The focus of this paper is employee ownership, specifically the role of employee ownership in value creation. Based on a sample of 163 French companies, we have measured the impact of employee share ownership on value creation for both shareholders and stakeholders. Only companies with a sustained employee ownership policy over a 5-year period (from 2001 to 2005), as defined by the French Federation of Employee and Former Employee Shareholders (FAS), have been considered. The results indicate that employee share ownership (...) plans have no effect on shareholders’ or stakeholders’ value creation. (shrink)
This study analysed mountain guides’ representations of environmental responsibility and explored the paradox that these professionals face: using nature as a source of income while trying to preserve it. The study was mainly guided by the philosophical literature on this topic and made use of the concepts of sustainable development and nature. This exploratory work therefore contributes to the new field of environmental social psychology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and the qualitative analysis showed that mountain guides have a very sensitive (...) and contemplative approach to moral aspects of our relationship with nature, which they try to transmit to their clients. They believe that this is a way to educate people about sustainable development, but this term emerged as quite vague for them, and they expressed the opinion that it might hide other concerns, such as to make translating it into moral conduct a difficult matter and to compromise their identity as moral actors. (shrink)
Formal topology aims at developing general topology in intuitionistic and predicative mathematics. Many classical results of general topology have been already brought into the realm of constructive mathematics by using formal topology and also new light on basic topological notions was gained with this approach which allows distinction which are not expressible in classical topology. Here we give a systematic exposition of one of the main tools in formal topology: inductive generation. In fact, many formal topologies can be presented in (...) a predicative way by an inductive generation and thus their properties can be proved inductively. We show however that some natural complete Heyting algebra cannot be inductively defined. (shrink)
When town planning emerged at the end of the 19th century, its proponents did not envisage the city without nature. Some, such as Ebenezer Howard, believed the garden city would become the new face of the urban landscape, bringing together only the positive aspects of both city and country. Others, health experts and rationalists, advocated functional planning, where the ‘green space’ was part of the overall plan. And so nature was not forgotten. But what ‘nature’? A ‘nature’ external to the (...) town-dweller, like an ornament or decoration? Something that enhanced the built environment and not the very condition of our existence as human beings? Behind the planners’ inclusion of ‘nature’ lie very different intentions, from one period to another and one culture to another. The globalized, standardized ‘nature’ that was subsequently part of marketing the city is just an image; whether wild or tamed, it is no longer localized, no longer a partner in our condition as denizens of the earth. Thierry Paquot examines these continuing processes of change. (shrink)
The 17th century author François Poulain de la Barre was an important contributor to a pivotal moment in the history of feminist thought. Poulain borrows from many of Descartes’s doctrines, including his dualism, distrust of epistemic authority, accounts of imagination, and passion, and at least some aspects of his doxastic voluntarism; here I examine how he uses a Cartesian notion of prejudice for an anti-essentializing philosophy of women’s education and the formation of the tastes, talents and interests of (...) individuals. ‘Prejudice’ remains Descartes’s notion of an entrenched, yet self-imposed doxastic commitment, but also takes on the sense of social-political group bias, founded on custom, transmitted through education, serving interests, and forming social expectations. Poulain also expands on the Cartesian notion and themes by emphasizing widespread, yet unjustified social opinions in favor of the status quo in both epistemic practices and epistemic authorities, while considering how biased beliefs about sexual difference and gender identity can be internalized even by those who suffer most from them. At the same time, he shows how powerful Cartesian concepts can be for feminist methodology, even though they might also be put to problematic uses (as Malebranche did). (shrink)
The present paper examines how discursive representations and emotive constructions underpin an argumentative dynamic that emerges from apparently non-argumentative statements, like those found in newspaper headlines. Our data comes from Greek broadsheet newspapers in the polarized context of the Greek crisis. First, we outline an analytic synergy that scrutinizes representational meaning and the semiotization of emotions in headlines. We then move towards the reconstruction of the inferential passage, contained in the headlines, that unites the implicit standpoint with its supporting argument.
