Results for 'The existence of God'

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  1. Deuteros Plous, the Immortality of the Soul and the Ontological Argument for the Existence of God.Rafael Ferber - 2018 - In Gabriele Cornelli, Thomas M. Robinson & Francisco Bravo (eds.), Plato's Phaedo.Selected papers from the eleventh Symposium Platonicum. Baden Baden: Academia Verlag. pp. 221-230.
    The paper deals with the "deuteros plous", literally ‘the second voyage’, proverbially ‘the next best way’, discussed in Plato’s "Phaedo", the key passage being Phd. 99e4–100a3. The second voyage refers to what Plato’s Socrates calls his “flight into the logoi”. Elaborating on the subject, the author first (I) provides a non-standard interpretation of the passage in question, and then (II) outlines the philosophical problem that it seems to imply, and, finally, (III) tries to apply this philosophical problem to the "ultimate (...)
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  2. Paley's 'Proof' of the Existence of God.Hugh Chandler - manuscript
    Paley’s ‘proof’ of the existence of God, or some supposed version of it, is well known. In this paper I offer the real thing and two objections to it. One objection is my own, and the other is provided by Darwin.
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  3. Richard Swinburne, the Existence of God, and Exact Numerical Values.Jeremy Gwiazda - 2010 - Philosophia 38 (2):357-363.
    Richard Swinburne’s argument in The Existence of God discusses many probabilities, ultimately concluding that God probably exists. Swinburne gives exact values to almost none of these probabilities. I attempted to assign values to the probabilities that met that weak condition that they could be correct. In this paper, I first present a brief outline of Swinburne’s argument in The Existence of God. I then present the problems I encountered in Swinburne’s argument, specifically problems that interfered with my attempt (...)
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  4. A Pedagogical Challenge in Teaching Arguments for the Existence of God.Moti Mizrahi - 2011 - APA Newsletter on Teaching Philosophy 11 (1):10-12.
    In this paper, I describe the way in which I introduce arguments for the existence of God to undergraduate students in Introduction to Philosophy.
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  5.  35
    How to Prove the Existence of God: An Argument for Conjoined Panentheism.Elizabeth Burns - 2019 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion (1):5-21.
    This article offers an argument for a form of panentheism in which the divine is conceived as both ‘God the World’ and ‘God the Good’. ‘God the World’ captures the notion that the totality of everything which exists is ‘in’ God, while acknowledging that, given evil and suffering, not everything is ‘of’ God. ‘God the Good’ encompasses the idea that God is also the universal concept of Goodness, akin to Plato’s Form of the Good as developed by Iris Murdoch, which (...)
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  6. An Analytic Theologian's Stance on the Existence of God.Benedikt Paul Göcke - 2013 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 5 (2):129--146.
    The existence of God is once again the focus of vivid philosophical discussion. From the point of view of analytic theology, however, people often talk past each other when they debate about the putative existence or nonexistence of God. In the worst case, for instance, atheists deny the existence of a God, which no theists ever claimed to exist. In order to avoid confusions like this we need to be clear about the function of the term 'God' (...)
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  7. Kant’s Post-1800 Disavowal of the Highest Good Argument for the Existence of God.Samuel Kahn - 2018 - Kant Yearbook 10 (1):63-83.
    I have two main goals in this paper. The first is to argue for the thesis that Kant gave up on his highest good argument for the existence of God around 1800. The second is to revive a dialogue about this thesis that died out in the 1960s. The paper is divided into three sections. In the first, I reconstruct Kant’s highest good argument. In the second, I turn to the post-1800 convolutes of Kant’s Opus postumum to discuss his (...)
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  8. The Existence of God.Richard Swinburne - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    Richard Swinburne presents a substantially rewritten and updated edition of his most celebrated book. No other work has made a more powerful case for the probability of the existence of God. Swinburne gives a rigorous and penetrating analysis of the most important arguments for theism: the cosmological argument; arguments from the existence of laws of nature and the 'fine-tuning' of the universe; from the occurrence of consciousness and moral awareness; and from miracles and religious experience. He claims that (...)
  9. Anselm and the Question of God's Existence: Interrogating the Ontological Argument.Damian Ilodigwe - 2017 - Nigerian Journal of Theology 31:96-110.
