Results for 'Theodicy'

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  1. Bimal K. Matilal.A. Note on Samkara'S. Theodicy - 1992 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 20:363-376.
     
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  2.  16
    BARTLETT, MARK.“Chronotopology and the Scientific-Aesthetic in Philosophy, Literature, and Art.” University of Santa Cruz, 2005: 327 pages.[DAI-A 66/08 (2006): 2951: UMI number: AAT 3185873.]. [REVIEW]Royce P. Grubic, Cosmos Or Chaos & Love Theodicy - 2007 - Process Studies 36:174.
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  3. Theodicy as Axiology and More.Seyyed Mohsen Eslami - 2023 - In Andrés Garcia, Mattias Gunnemyr & Jakob Werkmäster (eds.), Value, Morality & Social Reality: Essays dedicated to Dan Egonsson, Björn Petersson & Toni Rønnow-Rasmussen. Department of Philosophy, Lund University. pp. 129-143.
    The literature on the problem of evil does not draw enough upon the relevant debates in (meta)ethics, and ethical theorists (broadly understood) can engage with the problem of evil as a way of inquiry in their field. I review how the problem of evil is essentially formed based on (evaluative and deontic) ethical judgments, and how responses to it, either theistic or atheistic, are mainly based on the relevant ethical judgments. Meanwhile, though contemporary debates in metaphysics and epistemology have influenced (...)
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  4.  9
    Theodicy - from a logical point of view.Paul Weingartner - 2021 - Berlin: Peter Lang.
    The aim of the book is to refute the claim that God's omniscience, omnipotence and benevolence on the one hand and the existence of evil on the other are together inconsistent. This is shown first by unmasking many types of such claims as either logical fallacies or as presupposing false assumptions. Secondly the author formulates God's attributes of omniscience, omnipotence and benevolence and the existence of 10 types of evil in an axiomatic system. This contains the theorems about God's knowledge, (...)
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  5. Theodicy: essays on the goodness of God, the freedom of man, and the origin of evil.Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - 1985 - La Salle, Ill.: Open Court. Edited by Austin Farrer.
    EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION T JLJe1bn1z was above all things a metaphysician. That does not mean that his head was in the clouds, or that the particular sciences ...
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  6.  11
    Theodicy in a Vale of Tears.Evan Fales - 2013 - In Justin P. McBrayer & Daniel Howard‐Snyder (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to the Problem of Evil. Oxford, UK: Wiley. pp. 349–362.
    Theodicies can be distinguished as “hard-nosed” or “good-hearted.” Typical features of each are given. I reject the former; they set the bar too low for God. Considerable discussion is devoted to Eleonore Stump's recent Wandering in Darkness, which sets the standard for good-hearted theodicies. I then develop the notion of a “perfect creature”, a possible being indistinguishable from God except lacking aseity, and argue that God should have created only perfect creatures. Since He did not, He is not. Theodicies, therefore, (...)
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  7. Prefacing the Theodicy.Christia Mercer - 2014 - In Larry M. Jorgensen & Samuel Newlands (eds.), New Essays on Leibniz's Theodicy. Oxford University Press. pp. 13-42.
    The Preface to Leibniz's famous Theodicy offers a perspective on the work that has been insufficiently studied. In this paper, I ask that we step back from the main text of the Theodicy and attend to its Preface. I show that the latter performs two crucial preparatory tasks that have not been properly appreciated. The first is to offer a public declaration of what I call Leibniz’s radical rationalism. The Preface assumes that any attentive rational being is capable (...)
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  8. Theodicy: The solution to the problem of evil, or part of the problem?Nick Trakakis - 2008 - Sophia 47 (2):161-191.
    Theodicy, the enterprise of searching for greater goods that might plausibly justify God’s permission of evil, is often criticized on the grounds that the project has systematically failed to unearth any such goods. But theodicists also face a deeper challenge, one that places under question the very attempt to look for any morally sufficient reasons God might have for creating a world littered with evil. This ‘anti-theodical’ view argues that theists (and non-theists) ought to reject, primarily for moral reasons, (...)
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  9.  9
    Theodicy of Culture and the Jewish Ethos: David Koigen's Contribution to the Sociology of Religion.Martina Urban - 2012 - De Gruyter.