This essay provides an explanation and interpretation of the undertreatment of pain by discussing some of the scientific, clinical, cultural, and philosophical aspects of this problem. One reason why pain continues to be a problem for medicine is that pain does not conform to the scientific approach to health and disease, a philosophy adopted by most health care professionals. Pain does not fit this philosophical perspective because (1) pain is subjective, not objective; (2) the causal basis of pain is often (...) poorly understood; (3) pain is often regarded as a mere symptom, not as a disease; (4) there often are no magic bullets for pain; (5) pain does not fit the expert knowledge model. In order for health care professionals to do a better job of treating pain, some changes need to occur in medical philosophy, education, and practice. (shrink)
Wir stimmen Dietmar Kamper zu, dass die einzigartige Artikulierung der Anthropo-Ethik des Ästhetischen zur Diagnose des heutigen Monströsen im Menschen zentral bleibt. Herders Prophezeiung wird damit vollzogen: „Wir glauben zu sehen, wo wir nur fühlen sollten; wir sehen endlich so viel und so schnell, daß wir nichts mehr fühlen, und fühlen können“. Dies geschieht durch die Übertragung der pragmatischen Epistemologie ins soziale Leben. Das soziale Leben im Zeitalter der totalen Experimentierung der Welt und des Menschen wird zu einem Laboratorium, und (...) ein blinder Konsens wird zur regulierenden Instanz des menschlichen Lebens. Die Berechtigung dieser Diagnose liegt in der Art und Weise, wie die heutige pragmatische Vernunft die Urteilskraft verdrängt. Ihres Erachtens dürfen wir zum einen das, was uns selbst betrifft, nicht als Ich-Person beurteilen, sondern nur im Namen der anderen, und zum anderen darf die Urteilskraft nur durch ein Unterwerfen unter die Ethik und die Rhetorik des Konsenses ersetzt werden. Covid ist eine Folge unseres blinden Hyper-Experimentalisierens der Welt, des Tierreichs und unserer selbst. Wir wissen heute, dass die sprachliche Einbildungskraft in der Tat erklärt, wie die Einbildungskraft das Sehen, die Kunst der Bilder sowie die Erfindung der wissenschaftlichen Hypothesen möglich macht: Sie gibt der visuellen und der wissenschaftlichen Einbildungskraft ihre Dialog- und Reharmonisierungskraft und fördert infolgedessen das Ausüben unserer Urteilskraft, damit sie die Objektivität ihrer Ergebnisse behaupten kann. Im Fall von Covid war es ebenso notwendig, die Urteilskraft zur Erstellung der Diagnose zu ergreifen, wie es stets nötig ist, die Objektivität einer medizinischen Lösung zu beurteilen und zu behaupten. (shrink)
The anticipation of ethical issues that may arise with the clinical use of genomic technologies is crucial to envision their future implementation in a manner sensitive to local contexts. Yet, populations in low- and middle-income countries are underrepresented in studies that aim to explore stakeholders’ perspectives on the use of such technologies. Within the framework of a research project entitled “Personalized medicine in the treatment of epilepsy”, we sought to increase inclusiveness by widening the reach of our survey, inviting neurologists (...) from around the world to share their views and practices regarding the use of whole-genome sequencing in clinical neurology and its associated ethics. We discuss herein the compelling scientific and ethical reasons that led us to attempt to recruit neurologists worldwide, despite the lack, in many low- or middle-income countries, of access to genomic technologies. Recruitment procedures and their results are presented and discussed, as well as the barriers we faced. We conclude that inclusive recruitment remains a challenging, albeit necessary and legitimate, endeavour. (shrink)
. The effort in providing constructive and predicative meaning to non-constructive modes of reasoning has almost without exception been applied to theories with full classical logic . In this paper we show how to combine unrestricted countable choice, induction on infinite well-founded trees and restricted classical logic in constructively given models. These models are sheaf models over a $\sigma$ -complete Boolean algebra, whose topologies are generated by finite or countable covering relations. By a judicious choice of the Boolean algebra we (...) can directly extract effective content from $\Pi_2^0$ -statements true in the model. All the arguments of the present paper can be formalised in Martin-Löf's constructive type theory with generalised inductive definitions. (shrink)
