurers, employers, and health care bureaucracies. The consequence has been a diminshment of both physician and patient autonomy and a parallel diminishment of medical record confidentiality. Although the new managers pay lip service to the rights of patients to (...)
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  37.  18
    The Philosophy of Evidence-Based Medicine by Jeremy Howick. [REVIEW]Leemon McHenry - 2017 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 27 (3):1-5.
    The idea that prescribing physicians should be guided by the most reliable scientific evidence seems obvious, but the actual methodology of evidence-based medicine was only introduced in the early 1990s by an international group of clinicians and researchers led by Gordon Guyatt. Since then it has provided a new paradigm for the scientific foundation of medicine and has influenced other disciplines outside of medicine, for example, evidence-based psychotherapy, science and government. The novel concept of evidence-based (...) is based on hierarchies of evidence from opinions of respected authorities, mechanistic reasoning, and reports of expert committees at the bottom to... (shrink)
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  38.  27
    The United States Revised Uniform Anatomical Gift Act (2006): New Challenges to Balancing Patient Rights and Physician Responsibilities.Joseph L. Verheijde, Mohamed Y. Rady & Joan L. McGregor - 2007 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 2:19.
    Advance health care directives and informed consent remain the cornerstones of patients' right to self-determination regarding medical care and preferences at the end-of-life. However, the effectiveness and clinical applicability of advance health care directives to decision-making on the use of life support systems at the end-of-life is questionable. The Uniform Anatomical Gift Act (UAGA) has been revised in 2006 to permit the use of life support systems at or near death for the purpose of maximizing procurement opportunities of organs medically (...)
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  39.  28
    Between Beneficence and Justice: The Ethics of Stewardship in Medicine.L. A. Jansen - 2013 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (1):50-63.
    In an era of rapidly rising health care costs, physicians and policymakers are searching for new and effective ways to contain health care spending without sacrificing the quality of services provided. These proposals are increasingly articulated in terms of an ethical duty of stewardship. The duty of stewardship in medicine, however, is not at present well understood, and it is frequently conflated with other duties. This article presents a critical analysis of the notion of stewardship, which shows that (...)
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  40.  51
    The Role of Solidarity in Social Responsibility for Health.Massimo Reichlin - 2011 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (4):365-370.
    The Article focuses on the concept of social solidarity, as it is used in the Report of the International Bioethics Committee On Social Responsibility and Health. It is argued that solidarity plays a major role in supporting the whole framework of social responsibility, as presented by the IBC. Moreover, solidarity is not limited to members of particular groups, but potentially extended to all human beings on the basis of their inherent dignity; this sense of human solidarity is a necessary (...)
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  41.  28
    Guidelines for Physician-Assisted Suicide: Can the Challenge Be Met?Carl H. Coleman & Alan R. Fleischman - 1996 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (3):217-224.
    The question of legalizing physician-assisted suicide has become a serious public debate. Growing interest in assisted suicide reflects a public increasingly fearful of the process of dying, particularly the prospect of dying a painful, protracted, or undignified death. PAS has been proposed as a compassionate response to unrelievable suffering, designed to give terminally or incurably ill individuals direct control over the timing, manner, and circumstances of their death. Although the American Medical Association remains firmly opposed to legalizing PAS, many (...) have begun to express support for the practice, and some have acknowledged that they have helped patients commit suicide despite the existing legal ban.As support for PAS grows, it becomes increasingly likely that the practice will be legalized in at least some states in the not-too-distant future. In 1994, Oregon voters approved a referendum legalizing PAS for competent, terminally ill patients; a federal court injunction preventing the referendum from going into effect is currently on appeal, and it is widely expected that the injunction will be lifted. (shrink)
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  42.  17
    Guidelines for Physician-Assisted Suicide: Can the Challenge Be Met?Carl H. Coleman & Alan R. Fleischman - 1996 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (3):217-224.
    The question of legalizing physician-assisted suicide has become a serious public debate. Growing interest in assisted suicide reflects a public increasingly fearful of the process of dying, particularly the prospect of dying a painful, protracted, or undignified death. PAS has been proposed as a compassionate response to unrelievable suffering, designed to give terminally or incurably ill individuals direct control over the timing, manner, and circumstances of their death. Although the American Medical Association remains firmly opposed to legalizing PAS, many (...) have begun to express support for the practice, and some have acknowledged that they have helped patients commit suicide despite the existing legal ban.As support for PAS grows, it becomes increasingly likely that the practice will be legalized in at least some states in the not-too-distant future. In 1994, Oregon voters approved a referendum legalizing PAS for competent, terminally ill patients; a federal court injunction preventing the referendum from going into effect is currently on appeal, and it is widely expected that the injunction will be lifted. (shrink)
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  43.  5
    The Reasonableness Standard for Conscientious Objection in Healthcare.Massimo Reichlin - 2022 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 19 (2):255-264.