    This volume presents the theory of culture of the Russian‑born German Jewish social philosopher David Koigen (1879-1933). Heir to Hermann Cohen's neo‑Kantian interpretation of Judaism, he transforms the religion of reason into an ethical Intimitätsreligion. He draws upon a great variety of intellectual currents, among them, Max Scheler's philosophy of values, the historical sociology of Max Weber, the sociology of religion of Émile Durkheim, Ernst Troeltsch and Georg Simmel and American pragmatism. Influenced by his personal experience of marginality in German (...)
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  10.  8
    Fluid Theodicy.Hans-Ferdinand Angel - 2024 - Scientia et Fides 12 (1):11-50.
    The term theodicy was coined by the philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) and is inherent in the question of how evil can exist if an intrinsically good God guides everything. The publication of this oeuvre initiated intense philosophical and theological discourse in the subsequent centuries, during which many issues that bare upon human well-being were articulated. Also, Leibniz’s rational approach to the relationship between God and evil raised a number of issues related to the topic of belief. This topic (...)
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    Evolutionary theodicies – an attempt to overcome some impasses.Asle Eikrem & Atle Ottesen Søvik - 2018 - Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 60 (3):428-434.
    Summary Mats Wahlberg argues that evolutionary theodicies fail to show how an evolutionary process was necessary in order to reach the goal God is said to have had when creating our world. The authors of this article argue that Wahlberg‘s critique fails if one takes into consideration the distinction between type- and token-values. The question that guides Wahlberg‘s discussion is whether or not unique type-values require an evolution in order to be instantiated or not. He does not, however, discuss whether (...)
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  12. A Theodicy for Artificial Universes: Moral Considerations on Simulation Hypotheses.Stefano Gualeni - 2021 - International Journal of Technoethics 12 (1):21-31.
    ‘Simulation Hypotheses’ are imaginative scenarios that are typically employed in philosophy to speculate on how likely it is that we are currently living within a simulated universe as well as on our possibility for ever discerning whether we do in fact inhabit one. These philosophical questions in particular overshadowed other aspects and potential uses of simulation hypotheses, some of which are foregrounded in this article. More specifically, “A Theodicy for Artificial Universes” focuses on the moral implications of simulation hypotheses (...)
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  13. Anti‐Theodicy.Toby Betenson - 2016 - Philosophy Compass 11 (1):56-65.
    In this article, I outline the major themes of ‘anti-theodicy’. Anti-theodicy is characterised as a reaction, as rejection, against traditional solutions to the problem of evil and against the traditional formulations of the problem of evil to which those solutions respond. I detail numerous ‘moral’ anti-theodical objections to theodicy, illustrating the central claim of anti-theodicy: Theodicy is morally objectionable. I also detail some ‘non-moral’ anti-theodical objections, illustrating the second major claim of anti-theodicy: Traditional formulations (...)
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  14. Theodicy, Metaphysics, and Metaphilosophy in Leibniz.Paul Lodge - 2015 - Philosophical Topics 43 (1-2):27-52.
    In this paper I offer a discussion of chapter 3 of Adrian Moore’s The Evolution of Modern Metaphysics, which is titled “Leibniz: Metaphysics in the Service of Theodicy.” Here Moore discusses the philosophy of Leibniz and comes to a damning conclusion. My main aim is to suggest that such a conclusion might be a little premature. I begin by outlining Moore’s discussion of Leibniz and then raise some problems for the objections that Moore presents. I follow this by raising (...)
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    Theodicy and Animal Pain.Peter Harrison - 1989 - Philosophy 64 (247):79 - 92.
    The existence of evil is compatible with the existence of God, most theists would claim, because evil either results from the activities of free agents, or it contributes in some way toward their moral development. According to the ‘free-will defence’, evil and suffering are necessary consequences of free-will. Proponents of the ‘soul-making argument’—a theodicy with a different emphasis—argue that a universe which is imperfect will nurture a whole range of virtues in a way impossible either in a perfect world, (...)
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  16. Theodicy and Toleration in Bayle’s Dictionary.Michael W. Hickson - 2013 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 51 (1):49-73.
