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Thomas Kelly [53]Thomas A. F. Kelly [15]Thomas Forrest Kelly [5]Thomas R. Kelly [4]
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  1. Peer disagreement and higher order evidence.Thomas Kelly - 2011 - In Alvin I. Goldman & Dennis Whitcomb (eds.), Social Epistemology: Essential Readings. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 183--217.
    My aim in this paper is to develop and defend a novel answer to a question that has recently generated a considerable amount of controversy. The question concerns the normative significance of peer disagreement. Suppose that you and I have been exposed to the same evidence and arguments that bear on some proposition: there is no relevant consideration which is available to you but not to me, or vice versa. For the sake of concreteness, we might picture.
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  2.  27
    The epistemic significance of disagreement.Thomas Kelly - 2019 - In Jeremy Fantl, Matthew McGrath & Ernest Sosa (eds.), Contemporary epistemology: an anthology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. pp. 167-196.
    Looking back on it, it seems almost incredible that so many equally educated, equally sincere compatriots and contemporaries, all drawing from the same limited stock of evidence, should have reached so many totally different conclusions---and always with complete certainty.
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  3. The epistemic significance of disagreement.Thomas Kelly - 2005 - In Tamar Szabo Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.), Oxford Studies in Epistemology Volume 1. Oxford University Press. pp. 167-196.
    Looking back on it, it seems almost incredible that so many equally educated, equally sincere compatriots and contemporaries, all drawing from the same limited stock of evidence, should have reached so many totally different conclusions---and always with complete certainty.
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  4. Peer Disagreement and Higher Order Evidence.Thomas Kelly - 2010 - In Richard Feldman & Ted A. Warfield (eds.), Disagreement. Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press.
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  5. Epistemic rationality as instrumental rationality: A critique.Thomas Kelly - 2003 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 66 (3):612–640.
    In this paper, I explore the relationship between epistemic rationality and instrumental rationality, and I attempt to delineate their respective roles in typical instances of theoretical reasoning. My primary concern is with the instrumentalist conception of epistemic rationality: the view that epistemic rationality is simply a species of instrumental rationality, viz. instrumental rationality in the service of one's cognitive or epistemic goals. After sketching the relevance of the instrumentalist conception to debates over naturalism and 'the ethics of belief', I argue (...)
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  6. Evidence Can Be Permissive.Thomas Kelly - 2013 - In Matthias Steup & John Turri (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Epistemology. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Blackwell. pp. 298.
  7. Evidence.Thomas Kelly - 2006 - Philosophy Compass.
    The concept of evidence is central to both epistemology and the philosophy of science. Of course, ‘evidence’ is hardly a philosopher's term of art: it is not only, or even primarily, philosophers who routinely speak of evidence, but also lawyers and judges, historians and scientists, investigative journalists and reporters, as well as the members of numerous other professions and ordinary folk in the course of everyday life. The concept of evidence would thus seem to be on firmer pre-theoretical ground than (...)
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  8. Disagreement, Dogmatism, and Belief Polarization.Thomas Kelly - 2008 - Journal of Philosophy 105 (10):611-633.
    Suppose that you and I disagree about some non-straightforward matter of fact (say, about whether capital punishment tends to have a deterrent effect on crime). Psychologists have demonstrated the following striking phenomenon: if you and I are subsequently exposed to a mixed body of evidence that bears on the question, doing so tends to increase the extent of our initial disagreement. That is, in response to exactly the same evidence, each of us grows increasingly confident of his or her original (...)
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  9. The rationality of belief and other propositional attitudes.Thomas Kelly - 2002 - Philosophical Studies 110 (2):163-96.
    In this paper, I explore the question of whether the expected consequences of holding a belief can affect the rationality of doing so. Special attention is given to various ways in which one might attempt to exert some measure of control over what one believes and the normative status of the beliefs that result from the successful execution of such projects. I argue that the lessons which emerge from thinking about the case ofbelief have important implications for the way we (...)
