Results for 'Theodicy'

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  1. Theodicy: Essays on the Goodness of God, the Freedom of Man, and the Origin of Evil.Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - 1985 - Open Court.
    EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION T JLJe1bn1z was above all things a metaphysician. That does not mean that his head was in the clouds, or that the particular sciences ...
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  2. Theodicy: The Solution to the Problem of Evil, or Part of the Problem?Nick Trakakis - 2008 - Sophia 47 (2):161-191.
    Theodicy, the enterprise of searching for greater goods that might plausibly justify God’s permission of evil, is often criticized on the grounds that the project has systematically failed to unearth any such goods. But theodicists also face a deeper challenge, one that places under question the very attempt to look for any morally sufficient reasons God might have for creating a world littered with evil. This ‘anti-theodical’ view argues that theists (and non-theists) ought to reject, primarily for moral reasons, (...)
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  3.  61
    Theodicy and Animal Pain.Peter Harrison - 1989 - Philosophy 64 (247):79 - 92.
    The existence of evil is compatible with the existence of God, most theists would claim, because evil either results from the activities of free agents, or it contributes in some way toward their moral development. According to the ‘free-will defence’, evil and suffering are necessary consequences of free-will. Proponents of the ‘soul-making argument’—a theodicy with a different emphasis—argue that a universe which is imperfect will nurture a whole range of virtues in a way impossible either in a perfect world, (...)
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  4.  87
    Anti‐Theodicy.Toby Betenson - 2016 - Philosophy Compass 11 (1):56-65.
    In this article, I outline the major themes of ‘anti-theodicy’. Anti-theodicy is characterised as a reaction, as rejection, against traditional solutions to the problem of evil and against the traditional formulations of the problem of evil to which those solutions respond. I detail numerous ‘moral’ anti-theodical objections to theodicy, illustrating the central claim of anti-theodicy: Theodicy is morally objectionable. I also detail some ‘non-moral’ anti-theodical objections, illustrating the second major claim of anti-theodicy: Traditional formulations (...)
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  5. A Theodicy for Artificial Universes: Moral Considerations on Simulation Hypotheses.Stefano Gualeni - 2021 - International Journal of Technoethics 12 (1):21-31.
    ‘Simulation Hypotheses’ are imaginative scenarios that are typically employed in philosophy to speculate on how likely it is that we are currently living within a simulated universe as well as on our possibility for ever discerning whether we do in fact inhabit one. These philosophical questions in particular overshadowed other aspects and potential uses of simulation hypotheses, some of which are foregrounded in this article. More specifically, “A Theodicy for Artificial Universes” focuses on the moral implications of simulation hypotheses (...)
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  6.  43
    Theodicy.Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - unknown
  7.  49
    Theodicy Without Blame.Marilyn Adams - 1988 - Philosophical Topics 16 (2):215-245.
  8.  56
    Theodicy on Trial.Daryl Ooi - forthcoming - Philosophia:1-20.
    Moral anti-theodicists have posed a consequentialist argument against the theodical enterprise: that theodicies lead to harmful consequences in reality and that this should be sufficient reason to motivate abandoning the practise of theodicising altogether. In this paper, I examine variants of this argument and discuss several prominent responses from theodicists, including the separation thesis. I argue that while these responses are effective in resisting the global conclusion by the anti-theodicist, it still leaves the theodical enterprise vulnerable to a weaker version (...)
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  9.  72
    Theodicy and Toleration in Bayle's Dictionary.Michael W. Hickson - 2013 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 51 (1):49-73.
    Theodicy and Toleration Seem at first glance to be an unlikely pair of topics to treat in a single paper. Toleration usually means putting up with beliefs or actions with which one disagrees, and it is practiced because the beliefs or actions in question are not disagreeable enough to justify interference. It is usually taken to be a topic for moral and political philosophy. Theodicy, on the other hand, is the attempt to solve the problem of evil; that (...)
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  10. Against Theodicy: A Response to Peter Forrest.N. N. Trakakis - 2010 - Sophia 49 (1):129-140.
    In responding to Peter Forrest’s defence of ‘tough-minded theodicy’, I point to some problematic features of theodicies of this sort, in particular their commitment to an anthropomorphic conception of God which tends to assimilate the Creator to the creaturely and so diminishes the otherness and mystery of God. This remains the case, I argue, even granted Forrest’s view that God may have a very different kind of morality from the one we mortals are subject to.
