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Thomas Bittner [34]Thomas Jacob Bittner [1]Thomas E. Bittner [1]
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Thomas Bittner
State University of New York, Buffalo
  1. A Theory of Granular Partitions.Thomas Bittner & Barry Smith - 2003 - In M. Duckham, M. F. Goodchild & M. F. Worboys (eds.), Foundations of Geographic Information Science. London: Taylor & Francis. pp. 117-151.
    We have a variety of different ways of dividing up, classifying, mapping, sorting and listing the objects in reality. The theory of granular partitions presented here seeks to provide a general and unified basis for understanding such phenomena in formal terms that is more realistic than existing alternatives. Our theory has two orthogonal parts: the first is a theory of classification; it provides an account of partitions as cells and subcells; the second is a theory of reference or intentionality; it (...)
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  2.  30
    Formal Ontology of Space, Time, and Physical Entities in Classical Mechanics.Thomas Bittner - 2018 - Applied Ontology 13 (2):135-179.
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  3. Individuals, Universals, Collections: On the Foundational Relations of Ontology.Thomas Bittner, Maureen Donnelly & Barry Smith - 2004 - In Achille Varzi Laure Vieu (ed.), ”, Formal Ontology in Information Systems. Proceedings of the Third International Conference. IOS Press. pp. 37–48.
    This paper provides an axiomatic formalization of a theory of foundational relations between three categories of entities: individuals, universals, and collections. We deal with a variety of relations between entities in these categories, including the is-a relation among universals and the part-of relation among individuals as well as cross-category relations such as instance-of, member-of, and partition-of. We show that an adequate understanding of the formal properties of such relations – in particular their behavior with respect to time – is critical (...)
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  4. A Taxonomy of Granular Partitions.Thomas E. Bittner & Barry Smith - 2001 - In Daniel Montello (ed.), Spatial Information Theory. Foundations of Geographic Information Science. Berlin: Springer. pp. 28-43.
    In this paper we propose a formal theory of partitions (ways of dividing up or sorting or mapping reality) and we show how the theory can be applied in the geospatial domain. We characterize partitions at two levels: as systems of cells (theory A), and in terms of their projective relation to reality (theory B). We lay down conditions of well-formedness for partitions and we define what it means for partitions to project truly onto reality. We continue by classifying well-formed (...)
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  5.  75
    Summation Relations and Portions of Stuff.Maureen Donnelly & Thomas Bittner - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 143 (2):167 - 185.
    According to the prevalent 'sum view' of stuffs, each portion of stuff is a mereological sum of its subportions. The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the sum view in the light of a modal temporal mereology which distinguishes between different varieties of summation relations. While admitting David Barnett's recent counter-example to the sum view, we show that there is nonetheless an important sense in which all portions of stuff are sums of their subportions. We use our summation relations (...)
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  6. Endurants and Perdurants in Directly Depicting Ontologies.Thomas Bittner, Maureen Donnelly & Barry Smith - 2004 - AI Communications 13 (4):247–258.
    We propose an ontological theory that is powerful enough to describe both complex spatio-temporal processes and the enduring entities that participate therein. For this purpose we introduce the notion a directly depicting ontology. Directly depicting ontologies are based on relatively simple languages and fall into two major categories: ontologies of type SPAN and ontologies of type SNAP. These represent two complementary perspectives on reality and employ distinct though compatible systems of categories. A SNAP (snapshot) ontology comprehends enduring entities such as (...)
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  7.  99
    A Temporal Mereology for Distinguishing Between Integral Objects and Portions of Stuff.Thomas Bittner & M. Donnelly - manuscript
    In R. Holte and A. Howe (eds.), Proceedings of the Twenty-Second AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-07).
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  8.  16
    The RNA Ontology (RNAO): An Ontology for Integrating RNA Sequence and Structure Data.Robert Hoehndorf, Colin Batchelor, Thomas Bittner, Michel Dumontier, Karen Eilbeck, Rob Knight, Chris J. Mungall, Jane S. Richardson, Jesse Stombaugh & Eric Westhof - 2011 - Applied Ontology 6 (1):53-89.
  9.  14
    On the Computational Realization of Formal Ontologies: Formalizing an Ontology of Instantiation in Spacetime Using Isabelle/HOL as a Case Study.Thomas Bittner - 2019 - Applied ontology 14 (3):251-292.
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  10. A Spatio-Temporal Ontology for Geographic Information Integration.Thomas Bittner & Barry Smith - 2009 - International Journal for Geographical Information Science 23 (6):765-798.