    St Anselm is one of the major thinkers of the medieval epoch of the history of philosophy. Interest in Anselm usually focuses on his discussion of the problem of the existence of God especially as contained in the Proslogion. Indeed Anselm is mostly known for his attempt to proof the existence of God in the Proslogion. The argument he advances here which goes by the name ontological argument has been a point of reference all through the history of (...)
     
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  10. The Highest Good and Kant's Proof(s) of God's Existence.Courtney Fugate - 2014 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 31 (2).
    This paper explains a way of understanding Kant's proof of God's existence in the Critique of Practical Reason that has hitherto gone unnoticed and argues that this interpretation possesses several advantages over its rivals. By first looking at examples where Kant indicates the role that faith plays in moral life and then reconstructing the proof of the second Critique with this in view, I argue that, for Kant, we must adopt a certain conception of the highest good, and so (...)
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  11. The Monologion Argument for the Existence and Supremacy of God.Hugh Chandler - manuscript
    In the first two chapters of the Monologion Anselm shows, or tries to show that “Of all the things that exist, there is one that is the best, greatest and supreme.” In this paper I examine his argument.
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  12. Aquinas and the Question of God's Existence: Exploring the Five Ways.Damian Ilodigwe - forthcoming - International Journal of Philosophy and Theology 2018 (1).
    Without doubt, St Thomas Aquinas was the greatest of the medieval philosophers. Aquinas was a prolific writer and he made contributions to virtually every area of Philosophy and Theology. His account of the existence of God is perhaps the best known aspect of his work. This is especially true of the celebrated five arguments he adduced in demonstration of the existence of God. In exploring Aquinas’ Five ways, which some commentators regard as Aquinas’ substantive contribution to Philosophy of (...)
     
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  13. Kant’s Religious Argument for the Existence of God: The Ultimate Dependence of Human Destiny on Divine Assistance.Stephen R. Palmquist - 2009 - Faith and Philosophy 26 (1):3-22.
    After reviewing Kant’s well-known criticisms of the traditional proofs of God’s existence and his preferred moral argument, this paper presents a detailedanalysis of a densely-packed theistic argument in Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason. Humanity’s ultimate moral destiny can be fulfilled only through organized religion, for only by participating in a religious community can we overcome the evil in human nature. Yet we cannot conceive how such a community can even be founded without presupposing God’s existence. Viewing (...)
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  14. Edward Feser: Five Proofs of the Existence of God. [REVIEW]Logan Paul Gage - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):228-232.
    A review of Edward Feser's Five Proofs of the Existence of God.
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  15. Jewish Survival, Divine Supervision, and the Existence of God.Moti Mizrahi - 2012 - Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies 30 (4):100-112.
    In this paper, I discuss an argument for the existence of God known as “The Argument from the Survival of the Jews.” This argument has the form of an Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE). It proceeds from the phenomenon of Jewish survival to the existence of God as the best explanation for this phenomenon. I will argue that, even if we grant that Jewish survival is a remarkable occurrence that demands an explanation, and even if we gloss (...)
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  16.  49
    Głos w dyskusji o naturze sporu. Contribution to the discussion on the nature of the dispute [on our knowledge of existence of God].Marek Pepliński - 2005 - Diametros 4:258-269.
    I argue that Ireneusz Ziemiński doesn't justify his skepticism about knowledge of existence of God. First, he reduces a question to metaphysical one - do we have sound, valid proofs of God's existence and imposes too heavy conditions on arguments for God. Second, he doesn't show that disagreement between philosophers in that question justify his negative assessment of arguments. Third, Ziemiński omits epistemological question what is knowledge of God's existence, especially in its direct form as well as (...)
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  17. Spinoza’s Arguments for the Existence of God.Martin Lin - 2007 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 75 (2):269-297.
    It is often thought that, although Spinoza develops a bold and distinctive conception of God, the arguments that he offers which purport to prove God’s existence contribute nothing new to natural theology. Rather, he is seen as just another participant in the seventeenthcentury revival of the ontological argument initiated by Descartes and taken up by Malebranche and Leibniz among others. That this is the case is both puzzling and unfortunate. It is puzzling because although Spinoza does offer an ontological (...)