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  11. Theodicy, Our Well-Being, and God's Rights.Richard Swinburne - 1995 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 38 (1-3):75 - 91.
    Theodicy needs to show, for all actual evils e, that 1) in allowing e, a God would bring about a necessary condition of a good g not achievable in any other morally permissible way, 2) if e occurs, g occurs, 3) it is morally permissible for God to allow e, and 4) g is at least as good as e is bad. This article contributes to a full-scale theodicy by showing that A being of use (e.g., by suffering) (...)
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  12.  48
    Evolutionary Theodicy, Redemption, and Time.Mark Ian Thomas Robson - 2015 - Zygon 50 (3):647-670.
    Of the many problems which evolutionary theodicy tries to address, the ones of animal suffering and extinction seem especially intractable. In this essay, I show how C. D. Broad's growing block conception of time does much to ameliorate the problems. Additionally, I suggest it leads to another way of understanding the soul. Instead of it being understood as a substance, it is seen as a history—a history which is resurrected in the end times. Correspondingly, redemption, I argue, should not (...)
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  13. Theodicy, Metaphysics, and Metaphilosophy in Leibniz.Paul Lodge - 2015 - Philosophical Topics 43 (1-2):27-52.
    In this paper I offer a discussion of chapter 3 of Adrian Moore’s The Evolution of Modern Metaphysics, which is titled “Leibniz: Metaphysics in the Service of Theodicy.” Here Moore discusses the philosophy of Leibniz and comes to a damning conclusion. My main aim is to suggest that such a conclusion might be a little premature. I begin by outlining Moore’s discussion of Leibniz and then raise some problems for the objections that Moore presents. I follow this by raising (...)
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  14.  28
    Theodicy: A Response to Christopher Southgate.Nicola Hoggard Creegan - 2018 - Zygon 53 (3):808-820.
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  15. An Axiological-Trajectory Theodicy.Thomas Metcalf - 2020 - Sophia 59 (3):577-592.
    I develop a new theodicy in defense of Anselmian theism, one that has several advantages over traditional and recent replies to the Problem of Evil. To make my case, I first explain the value of a positive trajectory: a forward-in-time decrease in ‘first-order-gratuitous’ evil: evil that is not necessary for any equal-or-greater first-order good, but may be necessary for a higher-order good, such as the good of strongly positive axiological trajectory. Positive trajectory arguably contributes goodness to a world in (...)
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  16. ”Anti-Theodicy” and Antitheodicies.Lauri Snellman - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 11 (1):201-211.
    The article reviews different antitheodicies in response to Toby Betenson’s article “Anti-Theodicy”. Antitheodicies involve rejecting the position that God or meaning exist only, if evils have justifying morally sufficient reasons. The article builds on Betenson’s division into moral and conceptual antitheodicies and his characterization of antitheodicies as a metacritique of the problem of evil. Moral antitheodicies are problematic, as they do not address the key conceptual issues and might end up in question-begging or moralism. Dissolving the problem of evil (...)
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  17. Against Multiverse Theodicies.Bradley Monton - 2010 - Philo 13 (2):113-135.
    In reply to the problem of evil, some suggest that God created an infinite number of universes—for example, that God created every universe that contains more good than evil. I offer two objections to these multiverse theodicies. First, I argue that, for any number of universes God creates, he could have created more, because he could have created duplicates of universes. Next, I argue that multiverse theodicies can’t adequately account for why God would create universes with pointless suffering, and hence (...)
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  18. Cartesian Theodicy: Descartes Quest for Certitude.Z. Janowski - 2000 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 3:127-128.
    This study is the first work ever to interpret the Meditations as theodicy. I show that Descartes' attempt to define the role of God for man's cognitive fallibility in so far as God is the creator of man's nature, is a reiteration of an old Epicurean argument pointing out the incongruity between the existence of God and evil. The question of the nature and origin of error which Descartes addresses in the First Meditation is reformulated in the Fourth Meditation (...)
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  19.  63
    Formal Theodicy: Religious Determinism and the Logical Problem of Evil.Gesiel B. Da Silva & Fábio Bertato - 2020 - Edukacja Filozoficzna 70:93-119.
    Edward Nieznański developed two logical systems to deal with the problem of evil and to refute religious determinism. However, when formalized in first-order modal logic, two axioms of each system contradict one another, revealing that there is an underlying minimal set of axioms enough to settle the questions. In this article, we develop this minimal system, called N3, which is based on Nieznański’s contribution. The purpose of N3 is to solve the logical problem of evil through the defeat of a (...)