    This paper presents an axiomatic formalization of a theory of top-level relations between three categories of entities: individuals, universals, and collections. We deal with a variety of relations between entities in these categories, including the sub-universal relation among universals and the parthood relation among individuals, as well as cross-categorial relations such as instantiation and membership. We show that an adequate understanding of the formal properties of such relations – in particular their behavior with respect to time – is critical for (...)
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  11.  75
    Consciousness and the Act of Will.Thomas Bittner - 1996 - Philosophical Studies 81 (2-3):31-41.
  12. Granular Partitions and Vagueness.Thomas Bittner & Barry Smith - 2003 - In Chris Welty & Barry Smith (eds.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems (FOIS). New York, USA: ACM Press. pp. 309-320.
    There are some who defend a view of vagueness according to which there are intrinsically vague objects or attributes in reality. Here, in contrast, we defend a view of vagueness as a semantic property of names and predicates. All entities are crisp, on this view, but there are, for each vague name, multiple portions of reality that are equally good candidates for being its referent, and, for each vague predicate, multiple classes of objects that are equally good candidates for being (...)
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  13. Vague Reference and Approximating Judgements.Thomas Bittner & Barry Smith - 2003 - Spatial Cognition and Computation 3 (2):137–156.
    We propose a new account of vagueness and approximation in terms of the theory of granular partitions. We distinguish different kinds of crisp and non-crisp granular partitions and we describe the relations between them, concentrating especially on spatial examples. We describe the practice whereby subjects use regular grid-like reference partitions as a means for tempering the vagueness of their judgments, and we demonstrate how the theory of reference partitions can yield a natural account of this practice, which is referred to (...)
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  14. Logical Properties of Foundational Mereogeometrical Relations in Bio-Ontologies.Thomas Bittner - 2009 - Applied Ontology 4 (2):109-138.
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  15. Normalizing Medical Ontologies Using Basic Formal Ontology.Thomas Bittner & Barry Smith - 2004 - In K. Versorgung & V. Forschung (eds.), Ubiquitäre Information (Proceedings of GMDS 2004). Videel OHG. pp. 199-201.
    Description Logics are nowadays widely accepted as formalisms which provide reasoning facilities which allow us to discover inconsistencies in ontologies in an automatic fashion. Where ontologies are developed in modular fashion, they allow changes in one module to propogated through the system of ontologies automatically in a way which helps to maintain consistency and stability. For this feature to be utilized effectively, however, requires that domain ontologies be represented in a normalized form.
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  16. Punishment for Criminal Attempts: A Legal Perspective on the Problem of Moral Luck.Thomas Bittner - 2008 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 38 (1):pp. 51-83.
    In the criminal law, the law of attempts is of comparatively recent vintage. It is part of an important contemporary legal trend towards early intervention in the criminal process. There are now a substantial number of crimes on the books that, like the crime of attempt, only require that the perpetrator start down the road to carrying out his criminal intentions and do not require him actually to have harmed his victim. Besides the law of attempts, these new crimes include (...)
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  17. Granular Spatio-Temporal Ontologies.Thomas Bittner & Barry Smith - 2003 - In AAAI Symposium: Foundations and Applications of Spatio-Temporal Reasoning (FASTR). pp. 12-17.
    We propose an ontological theory that is powerful enough to describe both complex spatio-temporal processes (occurrents) and the enduring entities (continuants) that participate therein. The theory is divided into two major categories of sub-theories: (sub-) theories of type SPAN and (sub-)theories of type SNAP. These theories represent two complementary perspectives on reality and result in distinct though compatible systems of categories. In SNAP we have enduring entities such as substances, qualities, roles, functions; in SPAN we have perduring entities such as (...)
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  18.  7
    Punishment for Criminal Attempts: A Legal Perspective on the Problem of Moral Luck.Thomas Bittner - 2008 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 38 (1):51-83.
    In the criminal law, the law of attempts is of comparatively recent vintage. It is part of an important contemporary legal trend towards early intervention in the criminal process. There are now a substantial number of crimes on the books that, like the crime of attempt, only require that the perpetrator start down the road to carrying out his criminal intentions and do not require him actually to have harmed his victim. Besides the law of attempts, these new crimes include (...)
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  19.  87
    Formal Ontologies of Space and Time. IFOMIS Report.Thomas Bittner & Barry Smith - 2003 - In IFOMIS Report.
    We propose an ontological theory that is powerful enough to describe both complex spatio-temporal processes (occurrents) and the enduring entities (continuants) that participate in such processes. For this purpose we distinguish between meta-ontology and token ontologies. Token ontologies fall into two major categories: ontologies of type SPAN and ontologies of type SNAP. These represent two complementary perspectives on reality and result in distinct though compatible systems of categories. The meta-ontological level then describes the relationships between the different token ontologies. In (...)