    In complex, pluralistic societies, different views concerning the moral duties of healthcare professionals inevitably exist: according to some accounts, doctors can and should cooperate in performing abortion or physician-assisted suicide, while according to others they should always defend human life and protect their patients’ health. It is argued that the very plurality of responses presently given to questions such as these provides a liberal argument in favour of conscientious objection, as an attempt to deal with moral diversity by protecting both (...)
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  44.  23
    Achieving the Right Balance in Oversight of Physician Opioid Prescribing for Pain: The Role of State Medical Boards.Diane E. Hoffmann & Anita J. Tarzian - 2003 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 31 (1):21-40.
    State medical boards are beginning to take a more balanced approach to monitoring and disciplining for prescribing of pain medications, according to this survey of state medical boards across the country. Overall, respondents indicated that they are becoming more educated and more sophisticated in their approach to complaints of opioid overprescribing. In addition, their responses reflect a heightened awareness of the appropriateness of treating chronic pain with controlled substances.Yet, despite these inroads, boards generally demonstrate a continued tolerance of pain undertreatment, (...)
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  45. Against Relativism: Cultural Diversity and the Search for Ethical Universals in Medicine.Ruth Macklin - 1999 - Oxford University Press.
    This book provides an analysis of the debate surrounding cultural diversity, and attempts to reconcile the seemingly opposing views of "ethical imperialism," the belief that each individual is entitled to fundamental human rights, and cultural relativism, the belief that ethics must be relative to particular cultures and societies. The author examines the role of cultural tradition, often used as a defense against critical ethical judgments. Key issues in health and medicine are explored in the context of cultural diversity: the (...)
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  46.  72
    When Pestilence Prevails Physician Responsibilities in Epidemics.Samuel J. Huber & Matthew K. Wynia - 2004 - American Journal of Bioethics 4 (1):5 – 11.
    The threat of bioterrorism, the emergence of the SARS epidemic, and a recent focus on professionalism among physicians, present a timely opportunity for a review of, and renewed commitment to, physician obligations to care for patients during epidemics. The professional obligation to care for contagious patients is part of a larger "duty to treat," which historically became accepted when 1) a risk of nosocomial infection was perceived, 2) an organized professional body existed to promote the duty, and 3) the (...)
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  47.  45
    Against the iDoctor: Why Artificial Intelligence Should Not Replace Physician Judgment.Kyle E. Karches - 2018 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 39 (2):91-110.
    Experts in medical informatics have argued for the incorporation of ever more machine-learning algorithms into medical care. As artificial intelligence research advances, such technologies raise the possibility of an “iDoctor,” a machine theoretically capable of replacing the judgment of primary care physicians. In this article, I draw on Martin Heidegger’s critique of technology to show how an algorithmic approach to medicine distorts the physician–patient relationship. Among other problems, AI cannot adapt guidelines according to the individual patient’s needs. In (...)
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  48.  19
    Physician Responses to the Malpractice Crisis: From Defense to Offense.Allen Kachalia, Niteesh K. Choudhry & David M. Studdert - 2005 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 33 (3):416-428.
    Medical science brings innovations in patient care at an astounding pace today - new chemotherapeutic agents, coated stents, and minimally invasive surgery are just few recent examples. For physicians, though, the specter of malpractice liability can overshadow the marvel of practicing in this era. Many physicians are working in a volatile liability environment; they face spiraling costs for malpractice insurance, have difficulties purchasing liability coverage at any price, and see record payouts in a growing number of claims against (...)
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  49.  6
    Physician Responses to the Malpractice Crisis: From Defense to Offense.Allen Kachalia, Niteesh K. Choudhry & David M. Studdert - 2005 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 33 (3):416-428.
    Medical science brings innovations in patient care at an astounding pace today - new chemotherapeutic agents, coated stents, and minimally invasive surgery are just few recent examples. For physicians, though, the specter of malpractice liability can overshadow the marvel of practicing in this era. Many physicians are working in a volatile liability environment; they face spiraling costs for malpractice insurance, have difficulties purchasing liability coverage at any price, and see record payouts in a growing number of claims against (...)
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  50.  14
    Against the iDoctor: Why Artificial Intelligence Should Not Replace Physician Judgment.Kyle Karches - 2018 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 39 (2):91-110.
    Experts in medical informatics have argued for the incorporation of ever more machine-learning algorithms into medical care. As artificial intelligence research advances, such technologies raise the possibility of an “iDoctor,” a machine theoretically capable of replacing the judgment of primary care physicians. In this article, I draw on Martin Heidegger’s critique of technology to show how an algorithmic approach to medicine distorts the physician–patient relationship. Among other problems, AI cannot adapt guidelines according to the individual patient’s needs. In (...)
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