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  18. George Berkeley’s Proof for the Existence of God.Hugh Hunter - 2015 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 78 (2):183-193.
    Most philosophers have given up George Berkeley’s proof for the existence of God as a lost cause, for in it, Berkeley seems to conclude more than he actually shows. I defend the proof by showing that its conclusion is not the thesis that an infinite and perfect God exists, but rather the much weaker thesis that a very powerful God exists and that this God’s agency is pervasive in nature. This interpretation, I argue, is consistent with the texts. It (...)
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  19. On Arguing for the Existence of God as a Synthesis Between Realism and Anti-Realism.W. J. Mander - 2013 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 74 (1):99-115.
    This article examines a somewhat neglected argument for the existence of God which appeals to the divine perspective as a way of reconciling the conflicting claims of realism and anti-realism. Six representative examples are set out (Berkeley, Ferrier, T. H. Green, Josiah Royce, Gordon Clark and Michael Dummett), reasons are considered why this argument has received less attention than it might, and a brief sketch given of the most promising way in which it might be developed.
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  20.  51
    Where Does Avicenna Demonstrate the Existence of God?Daniel D. De Haan - 2016 - Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 26 (1):97-128.
    This study examines a number of different answers to the question: wheredoes Avicenna demonstrate the existence of God within the Metaphysics of the Healing? Many interpreters have contended that there is an argument for God’s existence in Metaphysics of the Healing I.6–7. In this study I show that such views are incorrect and that the only argument for God’s existence in the Metaphysics of the Healing is found in VIII.1–3. My own interpretation relies upon a careful consideration (...)
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  21.  43
    The Non-Existence of God.Nicholas Everitt - 2003 - Routledge London.
    Is it possible to prove or disprove God's existence? Arguments for the existence of God have taken many different forms over the centuries: in The Non-Existence of God, Nicholas Everitt considers all of the arguments and examines the role that reason and knowledge play in the debate over God's existence. He draws on recent scientific disputes over neo-Darwinism, the implication of 'big bang' cosmology, and the temporal and spatial size of the universe; and discusses some of (...)
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  22. Proofs for Eternity, Creation, and the Existence of God in Medieval Islamic and Jewish Philosophy.Herbert A. Davidson - 1987 - Oxford University Press.
    The central debate of natural theology among medieval Muslims and Jews concerned whether or not the world was eternal. Opinions divided sharply on this issue because the outcome bore directly on God's relationship with the world: eternity implies a deity bereft of will, while a world with a beginning leads to the contrasting picture of a deity possessed of will. In this exhaustive study of medieval Islamic and Jewish arguments for eternity, creation, and the existence of God, Herbert Davidson (...)
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  23.  46
    The Existence of God.Richard Swinburne - 2004 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Richard Swinburne presents a substantially rewritten and updated edition of his most celebrated book. No other work has made a more powerful case for the probability of the existence of God. Swinburne gives a rigorous and penetrating analysis of the most important arguments for theism: the cosmological argument; arguments from the existence of laws of nature and the 'fine-tuning' of the universe; from the occurrence of consciousness and moral awareness; and from miracles and religious experience. He claims that (...)
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  24. Augustine's Argument for the Existence of God.Hugh Chandler - manuscript
    Roughly speaking, Augustine claims that ‘Immutable Truth’ is superior to the human mind and, consequently a legitimate candidate for the role of God. Clearly there is such a thing as Immutable Truth. So either that is God, or there is something superior to Immutable Truth, and that superior thing is God. I spell out this argument, and offer some objections to it.
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  25. Hume on Miracles: Bayesian Interpretation, Multiple Testimony, and the Existence of God.Rodney D. Holder - 1998 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49 (1):49-65.
    Hume's argument concerning miracles is interpreted by making approximations to terms in Bayes's theorem. This formulation is then used to analyse the impact of multiple testimony. Individual testimonies which are ‘non-miraculous’ in Hume's sense can in principle be accumulated to yield a high probability both for the occurrence of a single miracle and for the occurrence of at least one of a set of miracles. Conditions are given under which testimony for miracles may provide support for the existence of (...)