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  20.  12
    Can Theodicy Be Avoided? The Claim of Unredeemed Evil: James Wetzel.James Wetzel - 1989 - Religious Studies 25 (1):1-13.
    Theodicy begins with the recognition that the world is not obviously under the care of a loving God with limitless power and wisdom. If it were, why would the world be burdened with its considerable amount and variety of evil? Theodicists are those who attempt to answer this question by suggesting a possible rationale for the appearance of evil in a theocentric universe. In the past theodicists have taken up the cause of theodicy in the service of piety, (...)
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  21.  48
    Therapeutic Theodicy? Suffering, Struggle, and the Shift From the God’s-Eye View.Amber L. Griffioen - 2018 - Religions 9:99ff..
    From a theoretical standpoint, the problem of human suffering can be understood as one formulation of the classical problem of evil, which calls into question the compatibility of the existence of a perfect God with the extent to which human beings suffer. Philosophical responses to this problem have traditionally been posed in the form of theodicies, or justifications of the divine. In this article, I argue that the theodical approach in analytic philosophy of religion exhibits both morally and epistemically harmful (...)
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  22. Theodicies and Human Nature: Dostoevsky on the Saint as Witness.Timothy O'Connor - 2009 - In Kevin Timpe (ed.), Metaphysics and God. Routledge.
    Fyodor Dostoevsky understood this practical dimension well, and it is embodied in his literary treatment of the problem of evil in his masterpiece, The Brothers' Karamazov.1 In what follows, I will interpret the powerful existential repudiation of Christianity based on the facts of human suffering voiced by the antagonist, Ivan. After noting some similarities of Ivan’s case to that given by the French existentialist philosopher Albert Camus in his novel, The Plague, I then turn to Dostoevsky’s response, expressed through the (...)
     
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  23. A Theodicy of Heaven and Hell.Richard Swinburne - 1983 - In A. J. Freddoso (ed.), The Existence and Nature of God. Univ Notre Dame Pr. pp. 37-54.
     
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  24.  68
    On Letting Go of Theodicy: Marilyn McCord Adams on God and Evil.Andrew Gleeson - 2015 - Sophia 54 (1):1-12.
    Marilyn McCord Adams agrees with D. Z. Phillips that instrumental theodicy is a moral failure, and that sceptical theists and others are guilty of ignoring what we know now about the moral reality of horrendous evils to speculate about unknown ways these evils might be made sense of. In place of theodicy, Adams advocates ‘the logic of compensation’ for the victims of evil, a postmortem healing of divine intimacy with God. This goes so deep, she believes, that eventually (...)
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  25.  36
    Theodicy and Moral Responsibility in the Myth of Er.Viktor Ilievski - 2018 - Apeiron 51 (3):259-278.
    Journal Name: Apeiron Issue: Ahead of print.
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  26. A Theodicy.John D. McHarry - 1978 - Analysis 38 (3):132 - 134.
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  27.  26
    The Will to Reason: Theodicy and Freedom in Descartes.C. P. Ragland - 2016 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Offering an original perspective on the central project of Descartes' Meditations, this book argues that Descartes' free will theodicy is crucial to his refutation of skepticism. A common thread runs through Descartes' radical First Meditation doubts, his Fourth Meditation discussion of error, and his pious reconciliation of providence and freedom: each involves a clash of perspectives-thinking of God seems to force conclusions diametrically opposed to those we reach when thinking only of ourselves. Descartes fears that a skeptic could exploit (...)
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  28.  37
    Theodicy and the Free Will Defence: Response to Plantinga and Flew: J. E. BARNHART.J. E. Barnhart - 1977 - Religious Studies 13 (4):439-453.
    Although Professor of Philosophy at Calvin College, Alvin Plantinga has developed a theodicy that is fundamentally Arminian rather than Calvinistic. Anthony Flew, although the son of an Arminian Christian minister, regards the Arminian view of ‘free will’ to be both unacceptable on its own terms and incompatible with classical Christian theism. In this paper I hope to disentangle some of the involved controversy regarding theodicy which has developed between Plantinga and Flew, and between Flew and myself. The major (...)
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  29. Beyond Theodicy: The Divine in Heidegger and Tragedy.Robert S. Gall - 1985 - Philosophy Today 29 (2):110-120.