Valorising the biocultural heritage of common goods could enable peasant farmers to achieve socially and economically inclusive sustainability. Increasingly appreciated by consumers, peasant heritage products offer small farmers promising opportunities for economic, social and territorial development. Identifying the obstacles and levers of this complex, multi-scale and multi-stakeholder objective requires an integrative framework. We applied the panarchy conceptual framework to two cases of participatory research with small quinoa producers: a local fair in Chile and quinoa export production in Bolivia. In both (...) cases, the “commoning” process was crucial both to bring stakeholders together inside their communities and to gain outside recognition for their production and thus achieve social and economic inclusion. Despite the differences in scale, the local fair and the export market shared a similar marketing strategy based on short value chains promoting quality products with high identity value. In these dynamics of biocultural heritage valorisation, the panarchical approach revealed the central place as well as the vulnerability of the community territory. As a place of both anchoring and opening, the community territory is the privileged space where autonomous and consensual control over the governance of common biocultural resources can be exercised. (shrink)
In this interview, Anne Fagot-Largeault discusses with Thierry Bardini her recollections of the life and work of French philosopher Gilbert Simondon. The discussion covers Simondon’s theory of individuation and considers its influences on contemporary thinkers such as Gilles Deleuze and François Laruelle. Fagot-Largeault situates Simondon’s thinking within the broader context of 20th-century biological research and the development of life sciences. Informed by her personal association and experiences working with Simondon, her reminiscences shed light on the unique character of Simondon (...) as a person and as a thinker. (shrink)
In times of social and moral crises, sport has often been called to boost individual moral development. By the same token, outdoor activities are viewed as good educational practices to enhance environmental responsibility. However, the present paper argues that these physical activities are currently following the same technological development trend as the mainstream society, and challenges this trend itself in terms of sustainability by critically asking this question: Do outdoor activities really enhance environmental responsibility? The research supporting this paper is (...) based on a qualitative inquiry using interviews with outdoor activities practitioners: mountain guides and white water sports instructors. The findings of this research show that environmental responsibility development depends on the sport contexts. It is fostered in slow and none-technological activities and lowered in fast and technological activities. The paper concludes with the following paradox reached by the preliminary research results: the birth of modern technology calls for greater need of environmental responsibility, but it may also prevent its development at the same time. (shrink)
This volume focuses on the role language plays at all levels of the argumentation process. It explores the effects that specific linguistic choices may have in the production and the reception of arguments and in doing so, it moves beyond the first, necessary, descriptive stance provided by current literature on the topic. Each chapter provides an original take illuminating one or more of the following three issues: the range of linguistic resources language users draw on as they argue; how cognitive (...) processes of meaning construction may influence argumentative practices; and which discursive devices can be used to fulfil a number of argumentative goals. The volume includes theoretical and empirical or applied stances, providing the reader both with state-of-the-art reflections on the relationship between argumentation and language, and with concrete examples of how this relationship plays out in naturally occurring argumentative practices, such as classroom interaction, and political, parliamentary or journalistic discourse. This is a very original, timely and welcome contribution to the study of argumentation conducted with the tools of the language sciences. The collection of papers relevantly tackles key linguistic, discursive and cognitive aspects of argumentative practices whose treatment is underrepresented in mainstream argumentation studies by offering new and exciting linguistically-grounded theoretical accounts. As such, the volume testifies both to the vigour of the linguistic current within the discipline and to the high standards of scholarly commitment and quality that the younger generation is pushing forward. Without question, this book marks an important milestone in the relationships between linguistics and argumentation theory. Christian Plantin, Professor Emeritus. (shrink)
In this article we present a parameterized model for generating multimodal behavior based on cultural heuristics. To this end, a multimodal corpus analysis of human interactions in two cultures serves as the empirical basis for the modeling endeavor. Integrating the results from this empirical study with a well-established theory of cultural dimensions, it becomes feasible to generate culture-specific multimodal behavior in embodied agents by giving evidence for the cultural background of the agent. Two sample applications are presented that make use (...) of the model and are designed to be applied in the area of coaching intercultural communication. (shrink)