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  26.  89
    The Divine Lawmaker: Lectures on Induction, Laws of Nature, and the Existence of God.John Foster - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    John Foster presents a clear and powerful discussion of a range of topics relating to our understanding of the universe: induction, laws of nature, and the existence of God. He begins by developing a solution to the problem of induction - a solution whose key idea is that the regularities in the workings of nature that have held in our experience hitherto are to be explained by appeal to the controlling influence of laws, as forms of natural necessity. His (...)
  27. Evidence for Intelligent Extraterrestrials is Evidence Against the Existence of God.Samuel Ruhmkorff - 2019 - Think 18 (53):79-84.
    The recent explosion in the discovery of exoplanets and our incipient ability to detect atmospheric biomarkers recommend reflection on the conceptual implications of discovering – or not discovering – extrasolar life. I contend that evidence for intelligent extraterrestrial life is evidence against the existence of God, because if there are intelligent extraterrestrials, there are likely to be evils in the universe even greater than those found on Earth. My reasoning is based on Richard Gott's Copernican Principle, which holds that (...)
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  28. Arguments for the Existence of God: The Continental European Debate.Maria Rosa Antognazza - 2006 - In The Cambridge History of Eighteenth-Century Philosophy, Volume 2. Cambridge University Press.
    This chapter argues that the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation undermined the Christian consensus that unaided human reason could prove God’s existence. As a consequence the issue of the provability of God in principle gained new prominence and had to be addressed in the first instance before entering the discussion of specific proofs of His existence. On the basis of the answers given to the preliminary question of the provability of God’s existence, the chapter discusses eighteenth-century reformulations (...)
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  29.  38
    From an Existentialist God to the God of Existence. The Theological Conjectures of Hans Jonas.Fernando Suárez Müller - 2013 - Sophia 52 (4):657-672.
    Hans Jonas developed in ‘Past and Truth’ (1991) a demonstration of the existence of God based on the ‘truth of past things’. And in ‘The Concept of God after Auschwitz’ (1984) he created a new myth of divine self-alienation in order to take away God’s responsibility for human misery. Both these texts were conceived as an alternative to a more Hegelian, objective idealist perspective on theology. This article shows that Jonas’s alternative does not fully succeed in this respect because (...)
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  30.  20
    Udayana's Extrinsic Theory of Validity and its Relationship to the Proof of the Existence of God.Taisei Shida - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 6:251-257.
    Nyāya, which is one of the orthodox Brahmanical schools in India, accepts the authority of both the Vedic scriptures and God as its composer. Nyāya has specialized in logic and argumentation from ancient times while at the same time gradually strengthening its theistic tendency. Nyāya polemicist, Udayana, is famous for his contribution to the rational proof of the existence of God. In this paper, I will consider a tiny part of his proof of the existence of God given (...)
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  31.  61
    The Dialectical Illusion in Kant’s Only Possible Argument for the Existence of God.Noam Hoffer - 2020 - Kantian Review 25 (3):339-363.
    The nature of Kant’s criticism of his pre-Critical ‘possibility proof’ for the existence of God, implicit in the account of the Transcendental Ideal in the Critique of Pure Reason, is still under dispute. Two issues are at stake: the error in the proof and diagnosis of the reason for committing it. I offer a new way to connect these issues. In contrast with accounts that locate the motivation for the error in reason’s interest in an unconditioned causal ground of (...)
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  32. Letters to Doubting Thomas: A Case for the Existence of God.C. Stephen Layman - 2007 - Ars Disputandi 7:1566-5399.
    Letters to Doubting Thomas is an exchange of letters between two characters on the existence of God; it provides a cumulative case for Theism (the belief that God exists). Chapter by chapter, theism is compared with Naturalism (roughly, the view that there is no God and that ultimate reality is physical reality), concluding that Theism (on balance) provides a better explanation of the world and human life than does Naturalism.
     
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  33. A Puzzle About Natural Laws and the Existence of God.Danny Frederick - 2013 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 73 (3):269-283.
    The existence of natural laws, whether deterministic or indeterministic, and whether exceptionless or ceteris paribus, seems puzzling because it implies that mindless bits of matter behave in a consistent and co-ordinated way. I explain this puzzle by showing that a number of attempted solutions fail. The puzzle could be resolved if it were assumed that natural laws are a manifestation of God’s activity. This argument from natural law to God’s existence differs from its traditional counterparts in that, whereas (...)