    Theodicy and Toleration Seem at first glance to be an unlikely pair of topics to treat in a single paper. Toleration usually means putting up with beliefs or actions with which one disagrees, and it is practiced because the beliefs or actions in question are not disagreeable enough to justify interference. It is usually taken to be a topic for moral and political philosophy. Theodicy, on the other hand, is the attempt to solve the problem of evil; that (...)
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  17.  13
    Evolutionary Theodicy and the Type-Token Distinction: A Reply to Eikrem and Søvik.Mats Wahlberg - 2022 - Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 64 (2):195-206.
    SummaryHow can the immense amount of suffering and waste inherent in the evolutionary process be reconciled with the existence of a perfectly good and omnipotent God? A widely embraced proposal in the area of “evolutionary theodicy” is the so-called “Only Way”-argument. This argument contends that certain valuable goods – in particular, creaturely independence and human freedom – can only come about through a genuinely indeterministic and partly uncontrolled process of evolution. In a previous article, I have argued that the (...)
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  18.  64
    Theodicy.Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - unknown
  19.  36
    Theodicy: A response to Christopher Southgate.Nicola Hoggard Creegan - 2018 - Zygon 53 (3):808-820.
    This article is a critical and appreciative interaction with Christopher Southgate's theodicy and theology of glory. I critique in particular his rejection of all dualist moves in theodicy. I question why Southgate can ascribe evil to some human actions, many of which are automatic and unconscious, but not to any other level or form of consciousness. I argue that he may rely too heavily on rational scientific categories, which are not sufficient in themselves to carry the weight of (...)
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  20. Theodicy, Our Well-Being, and God's Rights.Richard Swinburne - 1995 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 38 (1-3):75 - 91.
    Theodicy needs to show, for all actual evils e, that 1) in allowing e, a God would bring about a necessary condition of a good g not achievable in any other morally permissible way, 2) if e occurs, g occurs, 3) it is morally permissible for God to allow e, and 4) g is at least as good as e is bad. This article contributes to a full-scale theodicy by showing that A being of use (e.g., by suffering) (...)
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  21.  75
    Therapeutic Theodicy? Suffering, Struggle, and the Shift from the God’s-Eye View.Amber L. Griffioen - 2018 - Religions 9:99ff..
    From a theoretical standpoint, the problem of human suffering can be understood as one formulation of the classical problem of evil, which calls into question the compatibility of the existence of a perfect God with the extent to which human beings suffer. Philosophical responses to this problem have traditionally been posed in the form of theodicies, or justifications of the divine. In this article, I argue that the theodical approach in analytic philosophy of religion exhibits both morally and epistemically harmful (...)
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  22. Against theodicy: A response to Peter Forrest.N. N. Trakakis - 2010 - Sophia 49 (1):129-140.
    In responding to Peter Forrest’s defence of ‘tough-minded theodicy’, I point to some problematic features of theodicies of this sort, in particular their commitment to an anthropomorphic conception of God which tends to assimilate the Creator to the creaturely and so diminishes the otherness and mystery of God. This remains the case, I argue, even granted Forrest’s view that God may have a very different kind of morality from the one we mortals are subject to.
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  23. “Lyric Theodicy: Gerard Manley Hopkins and the Problem of Hiddenness”.Ian Deweese-Boyd - 2015 - In Adam Green & Eleonore Stump (eds.), Hidden Divinity and Religious Belief. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 260-277.
    The nineteenth century English Jesuit poet, Gerard Manley Hopkins struggled throughout his life with desolation over what he saw as a spiritually, intellectually and artistically unproductive life. During these periods, he experienced God’s absence in a particularly intense way. As he wrote in one sonnet, “my lament / Is cries countless, cries like dead letters sent / To dearest him that lives alas! away.” What Hopkins faced was the existential problem of suffering and hiddenness, a problem widely recognized by analytic (...)
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  24.  24
    Can theodicy be avoided? The claim of unredeemed evil: James Wetzel.James Wetzel - 1989 - Religious Studies 25 (1):1-13.
    Theodicy begins with the recognition that the world is not obviously under the care of a loving God with limitless power and wisdom. If it were, why would the world be burdened with its considerable amount and variety of evil? Theodicists are those who attempt to answer this question by suggesting a possible rationale for the appearance of evil in a theocentric universe. In the past theodicists have taken up the cause of theodicy in the service of piety, (...)