    The paper explores the way in which we can make sense of the seemingly contradictory presentations of God and the gods in tragic literature by looking to the thought of Martin Heidegger. The duplicity of the gods in tragedy is found to be a function of the uncertainty and questionworthiness of being.
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  30.  45
    Theodicy.Michael J. Murray - 2008 - In Thomas P. Flint & Michael C. Rea (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophical Theology. Oxford University Press.
    From Leibniz's time until the mid-1970s, the word ‘theodicy’ was used to describe attempts to explain God's permission of evil. Since the mid-1970s, however, it has taken on a more refined sense among philosophers of religion – a change that can be attributed to Alvin Plantinga's book God, Freedom and Evil. In this work, Plantinga distinguishes between two types of explanations of evil that theists might construct. The first type is offered in response to arguments that the coexistence of (...)
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  31. Theodicy’s Problem: A Statistical Look at the Holocaust of the Children, and the Implications of Natural Evil for the Free Will and Best of All Worlds Hypotheses.Gregory Paul - 2007 - Philosophy and Theology 19 (1/2):125-149.
    The full extent of the anguish and death suffered by immature humans is scientifically and statistically documented for the first time. Probably hundreds of billions of human conceptions and at least fifty billion children have died, the great majority from nonhuman causes, before reaching the age of mature consent. Adults who have heard the word of Christ number in the lower billions. If immature deceased humans are allowed into heaven, then the latter is inhabited predominantly by automatons. Because the Holocaust (...)
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  32.  4
    Kant and Theodicy: A Search for an Answer to the Problem of Evil.George Huxford - 2020 - Lexington Books.
    Kant was engaged with the subject of theodicy throughout his career and not merely in his 1791 treatise explicitly devoted to the subject. George Huxford traces Kant’s thought on theodicy throughout his career to show not only the continuity of Kant's consideration but also his philosophical development on the subject.
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  33.  6
    Evolutionary Theodicies – an Attempt to Overcome Some Impasses.Asle Eikrem & Atle Ottesen Søvik - 2018 - Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 60 (3):428-434.
    Summary Mats Wahlberg argues that evolutionary theodicies fail to show how an evolutionary process was necessary in order to reach the goal God is said to have had when creating our world. The authors of this article argue that Wahlberg‘s critique fails if one takes into consideration the distinction between type- and token-values. The question that guides Wahlberg‘s discussion is whether or not unique type-values require an evolution in order to be instantiated or not. He does not, however, discuss whether (...)
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  34. Theodicy and Divine Intervention.Robert Merrihew Adams - 1994 - In Thomas F. Tracy (ed.), The God Who Acts: Philosophical and Theological Explorations. Pennsylvania State University Press.
     
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  35. Theodicy.Daniel Howard-Snyder - 2008 - In Kelly Clark (ed.), Readings in the Philosophy of Religion. Broadview.
    This paper summarizes a version of the argument from evil for atheism and then assesses several theodicies, including those that appeal to punishment, evil as a necessary counterpart for good, free will, natural evil as natural consequence, natural law, higher-order goods, and the conjunctive "Big Reason" including all the above and more beside.
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  36.  85
    Silencing Theodicy with Enthusiasm: Aesthetic Experience as a Response to the Problem of Evil in Shaftesbury, Annie Dillard, and the Book of Job.John McAteer - 2016 - Heythrop Journal 57 (5):788-795.
    The problem of evil is not only a logical problem about God's goodness but also an existential problem about the sense of God's presence, which the Biblical book of Job conceives as a problem of aesthetic experience. Thus, just as theism can be grounded in religious experience, atheism can be grounded in experience of evil. This phenomenon is illustrated by two contrasting literary descriptions of aesthetic experience by Jean-Paul Sartre and Annie Dillard. I illuminate both of these literary texts with (...)
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  37.  72
    Soul-Making Theodicy and Compatibilism: New Problems and a New Interpretation.Michael Barnwell - 2017 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 82 (1):29-46.
    In the elaboration of his soul-making theodicy, John Hick agrees with a controversial point made by compatibilists Antony Flew and John Mackie against the free will defense. Namely, Hick grants that God could have created humans such that they would be free to sin but would, in fact, never do so. In this paper, I identify three previously unrecognized problems that arise from his initial concession to, and ultimate rejection of, compatibilism. The first problem stems from the fact that (...)
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  38. Some Moral Critique of Theodicy is Misplaced, But Not All.Robert Simpson - 2009 - Religious Studies 45 (3):339-346.