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  10. Disagreement and the Burdens of Judgment.Thomas Kelly - 2013 - In David Phiroze Christensen & Jennifer Lackey (eds.), The Epistemology of Disagreement: New Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  11. The Rationality of Belief and Some Other Propositional Attitudes.Thomas Kelly - 2002 - Philosophical Studies 110 (2):163-196.
    In this paper, I explore the question of whether the expectedconsequences of holding a belief can affect the rationality ofdoing so. Special attention is given to various ways in whichone might attempt to exert some measure of control over whatone believes and the normative status of the beliefs thatresult from the successful execution of such projects. I arguethat the lessons which emerge from thinking about the case ofbelief have important implications for the way we should thinkabout the rationality of a (...)
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  12. Is reflective equilibrium enough?Thomas Kelly & Sarah McGrath - 2010 - Philosophical Perspectives 24 (1):325-359.
    Suppose that one is at least a minimal realist about a given domain, in that one thinks that that domain contains truths that are not in any interesting sense of our own making. Given such an understanding, what can be said for and against the method of reflective equilibrium as a procedure for investigating the domain? One fact that lends this question some interest is that many philosophers do combine commitments to minimal realism and a reflective equilibrium methodology. Here, for (...)
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  13. Evidence: Fundamental concepts and the phenomenal conception.Thomas Kelly - 2008 - Philosophy Compass 3 (5):933-955.
    The concept of evidence is among the central concerns of epistemology broadly construed. As such, it has long engaged the intellectual energies of both philosophers of science and epistemologists of a more traditional variety. Here I briefly survey some of the more important ideas to have emerged from this tradition of reflection. I then look somewhat more closely at an issue that has recently come to the fore, largely as a result of Williamson's Knowledge and Its Limits: that of whether (...)
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  14. Evidence and Normativity: Reply to Leite.Thomas Kelly - 2007 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 75 (2):465-474.
    According to one view about the rationality of belief, such rationality is ultimately nothing other than the rationality that one exhibits in taking the means to one’s ends. On this view, epistemic rationality is really a species or special case of instrumental rationality. In particular, epistemic rationality is instrumental rationality in the service of one’s distinctively cognitive or epistemic goals (perhaps: one’s goal of holding true rather than false beliefs). In my (2003), I dubbed this view the instrumentalist conception of (...)
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  15. Moorean Facts and Belief Revision, or Can the Skeptic Win?Thomas Kelly - 2005 - Philosophical Perspectives 19 (1):179-209.
    A Moorean fact, in the words of the late David Lewis, is ‘one of those things that we know better than we know the premises of any philosophical argument to the contrary’. Lewis opens his seminal paper ‘Elusive Knowledge’ with the following declaration.
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  16.  77
    Bias, norms, introspection, and the bias blind spot1.Thomas Kelly - 2024 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 108 (1):81-105.
    In this paper, I sketch a general framework for theorizing about bias and bias attributions. According to the account, paradigmatic cases of bias involve systematic departures from genuine norms. I attempt to show that the account illuminates a number of important psychological phenomena, including: the fact that accusations of bias frequently inspire not only denials but also countercharges of bias (“you only think that I'm biased because you're biased!”); the fact that we tend to see ourselves as less biased than (...)
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  17. Common sense as evidence: Against revisionary ontology and skepticism.Thomas Kelly - 2008 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 32 (1):53-78.
    In this age of post-Moorean modesty, many of us are inclined to doubt that philosophy is in possession of arguments that might genuinely serve to undermine what we ordinarily believe. It may perhaps be conceded that the arguments of the skeptic appear to be utterly compelling; but the Mooreans among us will hold that the very plausibility of our ordinary beliefs is reason enough for supposing that there must be something wrong in the skeptic’s arguments, even if we are unable (...)
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  18. How to be an Epistemic Permissivist.Thomas Kelly - unknown
    Roger’s official statement of the thesis that he defends reads as follows: Uniqueness : If an agent whose total evidence is E is fully rational in taking doxastic attitude D to P, then necessarily, any subject with total evidence E who takes a different attitude to P is less than fully rational. Following Roger, I’ll call someone who denies Uniqueness a Permissivist . In what follows, I’ll argue against Uniqueness and defend Permissivism.