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  25. Cartesian Theodicy: Descartes Quest for Certitude.Z. Janowski - 2000 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 3:127-128.
    This study is the first work ever to interpret the Meditations as theodicy. I show that Descartes' attempt to define the role of God for man's cognitive fallibility in so far as God is the creator of man's nature, is a reiteration of an old Epicurean argument pointing out the incongruity between the existence of God and evil. The question of the nature and origin of error which Descartes addresses in the First Meditation is reformulated in the Fourth Meditation (...)
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  26.  9
    Apocalyptic theodicy. Contributions for a sociodicea.César O. Carbullanca N. - 2021 - Veritas – Revista de Filosofia da Pucrs 48:195-223.
    Resumen A partir de la formulación weberiana de teodicea, esta pesquisa sostendrá la centralidad de la cuestión de la teodicea para la religión. No obstante, la definición weberiana de teodicea presenta problemas para su aplicación a textos de la antigüedad, pues, a juicio de Sarot, la teodicea sería un fenómeno moderno que marcaría una nueva manera de pensar sobre el mal. A partir de lo cual, el artículo pasa revista a diversas teodiceas mostrando la variedad de respuestas, colocando en evidencia (...)
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  27.  15
    Anti-theodicies – An Adornian approach.Hanna-Maija Huhtala - 2021 - Human Affairs 31 (2):223-235.
    The question of why bad things happen (to good people) has puzzled individuals over generations and across different cultures. The most popular approach is to turn the issue into a question about God: Why does he allow bad things that lead to the suffering of often innocent bystanders? Some have drawn conclusions that there can be no God. These attempts that seek to find meaning in suffering are called theodicies. Thus, theodicies promise that the torment of the innocent is not (...)
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  28.  85
    Theodicy and approximation: Avicenna: Marwan Rashed.Marwan Rashed - 2000 - Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 10 (2):223-257.
    Our aim here is to show that an enigmatic text of Avicenna's Glosses, devoted to the problem of evil, takes on its full meaning in the light of the last chapter of the Šifā ' on De generatione et corruptione. We will see how Avicenna, deepening and developing a cosmological argument already present in the commentary of Alexander of Aphrodisias on the De generatione, ends up building most of his theodicy on the relative incommensurability of the different celestial periods. (...)
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  29.  56
    Evolutionary theodicy, redemption, and time.Mark Ian Thomas Robson - 2015 - Zygon 50 (3):647-670.
    Of the many problems which evolutionary theodicy tries to address, the ones of animal suffering and extinction seem especially intractable. In this essay, I show how C. D. Broad's growing block conception of time does much to ameliorate the problems. Additionally, I suggest it leads to another way of understanding the soul. Instead of it being understood as a substance, it is seen as a history—a history which is resurrected in the end times. Correspondingly, redemption, I argue, should not (...)
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  30. Formal Theodicy: Religious Determinism and the Logical Problem of Evil.Gesiel B. Da Silva & Fábio Bertato - 2020 - Edukacja Filozoficzna 70:93-119.
    Edward Nieznański developed two logical systems to deal with the problem of evil and to refute religious determinism. However, when formalized in first-order modal logic, two axioms of each system contradict one another, revealing that there is an underlying minimal set of axioms enough to settle the questions. In this article, we develop this minimal system, called N3, which is based on Nieznański’s contribution. The purpose of N3 is to solve the logical problem of evil through the defeat of a (...)
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  31.  23
    Theodicy, Regress, and the Problem of Eternal Separation.Donald Bungum - 2023 - Journal of Analytic Theology 11:85-109.
    The problem of eternal separation is the problem of explaining how someone could be happy in heaven while knowing that his beloved is in hell. Some argue that this problem is insoluble, while others try to solve it through the lover, the beloved, or the love between them. I argue that the problem of eternal separation is really three problems, namely, of suffering, separation, and regret. I show that no existing reply solves these problems simultaneously. I then present a new (...)