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  34.  62
    Stoic Theology: Proofs for the Existence of the Cosmic God and of the Traditional Gods (Review).Michael Papazian - 2009 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (3):pp. 467-468.
    Meijer's book, a comprehensive study of Stoic theological arguments, defends the thesis that the Stoics were not narrowly interested in proving the existence of a god. The theology of the Stoa began with its founder, Zeno of Citium, presenting arguments that the cosmos is an intelligent being, though Zeno himself seems not to have explicitly identified that intelligent being as god. A clear statement equating the cosmos with god had to wait until the rise of the third head of (...)
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  35. Three Indications for the Existence of God in Causal Metaphysics.Uwe Meixner - 2009 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 66 (1):33 - 46.
    With the emergence of modern physics a conflict became apparent between the Principle of Sufficient Cause and the Principle of Physical Causal Closure. Though these principles are not logically incompatible, they could no longer be considered to be both true; one of them had to be false. The present paper makes use of this seldom noticed conflict to argue on the basis of considerations of comparative rationality for the truth of causal statements that have at least some degree of philosophico-theological (...)
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  36. Faith, Reason and the Existence of God.Denys Turner - 2004 - Cambridge University Press.
    The proposition that the existence of God is demonstrable by rational argument is doubted by nearly all philosophical opinion today and is thought by most Christian theologians to be incompatible with Christian faith. This book argues that, on the contrary, there are reasons of faith why in principle the existence of God should be thought rationally demonstrable and that it is worthwhile revisiting the theology of Thomas Aquinas to see why this is so. The book further suggests that (...)
     
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  37.  87
    The Moral Argument for the Existence of God and Immortality.Roe Fremstedal - 2013 - Journal of Religious Ethics 41 (1):50-78.
    This essay tries to show that there exist several passages where Kierkegaard (and his pseudonyms) sketches an argument for the existence of God and immortality that is remarkably similar to Kant's so-called moral argument for the existence of God and immortality. In particular, Kierkegaard appears to follow Kant's moral argument both when it comes to the form and content of the argument as well as some of its terminology. The essay concludes that several passages in Kierkegaard overlap significantly (...)
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  38.  47
    Principles of Reason, Degrees of Judgment, and Kant’s Argument for the Existence of God.Mary-Barbara Zeldin - 1970 - The Monist 54 (2):285-301.
    I. Immanuel Kant claims that the existence of God cannot be proved by speculative theology, yet that speculative theology is the only means by which the existence of God can definitively be proved. All knowledge, Kant argues, including that of God’s existence, must be based on the forms of possible experience or deduced from premises known to be true: in the case of the existence of God, however, the former is impossible because God transcends experience, and (...)
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  39.  26
    Questions Open and Closed: Lessons From Metaethics for Identity Arguments for the Existence of God.Andrew Sneddon - 2017 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy:1-18.
    Identity arguments for the existence of god offer an intriguing blend of conceptual and existential claims. As it happens, this sort of blend has been probed for more than a century in metaethics, ever since G.E. Moore formulated the Open Question Argument against metaethical naturalism. Moore envisaged naturalism as offering identity claims between good and natural properties. His central worry was that such identity claims should render certain questions closed and hence meaningless. However, he contended that speakers competent with (...)
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  40.  44
    Lectures on the Proofs of the Existence of God.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (ed.) - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    The Hegel Lectures Series Series Editor: Peter C. Hodgson Hegel's lectures have had as great a historical impact as the works he himself published. Important elements of his system are elaborated only in the lectures, especially those given in Berlin during the last decade of his life. The original editors conflated materials from different sources and dates, obscuring the development and logic of Hegel's thought. The Hegel Lectures series is based on a selection of extant and recently discovered transcripts and (...)
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  41.  71
    New Proofs for the Existence of God: Contributions of Contemporary Physics and Philosophy.Robert J. Spitzer - 2010 - William B. Eerdmans.
    New Proofs for the Existence of God responds to these glaring omissions. / From universal space-time asymmetry to cosmic coincidences to the intelligibility of ...
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  42. The Existence of God: A Philosophical Introduction.Yujin Nagasawa - 2011 - Routledge.