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  19. Following the argument where it leads.Thomas Kelly - 2011 - Philosophical Studies 154 (1):105-124.
    Throughout the history of western philosophy, the Socratic injunction to ‘follow the argument where it leads’ has exerted a powerful attraction. But what is it, exactly, to follow the argument where it leads? I explore this intellectual ideal and offer a modest proposal as to how we should understand it. On my proposal, following the argument where it leaves involves a kind of modalized reasonableness. I then consider the relationship between the ideal and common sense or ‘Moorean’ responses to revisionary (...)
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  20. Consensus Gentium: Reflections on the 'Common Consent' Argument for the Existence of God.Thomas Kelly - 2011 - In Kelly James Clark & Raymond J. VanArragon (eds.), Evidence and religious belief. New York: Oxford University Press.
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  21. Hume, Norton, and Induction without Rules.Thomas Kelly - 2010 - Philosophy of Science 77 (5):754-764.
    With respect to inductive reasoning, there are at least two broad projects that have been of interest to philosophers. The first project is that of accurately describing paradigmatic instances of inductive reasoning in the sciences and in everyday life. Thus, we might ask, of some particular historical episode, how exactly Newton, or Darwin, or Einstein arrived at some conclusion on the basis of the evidence that was before him. The second project is one of justification. The task here is that (...)
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  22. Sunk costs, rationality, and acting for the sake of the past.Thomas Kelly - 2004 - Noûs 38 (1):60–85.
    If you are more likely to continue a course of action in virtue of having previously invested in that course of action, then you tend to honor sunk costs. It is widely thought both that (i) individuals often do give some weight to sunk costs in their decision-making and that (ii) it is irrational for them to do so. In this paper I attempt to cast doubt on the conventional wisdom about sunk costs, understood as the conjunction of these two (...)
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  23.  43
    CSR Rating Agencies: What is Their Global Impact?Steven Scalet & Thomas F. Kelly - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 94 (1):69-88.
    In the last two decades, there has been a pronounced growth of CSR rating agencies that assess corporations based on their social and environmental performance. This article investigates the impact of CSR ratings on the behavior of individual corporations. To what extent do corporations adjust their behavior based on how they rank? Our primary finding is that being dropped from a CSR ranking appears to do little to encourage firms to acknowledge and address problems related to their social and environmental (...)
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  24. Are There any Successful Philosophical Arguments?Sarah McGrath & Thomas Kelly - 2017 - In John A. Keller (ed.), Being, Freedom, and Method: Themes From the Philosophy of Peter van Inwagen. New York: Oxford University Press UK.
    According to Peter van Inwagen, there are no successful philosophical arguments for substantive conclusions. He argues for this thesis in two steps. First, he puts forward and defends a “criterion of philosophical success,” according to which a philosophical argument is a success just in case it has the power to convert any ideally rational agnostic to its conclusion. He then argues that, given the kind of disagreement we find among philosophers, we have good reason to think that no philosophical arguments (...)
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  25.  30
    Bias: A Philosophical Study.Thomas Kelly - 2022 - Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press.
    This book is a philosophical exploration of bias and our practices of attributing it. It develops and defends the norm-theoretic account of bias, according to which objectionable biases involve systematic departures from objective norms or standards of correctness. It explores the perspectival character of bias attributions, or the ways in which our views about which people and sources of information are biased about a topic are influenced and constrained, both rationally and psychologically, by our views about the topic itself. The (...)
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  26.  21
    of Judgment.Thomas Kelly - 2013 - In David Phiroze Christensen & Jennifer Lackey (eds.), The Epistemology of Disagreement: New Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 31.
  27. Disagreement in Philosophy.Thomas Kelly - 2016 - In Herman Cappelen, Tamar Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophical Methodology. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
    This article explores the epistemological significance of disagreement in philosophy in the light of some currently prominent theories of disagreement. More specifically, it asks whether the kind of pervasive and intractable disagreement that is characteristic of philosophy warrants a certain kind of skepticism about the subject. Some hold that, given the kind of disagreement found in philosophy, it would be irrational to hold confident views about controversial philosophical questions. According to this line of thought, the rational response to the diversity (...)