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  32.  23
    Cartesian Theodicy: Descartes's Quest for Certitude (review).Richard A. Watson - 2003 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 41 (2):275-276.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Journal of the History of Philosophy 41.2 (2003) 275-276 [Access article in PDF] Zbigniew Janowski. Cartesian Theodicy: Descartes' Quest for Certitude. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2002. Pp. 181. Cloth, $30.00. Janowski begins this original and erudite work by saying that although "the Meditations have never [before] been interpreted as a theodicy... insofar as theodicy is concerned with examining the relationship between the existence of evil on the one (...)
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  33. ”Anti-theodicy” and Antitheodicies.Lauri Snellman - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 11 (1):201-211.
    The article reviews different antitheodicies in response to Toby Betenson’s article “Anti-Theodicy”. Antitheodicies involve rejecting the position that God or meaning exist only, if evils have justifying morally sufficient reasons. The article builds on Betenson’s division into moral and conceptual antitheodicies and his characterization of antitheodicies as a metacritique of the problem of evil. Moral antitheodicies are problematic, as they do not address the key conceptual issues and might end up in question-begging or moralism. Dissolving the problem of evil (...)
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  34.  34
    The Will to Reason: Theodicy and Freedom in Descartes.C. P. Ragland - 2016 - New York, New York: Oxford University Press USA.
    Offering an original perspective on the central project of Descartes' Meditations, this book argues that Descartes' free will theodicy is crucial to his refutation of skepticism. A common thread runs through Descartes' radical First Meditation doubts, his Fourth Meditation discussion of error, and his pious reconciliation of providence and freedom: each involves a clash of perspectives-thinking of God seems to force conclusions diametrically opposed to those we reach when thinking only of ourselves. Descartes fears that a skeptic could exploit (...)
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  35.  19
    Cancer, Theodicy, and Theology.Brian Claude Macallan - 2017 - Process Studies 46 (2):229-241.
    Theodicy wrestles with suffering and pain, while seeking to understand God's engagement with these realities. Cancer raises similar questions, while focusing on specific aspects of those questions. Cancer appears to challenge many aspects of Christian doctrine, in particular issues regarding the origin of sin, Christology, and ultimately ones doctrine of God. This article explores how my own personal diagnosis of colon cancer has led to an exploration and re-evaluation of these traditional doctrines and their relevance for my own faith (...)
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  36. An Axiological-Trajectory Theodicy.Thomas Metcalf - 2020 - Sophia 59 (3):577-592.
    I develop a new theodicy in defense of Anselmian theism, one that has several advantages over traditional and recent replies to the Problem of Evil. To make my case, I first explain the value of a positive trajectory: a forward-in-time decrease in ‘first-order-gratuitous’ evil: evil that is not necessary for any equal-or-greater first-order good, but may be necessary for a higher-order good, such as the good of strongly positive axiological trajectory. Positive trajectory arguably contributes goodness to a world in (...)
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  37.  7
    Plato's Theodicy: The Forgotten Fount.Viktor Ilievski - 2023 - BRILL.
    _Plato’s Theodicy_ argues successfully that the earliest major contribution to the attempt to justify the ways of an omnibenevolent deity against the ubiquity of evil is made in Plato’s dialogues. It is the first published book-length treatment of this subject.
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  38. Theodicy.Daniel Howard-Snyder - 2008 - In Kelly Clark (ed.), Readings in the Philosophy of Religion. Broadview.
    This paper summarizes a version of the argument from evil for atheism and then assesses several theodicies, including those that appeal to punishment, evil as a necessary counterpart for good, free will, natural evil as natural consequence, natural law, higher-order goods, and the conjunctive "Big Reason" including all the above and more beside.
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  39.  60
    Theodicy.Michael J. Murray - 2008 - In Thomas P. Flint & Michael Rea (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophical Theology. Oxford University Press.
    From Leibniz's time until the mid-1970s, the word ‘theodicy’ was used to describe attempts to explain God's permission of evil. Since the mid-1970s, however, it has taken on a more refined sense among philosophers of religion – a change that can be attributed to Alvin Plantinga's book God, Freedom and Evil. In this work, Plantinga distinguishes between two types of explanations of evil that theists might construct. The first type is offered in response to arguments that the coexistence of (...)
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  40.  12
    Babylonian Theodicy. By Takayoshi Oshima.Christopher B. Hays - 2021 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 137 (4).