    Does God exist? What are the various arguments that seek to prove the existence of God? Can atheists refute these arguments? The Existence of God: A Philosophical Introduction assesses classical and contemporary arguments concerning the existence of God: the ontological argument, introducing the nature of existence, possible worlds, parody objections, and the evolutionary origin of the concept of God the cosmological argument, discussing metaphysical paradoxes of infinity, scientific models of the universe, and philosophers’ discussions about ultimate (...)
     
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  43. On the Nature and Existence of God.Richard M. Gale - 1991 - Cambridge University Press.
    There has been in recent years a plethora of defenses of theism from analytical philosophers such as Plantinga, Swinburne, and Alston. Richard Gale's important book is a critical response to these writings. New versions of cosmological, ontological, and religious experience arguments are critically evaluated, along with pragmatic arguments to justify faith on the grounds of its prudential or moral benefits. A special feature of the book is the discussion of the atheological argument that attempts to deduce a contradiction from the (...)
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  44.  49
    Faith and Conscience—The Surest of Arguments for the Existence of God.Tadeusz Grzesik - 2012 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 17 (2):245-268.
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  45.  83
    Richard Swinburne, the Existence of God, and Principle P.Jeremy Gwiazda - 2009 - Sophia 48 (4):393-398.
    Swinburne relies on principle P in The Existence of God to argue that God is simple and thus likely to exist. In this paper, I argue that Swinburne does not support P. In particular, his arguments from mathematical simplicity and scientists’ preferences both fail. Given the central role P plays in Swinburne’s overall argument in The Existence of God , I conclude that Swinburne should further support P if his argument that God likely exists is to be persuasive.
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  46.  53
    Newman’s Argument to the Existence of God.A. J. Boekraad - 1956 - Philosophical Studies (Dublin) 6:50-71.
    THE ordinary attitude of traditional philosophy regarding the argument to God’s existence directs the attention much more to the process of reason by which the human mind arrives at the necessity of affirming the proposition ‘God exists’, than to the real, personal acceptance of God. It is a curious fact, but in the period of modern philosophy this approach is very striking. This attitude was taken up of set purpose and is due, we believe, to a rationalistic tendency in (...)
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  47. The Reality of Time and the Existence of God: The Project of Proving God's Existence.David Braine - 1988 - Oxford University Press.
    Basing his argument for the existence of God on the continuous nature of the temporal world, Braine here posits that the philosophy of religion cannot be continued as a separate discipline: the solution of its problems will be the fruit of the correct telesis of the problems of general philosophy in their complex interrelationships.
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  48.  60
    Thomas Aquinas and Giles of Rome on the Existence of God as Self-Evident.Mark D. Gossiaux - 2003 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 77 (1):57-79.
    Thomas Aquinas holds that the existence of God is self-evident in itself (because God’s essence is his existence) but not to us (since we do not know the divine essence). Giles of Rome agrees with the first part of Thomas’s claim, but he parts company with Aquinas by maintaining that God’s existence is self-evident to the wise. Since the wise can know that God is his existence, they cannot think of him as not existing. This paper (...)
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  49.  38
    Common Sense, Metaphysics, and the Existence of God.John Haldane - 2003 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 77 (3):381-398.
    Being dedicated to the memory of the great Catholic philosopher Elizabeth Anscombe, who died in the month it was given, this Aquinas lecture begins with some reflections on the relationship between the anti-scientistic, anti-Cartesian position argued for by Anscombe and her teacher Wittgenstein, and the outlook of Thomas Aquinas. It then proceeds to explore the familiar Thomistic idea that philosophical reflection provides the means to establish the existence of God. Drawing in part on Aquinas, but also and perhaps unexpectedly (...)
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  50.  49
    The One Possible Basis for a Demonstration of the Existence of God.Immanuel Kant - 1979 - University of Nebraska Press.
    The search for God is dictated not from without but from a profound sense of one's own moral being and worthiness to be happy. The core of Immanuel Kant's argument remains relevant to the experience of ordinary men and women. He wished to strengthen, not undermine, belief in God and in the spiritual nature of humankind. This 1763 essay is imporrtant in understanding the development of Kant's thought. It exposed the flaw in the Cartesian argument that the existence of (...)
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