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  28.  46
    Historical Versus Current Time Slice Theories in Epistemology.Thomas Kelly - 2016 - In Hilary Kornblith & Brian McLaughlin (eds.), Goldman and his Critics. Malden, MA: Blackwell. pp. 43-65.
    This chapter explores one theme that in the author judgment has not received as much sustained attention as it warrants: the distinction between historical and current time slice theories of epistemic justification. It devotes to the hermeneutical tasks of explicating and contextualizing the distinction between historical and current time slice theories. The chapter examines Goldman's longstanding claim that no current time slice theory can possibly do justice to the epistemic role of preservative memory. It argues that a principle governing preservative (...)
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  29.  25
    Walking the Tightrope of Reason: The Precarious Life of a Rational Animal.Thomas Kelly - 2004 - Mind 113 (452):750-753.
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  30.  16
    Common Sense as Evidence: Against Revisionary Ontology and Skepticism.Thomas Kelly - 1981 - In Felicia Ackerman (ed.), Midwest Studies in Philosophy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. pp. 53–78.
    This chapter contains sections titled: I II III References.
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  31.  61
    The Cost of Skepticism: Who Pays?Thomas Kelly - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 131 (3):695-712.
    Those who favor externalist accounts of knowledge and justification often accuse their internalist opponents of playing into the hands of skeptic. According to this line of thought, internalists characteristically set overly demanding requirements for knowledge and justification, requirements which ordinary believers infrequently satisfy: the internalist is thus committed by his or her own theory to a massive and implausible revisionism about the extent of what we know and justifiably believe. For reasons that I explore, the version of internalist foundationalism developed (...)
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  32.  18
    Can prejudiced beliefs be rational?Thomas Kelly - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    In his book Prejudice, Endre Begby argues that people who hold paradigmatically prejudiced beliefs – for example, the belief that women are less adept at math than men – might be fully rational in holding those beliefs. In this article, I argue that Begby fails to provide compelling examples of beliefs that are both rational and prejudiced. On Begby’s account, whether a belief is prejudiced is determined by its content: it follows that any two token beliefs with the same content (...)
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  33.  18
    Quine and Epistemology.Thomas Kelly - 2013 - In Ernie Lepore & Gilbert Harman (eds.), A Companion to W. V. O. Quine. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 15–37.
    Lars Bergström: Quine and the a priori. Many philosophers believe that W.V. Quine says or implies that there is no a priori knowledge. It is argued here, on the contrary, that there is indeed a priori justification and that this claim is quite consistent with Quine's philosophy. Quine's views on analyticity are also explained and a Quinean notion of analyticity is proposed. The question of whether a posteriori justification and epistemological coherentism is justified a priori is also discussed. A priori (...)
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  34.  15
    George Birkbeck: Pioneer of Adult Education.Thomas Kelly - 1958 - British Journal of Educational Studies 6 (2):185-186.
  35.  9
    The origin of mechanics’ institutes.Thomas Kelly - 1952 - British Journal of Educational Studies 1 (1):17-27.
  36. Soames and Moore on method in ethics and epistemology.Sarah McGrath & Thomas Kelly - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (6):1661-1670.
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  37. About the bishop: Episcopal entourage and the economy of government in post-Roman Gaul.Jamie Kreiner, Thomas Forrest Kelly, Alex J. Novikoff & Ryan Perry - 2011 - Speculum 86 (2):321-60.
    St. Amand could count among his many feats the extraordinary achievement of social equilibrium. “The way he was in the midst of the rich and the poor,” his hagiographer marveled, “the poor saw him as a poor man, and the rich treated him as their better.” On a résumé of miracles performed and peoples converted, this accomplishment was no less impressive. Bishops in the post-Roman kingdoms of Gaul/Francia maintained an ongoing balancing act between seeking social and political distinction, on the (...)