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  20.  59
    Directly Depicting Granular Ontologies.Thomas Bittner & Barry Smith - 2004 - In IFOMIS Reports. pp. 117--151.
    Published in extended form as "Endurants and Perdurants in Directly Depicting Ontologies", -/- We propose an ontological theory that is powerful enough to describe both complex spatio-temporal processes and the enduring entities that participate in such processes. For this purpose we distinguish between ontologies and metaontology. Ontologies are based on very simple directly depicting languages and fall into two major categories: ontologies of type SPAN and ontologies of type SNAP. These represent two complementary perspectives on reality and result in distinct (...)
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  21.  86
    A Unified Theory of Granularity, Vagueness and Approximation.Thomas Bittner & Barry Smith - 2001 - In COSIT Workshop on Spatial Vagueness, Uncertainty and Granularity. pp. 39.
    Abstract: We propose a view of vagueness as a semantic property of names and predicates. All entities are crisp, on this semantic view, but there are, for each vague name, multiple portions of reality that are equally good candidates for being its referent, and, for each vague predicate, multiple classes of objects that are equally good candidates for being its extension. We provide a new formulation of these ideas in terms of a theory of granular partitions. We show that this (...)
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  22.  71
    Vulnerabilities of Morality.Scott Woodcock, Frederick Kroon, Thomas Bittner & Peter Pagin - 2008 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 38 (1):pp. 141-159.
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  23.  63
    Consciousness: Essays From a Higher‐Order Perspective ‐ By Peter Carruthers.Thomas Bittner - 2007 - Philosophical Books 48 (1):84-86.
  24. Chris Nunn, Awareness: What It is, What It Does Reviewed By.Thomas Bittner - 1996 - Philosophy in Review 16 (6):426-428.
     
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  25. Chris Nunn, Awareness: What It is, What It Does. [REVIEW]Thomas Bittner - 1996 - Philosophy in Review 16:426-428.
     
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  26. Could the Stream of Consciousness Flow Through the Brain?Thomas Bittner - 2004 - Philosophia 31 (3-4):449-473.
  27. Jordan Howard Sobel, Puzzles for the Will: Fatalism, Newcomb and Samarra, Determinism and Omniscience. [REVIEW]Thomas Bittner - 2000 - Philosophy in Review 20:222-224.
     
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  28.  15
    Probability and Infinite Sets.Thomas Bittner - 1993 - Cogito 7 (2):150-152.
  29.  5
    Probability and Infinite Sets.Thomas Bittner - 1993 - Cogito 7 (2):150-152.
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  30. Parity Cuts Both Ways: Split Brains and Extended Cognition.Thomas Bittner - 2011 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 30 (2):19-34.
     
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  31. Spatial Information Theory. Foundations of Geographic Information Science.Thomas Bittner - 2001 - Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2205.
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  32.  31
    The Logic of Systems of Granular Partitions.Thomas Bittner, Barry Smith & Maureen Donnelly - 2005 - IFOMIS Reports.
    The theory of granular partitions is designed to capture in a formal framework important aspects of the selective character of common-sense views of reality. It comprehends not merely the ways in which we can view reality by conceiving its objects as gathered together not merely into sets, but also into wholes of various kinds, partitioned into parts at various levels of granularity. We here represent granular partitions as triples consisting of a rooted tree structure as first component, a domain satisfying (...)
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  33.  37
    There Are No Matters of Opinion: An Exercise for Introductory Philosophy Classes.Thomas Bittner - 2003 - Teaching Philosophy 26 (3):247-259.
    This paper contends that an effective way to elicit student interest in philosophical problems is to engage them in controversies they care about. The author describes an exercise that introduces basic elements of rational discourse, e.g. truth, belief, facts, rational disagreement, by questioning whether there any matters of opinion. In addition to providing an argument why there are no matters of opinion, the paper describes standard student responses and counterexamples to being told there are no matters of opinion, and offers (...)
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  34.  39
    Vague Size Predicates.Thomas Bittner - 2011 - Applied Ontology 6 (4):317-343.
  35. Basic Formal Ontology for Bioinformatics.Barry Smith, Anand Kumar & Thomas Bittner - 2005 - IFOMIS Reports.
    Two senses of ‘ontology’ can be distinguished in the current literature. First is the sense favored by information scientists, who view ontologies as software implementations designed to capture in some formal way the consensus conceptualization shared by those working on information systems or databases in a given domain. [Gruber 1993] Second is the sense favored by philosophers, who regard ontologies as theories of different types of entities (objects, processes, relations, functions) [Smith 2003]. Where information systems ontologists seek to maximize reasoning (...)
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