    Several recent critiques of theodicy have incorporated some form of moral objection to the theodical enterprise, in which the critic argues that one ought not to engage in the practice of theodicy. In defending theodical practice against the moral critique, Atle O. Søvik argues that the moral critique (1) begs the question against theodicy, and (2) misapprehends the implications of the claim that it is inappropriate to espouse a theodicy in certain situations. In this paper I (...)
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  39. Prefacing the Theodicy.Christia Mercer - 2014 - In Larry M. Jorgensen & Samuel Newlands (eds.), New Essays on Leibniz's Theodicy. Oxford University Press. pp. 13-42.
    The Preface to Leibniz's famous Theodicy offers a perspective on the work that has been insufficiently studied. In this paper, I ask that we step back from the main text of the Theodicy and attend to its Preface. I show that the latter performs two crucial preparatory tasks that have not been properly appreciated. The first is to offer a public declaration of what I call Leibniz’s radical rationalism. The Preface assumes that any attentive rational being is capable (...)
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  40. Evil and Theodicy.William Rowe - 1988 - Philosophical Topics 16 (2):119-132.
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  41.  10
    Compassionate Theodicy: A Suggested Truce Between Intellectual and Practical Theodicy.Bethany N. Sollereder - 2021 - Modern Theology 37 (2):382-395.
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  42.  13
    Theodicy and the Status of Animals.Frederick Ferré - 1986 - American Philosophical Quarterly 23 (1):23 - 34.
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  43. A First-Order Modal Theodicy: God, Evil, and Religious Determinism.Gesiel Borges da Silva & Fábio Bertato - 2019 - South American Journal of Logic 5 (1):49-80.
    Edward Nieznanski developed in 2007 and 2008 two different systems in formal logic which deal with the problem of evil. Particularly, his aim is to refute a version of the logical problem of evil associated with a form of religious determinism. In this paper, we revisit his first system to give a more suitable form to it, reformulating it in first-order modal logic. The new resulting system, called N1, has much of the original basic structure, and many axioms, definitions, and (...)
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  44. Second-Personal Theodicy: Coming to Know Why God Permits Suffering by Coming to Know God Himself.Dylan Balfour - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 88 (3):287-305.
    The popularity of theodicy over the past several decades has given rise to a countermovement, “anti-theodicy”, which admonishes attempts at theodicy for various reasons. This paper examines one prominent anti-theodical objection: that it is hubristic, and attempts to form an approach to theodicy which evades this objection. To do so I draw from the work of Eleonore Stump, who provides a framework by which we can glean second-personal knowledge of God. From this knowledge, I argue that (...)
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  45.  20
    Can Theodicy Be Avoided? The Claim of Unredeemed Evil.James Wetzel - 1989 - Religious Studies 25 (1):1 - 13.
  46. Non-Identity Theodicy: A Grace-Based Response to the Problem of Evil.Vince R. Vitale - 2020 - Oxford University Press.
    This book develops Non-Identity Theodicy as an original response to the problem of evil. It constructs an ethical framework for theodicy by sketching four cases of human action where horrendous evils are either caused, permitted, or risked, either for pure benefit or for harm avoidance.
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  47.  9
    Cancer, Theodicy, and Theology.Brian Claude Macallan - 2017 - Process Studies 46 (2):229-241.
    Theodicy wrestles with suffering and pain, while seeking to understand God's engagement with these realities. Cancer raises similar questions, while focusing on specific aspects of those questions. Cancer appears to challenge many aspects of Christian doctrine, in particular issues regarding the origin of sin, Christology, and ultimately ones doctrine of God. This article explores how my own personal diagnosis of colon cancer has led to an exploration and re-evaluation of these traditional doctrines and their relevance for my own faith (...)
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  48. Theodicy, Abridged.Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - 1966 - Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
     
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  49. Non-Identity Theodicy.Vincent Raphael Vitale - 2017 - Philosophia Christi 19 (2):269-90.
    I develop a theodicy (Non-Identity Theodicy) that begins with the recognition that we owe our existence to great and varied evils. I develop two versions of this theodicy, with the result that some version is available to the theist regardless of her assumptions about the existence and nature of free will. My defense of Non-Identity Theodicy is aided by an analogy between divine creation and human procreation. I argue that if one af rms the morality of (...)
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  50. Theodicy in Islamic Thought: The Dispute Over Al-Ghazali's 'Best of All Possible Worlds'.Eric L. Ormsby - 1986 - Religious Studies 22 (1):153-154.
     
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