    The Babylonian Theodicy. By Takayoshi Oshima. State Archives of Assyria Cuneiform Texts, vol. 9. Helsinki: The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, 2013. Pp. lxiii + 63. $39. [Distributed by Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Ind.].
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  41.  20
    Theodicy and Commerce.Matthew B. Arbo - 2014 - Studies in Christian Ethics 27 (2):131-143.
    Recent theological treatments of political economy have tended to ignore the early-modern origins from which the capital market system arose. An effort is made here to trace a specific conceptual development from the theodicies of G. W. Leibniz and Bishop William King to the economic theory of David Hume and Adam Smith, a development that implies certain theological transmutations. Both the theodicist and economist claim, for different reasons, that nature itself is capable of redeeming evils. Two theoretical shifts contributed to (...)
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  42.  58
    10. Theodicy Without Blame.Marilyn Adams - 1988 - Philosophical Topics 16 (2):215-245.
  43. A Theodicy.John D. McHarry - 1978 - Analysis 38 (3):132 - 134.
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  44.  64
    Antediluvian Theodicy.Evan Fales - 1989 - Faith and Philosophy 6 (3):320-329.
    This paper is a discussion of Eleonore Stump’s “The Problem of Evil.” Stump, I argue, has attempted a theodicy with several desirable features; among them, an effort to provide a positive account of the compatibility of natural evils with God’s goodness that makes use of specifically Christian doctrines. However, the doctrines Stump makes use of---and, in particular, her conception of hell and her interpretation of original sin---raise, I suggest, more problems than they solve.
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  45. Theodicies and Human Nature: Dostoevsky on the Saint as Witness.Timothy O'Connor - 2009 - In Kevin Timpe (ed.), Metaphysics and God. Routledge.
    Fyodor Dostoevsky understood this practical dimension well, and it is embodied in his literary treatment of the problem of evil in his masterpiece, The Brothers' Karamazov.1 In what follows, I will interpret the powerful existential repudiation of Christianity based on the facts of human suffering voiced by the antagonist, Ivan. After noting some similarities of Ivan’s case to that given by the French existentialist philosopher Albert Camus in his novel, The Plague, I then turn to Dostoevsky’s response, expressed through the (...)
     
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  46. Theodicy, abridged.Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz - 1966 - Indianapolis,: Bobbs-Merrill. Edited by Diogenes Allen.
     
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  47.  48
    Theodicy and the Free Will Defence: Response to Plantinga and Flew: J. E. BARNHART.J. E. Barnhart - 1977 - Religious Studies 13 (4):439-453.
    Although Professor of Philosophy at Calvin College, Alvin Plantinga has developed a theodicy that is fundamentally Arminian rather than Calvinistic. Anthony Flew, although the son of an Arminian Christian minister, regards the Arminian view of ‘free will’ to be both unacceptable on its own terms and incompatible with classical Christian theism. In this paper I hope to disentangle some of the involved controversy regarding theodicy which has developed between Plantinga and Flew, and between Flew and myself. The major (...)
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  48.  17
    Theodicy and What Could Be Otherwise: A Response to Christopher Southgate.Andrew Davison - 2022 - Zygon 57 (4):1135-1140.
    In June 2022, Christopher Southgate delivered the Boyle Lecture for that year at St Mary-le-Bow, in the City of London, on the theme of evolutionary theodicy. This article contains the text of the short talk and vote of thanks delivered in response that evening.
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  49. Against Multiverse Theodicies.Bradley Monton - 2010 - Philo 13 (2):113-135.
    In reply to the problem of evil, some suggest that God created an infinite number of universes—for example, that God created every universe that contains more good than evil. I offer two objections to these multiverse theodicies. First, I argue that, for any number of universes God creates, he could have created more, because he could have created duplicates of universes. Next, I argue that multiverse theodicies can’t adequately account for why God would create universes with pointless suffering, and hence (...)
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  50. Beyond Theodicy: The Divine in Heidegger and Tragedy.Robert S. Gall - 1985 - Philosophy Today 29 (2):110-120.
    The paper explores the way in which we can make sense of the seemingly contradictory presentations of God and the gods in tragic literature by looking to the thought of Martin Heidegger. The duplicity of the gods in tragedy is found to be a function of the uncertainty and questionworthiness of being.
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