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  38.  24
    Three Ventures in Adult Education in Lancashire in the Reign of George III.A. C. F. Beales, Thomas Kelly, W. M. Spencer & Frederic Crooks - 1960 - British Journal of Educational Studies 8 (2):190.
  39.  52
    Review articles.J. J. B. Dempster, Thomas Kelly, J. P. Tuck, A. C. F. Beales, M. K. Richardson, Jean Floud, H. C. Barnard, P. P. Brown, Geoffrey Tillotson & Evelyn Lawrence - 1957 - British Journal of Educational Studies 5 (2):170-190.
  40.  11
    Applied Process Thought: Initial Explorations in Theory and Research.Mark Dibben & Thomas Kelly (eds.) - 2008 - De Gruyter.
    Concentrating mainly on the process philosophy developed by Alfred North Whitehead, this series of essays brings together some of the newest developments in the application of process thinking to the physical and social sciences. These essays, by established scholars in the field, demonstrate how a wider and deeper understanding of the world can be obtained using process philosophical concepts, how the distortions and blockages inevitably inherent in substantivist talk can be set aside, and how new and fertile lines of research (...)
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  41.  7
    Appendix: What is Applied Process Thought? The Editorial Introduction to Volume 1.Mark R. Dibben & Thomas A. F. Kelly - 2009 - In Mark Dibben & Rebecca Newton (eds.), Applied Process Thought II: Following a Trail Ablaze. De Gruyter. pp. 393-408.
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  42.  45
    Introduction: What is Applied Process Thought?Mark R. Dibben & Thomas A. F. Kelly - 2008 - In Mark Dibben & Thomas Kelly (eds.), Applied Process Thought: Initial Explorations in Theory and Research. De Gruyter. pp. 27-42.
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  43.  18
    A History of Adult Education in Great Britain.A. V. Judges & Thomas Kelly - 1971 - British Journal of Educational Studies 19 (1):109.
  44.  25
    Amor amicitiae: on the Love that is Friendship. Essays in Medieval Thought and Beyond in Honor of the Rev. Professor James McEvoy.Thomas Kelly & Philipp Rosemann (eds.) - 2004 - Peeters Publishers.
    This volume honors the Rev. Professor James McEvoy on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday. The theory of friendship, which has been one of McEvoy's major fields of research and publication, used to be at the heart of the philosophical project, and indissociable from it. For Socrates, philosophy was possible only as the pursuit of wisdom, virtue, and beauty in a community of friends engaged in an "erotic" quest for the good. The present volume wants to make a contribution to (...)
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  45.  11
    Anselm’s Cosmological Argument for God’s Existence.Thomas A. F. Kelly - 2006 - Maynooth Philosophical Papers 3:21-34.
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  46.  32
    A Design for DemocracyAdult Education in Transition: A Study of Institutional InsecurityAdult Reading. The 55th Year Book of the National Society for the Study of Education. Part II.Thomas Kelly, Burton R. Clarke & Nelson B. Henry - 1957 - British Journal of Educational Studies 5 (2):172.
  47.  23
    A History of Adult Education in Great Britain.Thomas Kelly - 1963 - British Journal of Educational Studies 11 (2):193-194.
  48.  17
    An Integrated Theology of Married Love.Thomas M. Kelly - 2002 - Logos: A Journal of Catholic Thought and Culture 5 (1):76-102.
  49.  26
    A Musical Fragment at Bisceglie Containing an Unknown Beneventan Office.Thomas Forrest Kelly - 1993 - Mediaeval Studies 55 (1):347-356.
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  50.  10
    A Retrospective on Public Policy Threats to Religious Liberty in the Workplace.Eileen P. Kelly & Thomas E. Kelly - 2012 - Catholic Social Science Review 17:241-257.
    Catholic employers and employees have been under increasing attack in the last fifty years by a growing number of public policy encroachments in the workplace that are in direct conflict with their religious convictions. In some instances, these threats have been successfully parried. Others remain a source of serious conflict. This article will summarize highlights of the last fifty years of public policy and jurisprudence as they relate to the ability of Catholic institutions to practice and enforce non-negotiable Catholic moral (...)
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