In this paper, we present set theories based upon the paraconsistent logic Pac. We describe two different techniques to construct models of such set theories. The first of these is an adaptation of one used to construct classical models of positive comprehension. The properties of the models obtained in that way give rise to a natural paraconsistent set theory which is presented here. The status of the axiom of choice in that theory is also discussed. The second leads to show (...) that any classical universe of set theory (e.g. a model of ZF) can be extended to a paraconsistent one, via a term model construction using an adapted bisimulation technique. (shrink)
Resumo: A transformação pragmática da filosofia é comumente apresentada como uma adaptação necessária à experimentação total do mundo e do homem. É mostrado aqui que ela está baseada numa ilusão: a exclusão do juízo de verdade no diálogo e uma armadilha técnica que culmina nas teorias de atos de palavras, sejam eles monológicos ou dialógicos. A antropologia da linguagem restaura o exercício do juízo de verdade ao descrever os modos de sua presença em toda comunicação.: The pragmatic transformation of philosophy (...) is usually presented as a necessary adaptation to total experimentation of the world and of man. It is shown here that such a transformation is based on an illusion: the exclusion of truth judgment in dialogue and a technical lure that culminates in theories of speech acts, whether monological or dialogical. The anthropology of language restores the exercise of truth judgment by describing the modes of its presence in all communication. (shrink)
Semantical arguments, based on the completeness theorem for first-order logic, give elegant proofs of purely syntactical results. For instance, for proving a conservativity theorem between two theories, one shows instead that any model of one theory can be extended to a model of the other theory. This method of proof, because of its use of the completeness theorem, is a priori not valid constructively. We show here how to give similar arguments, valid constructively, by using Boolean models. These models are (...) a slight variation of ordinary first-order models, where truth values are now regular ideals of a given Boolean algebra. Two examples are presented: a simple conservativity result and Herbrand's theorem. (shrink)
Pauchant's book emerges from a forum on International Management, Ethics, and Spirituality, the first of its kind to be held at an internationally recognized business school, and represents the thinking of six CEOs and six scholars of ethics and spirituality from Australia, Canada, the United States, and Switzerland.
We present a proof of Goodmanʼs Theorem, which is a variation of the proof of Renaldel de Lavalette . This proof uses in an essential way possibly divergent computations for proving a result which mentions systems involving only terminating computations. Our proof is carried out in a constructive metalanguage. This involves implicitly a covering relation over arbitrary posets in formal topology, which occurs in forcing in set theory in a classical framework, but can also be defined constructively.
Le premier site naturel de compensation français a été inauguré le 11 mai 2009 sur le site d’un verger abandonné dans la plaine de Crau. Cette opération avait notamment pour objectif d’expérimenter le premier mécanisme d’offre de compensation français via la réhabilitation d’une végétation herbacée permettant le retour des oiseaux steppiques emblématiques de cet espace. Impliqués dans le comité local de pilotage, des écologues ont conseillé les techniques de réhabilitation et expertisé leurs effets sur la biodiversité tout en réalisant des (...) recherches expérimentales pour étendre la restauration à la végétation et à certains groupes d’insectes. Après 7 années de suivis, les résultats montrent que la réhabilitation a bien permis la création d’une végétation favorable au retour de l’avifaune steppique mais le succès des expérimentations de restauration ne peut pas encore être définitivement prédit sur le long terme. Ces résultats soulignent les difficultés scientifiques et techniques de la restauration et limitent donc le mécanisme de compensation à la réhabilitation de certaines composantes ou fonctions. The first French ecological offset area was inaugurated on May 11th 2009 at the site of an abandoned orchard in the Crau plain. One of the objectives of this intervention was to test the first French mitigation bank rehabilitating the herbaceous vegetation in order to encourage the return of steppe birds emblematic of this area. The ecologists involved in the local steering committee proposed rehabilitation techniques and assessed their impact on biodiversity while at the same time carrying out experimental research designed to extend the restoration process to plant communities and some groups of insects. The results of various studies showed that the rehabilitation scheme led to the development of a plant community favorable to the return of steppe birds. However, the long-term results of the restoration experiments cannot be definitively predicted. Thus, these results highlight the scientific and technical difficulties facing the restoration process and hence restrict the compensation mechanism to the rehabilitation of some of their components or functions. (shrink)