Results for 'Thomas L. Shaffer'

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  1.  10
    Faith and the Professions.Thomas L. Shaffer - 1987 - State University of New York Press.
    Thomas L. Shaffer argues that the morals of modern American lawyers and doctors have been corrupted by misguided professionalism and weak philosophy.
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  2.  50
    Language Evolution by Iterated Learning With Bayesian Agents.Thomas L. Griffiths & Michael L. Kalish - 2007 - Cognitive Science 31 (3):441-480.
    Languages are transmitted from person to person and generation to generation via a process of iterated learning: people learn a language from other people who once learned that language themselves. We analyze the consequences of iterated learning for learning algorithms based on the principles of Bayesian inference, assuming that learners compute a posterior distribution over languages by combining a prior (representing their inductive biases) with the evidence provided by linguistic data. We show that when learners sample languages from this posterior (...)
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  3. Probabilistic Models of Cognition: Exploring Representations and Inductive Biases.Thomas L. Griffiths, Nick Chater, Charles Kemp, Amy Perfors & Joshua B. Tenenbaum - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (8):357-364.
  4.  37
    Leo Strauss: An Introduction to His Thought and Intellectual Legacy.Thomas L. Pangle - 2006 - Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Leo Strauss's controversial writings have long exercised a profound subterranean cultural influence. Now their impact is emerging into broad daylight, where they have been met with a flurry of poorly informed, often wildly speculative, and sometimes rather paranoid pronouncements. This book, written as a corrective, is the first accurate, non-polemical, comprehensive guide to Strauss's mature political philosophy and its intellectual influence. Thomas L. Pangle opens a pathway into Strauss's major works with one question: How does Strauss's philosophic thinking contribute (...)
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  5. The Definition of Lying.Thomas L. Carson - 2006 - Noûs 40 (2):284–306.
    Few moral questions have greater bearing on the conduct of our everyday lives than questions about the morality of lying. These questions are also important for ethical theory. An important test of any theory of right and wrong is whether it gives an adequate account of the morality of lying. Conceptual questions about the nature of lying are prior to questions about the moral status of lying. Any theory about the moral status of lying presupposes an account of what lying (...)
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  6.  64
    Rational Use of Cognitive Resources: Levels of Analysis Between the Computational and the Algorithmic.Thomas L. Griffiths, Falk Lieder & Noah D. Goodman - 2015 - Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):217-229.
    Marr's levels of analysis—computational, algorithmic, and implementation—have served cognitive science well over the last 30 years. But the recent increase in the popularity of the computational level raises a new challenge: How do we begin to relate models at different levels of analysis? We propose that it is possible to define levels of analysis that lie between the computational and the algorithmic, providing a way to build a bridge between computational- and algorithmic-level models. The key idea is to push the (...)
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  7.  47
    Value and the Good Life.Thomas L. Carson - 2000 - University of Notre Dame Press.
  8.  16
    Topics in Semantic Representation.Thomas L. Griffiths, Mark Steyvers & Joshua B. Tenenbaum - 2007 - Psychological Review 114 (2):211-244.
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  9.  12
    The Cultural Politics of Analytic Philosophy: Britishness and the Spectre of Europe.Thomas L. Akehurst - 2010 - Continuum.
    Introduction -- Nazi philosophy -- The expulsion of the invaders -- Philosophical method : virtue vs. vice -- The virtuous tradition : analysis, liberalism, englishness -- Epilogue.
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  10.  23
    Theory-Based Causal Induction.Thomas L. Griffiths & Joshua B. Tenenbaum - 2009 - Psychological Review 116 (4):661-716.
  11.  4
    Resolving Moral Dilemmas in Business: A Multicountry Study.Richard L. Priem & Margaret Shaffer - 2001 - Business and Society 40 (2):197-219.
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  12. Free Exchange for Mutual Benefit: Sweatshops and Maitland’s “Classical Liberal Standard”.Thomas L. Carson - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 112 (1):127-135.
    Ian Maitland defends sweatshop labor on the grounds that “A wage or labor practice is ethically acceptable if it is freely chosen by informed workers” (he calls his view “the Classical Liberal Standard,” CLS). I present several examples of economic exchanges that are mutually beneficial and satisfy the requirements of the CLS, but, nonetheless, are morally wrong. Maitland’s arguments in defense of sweatshops are unsuccessful because they depend on the flawed “CLS.” My paper criticizes Maitland’s arguments in defense of sweatshops, (...)
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  13.  52
    Self–Interest and Business Ethics: Some Lessons of the Recent Corporate Scandals.Thomas L. Carson - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 43 (4):389 - 394.
    The recent accounting scandals at Enron, WorldCom, and other corporations have helped to fuel a massive loss of confidence in the integrity of American business and have contributed to a very sharp decline in the U.S. stock market. Inasmuch as these events have brought ethical questions about business to the forefront in the media and public consciousness as never before, they are of signal importance for the field of business ethics. I offer some observations and conjectures about the bearing of (...)
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  14.  49
    The Status of Morality.Thomas L. Carson - 1984 - Dordrecht: Reidel.
    My interest in the issues considered here arose out of my great frustration in trying to attack the all-pervasive relativism of my students in introductory ethics courses at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. I am grateful to my students for forcing me to take moral relativism and skepticism seriously and for compelling me to argue for my own dogmatically maintained version of moral objectivism. The result is before the reader. The conclusions reached here (which can be described either as (...)
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  15.  63
    Bayes and Blickets: Effects of Knowledge on Causal Induction in Children and Adults.Thomas L. Griffiths, David M. Sobel, Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Alison Gopnik - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (8):1407-1455.
    People are adept at inferring novel causal relations, even from only a few observations. Prior knowledge about the probability of encountering causal relations of various types and the nature of the mechanisms relating causes and effects plays a crucial role in these inferences. We test a formal account of how this knowledge can be used and acquired, based on analyzing causal induction as Bayesian inference. Five studies explored the predictions of this account with adults and 4-year-olds, using tasks in which (...)
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  16.  67
    The Spirit of Modern Republicanism: The Moral Vision of the American Founders and the Philosophy of Locke.Thomas L. PANGLE - 1988 - University of Chicago Press.
    . What distinguishes Pangle's study from the dozens of books which have challenged or elaborated upon the republican revision is the sharpness with which he ...
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  17.  6
    Jean d'Alembert Between Descartes and Newton: A Critique of Thomas L. Hankins' Position.Edric Cane & Thomas L. Hankins - 1976 - Isis 67 (2):274-278.
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  18. Frankfurt and Cohen on Bullshit, Bullshiting, Deception, Lying, and Concern with the Truth of What One Says.Thomas L. Carson - 2016 - Pragmatics Cognition 23 (1):53-67.
    This paper addresses the following three claims that Frankfurt makes about the concept of bullshit:1. Bullshit requires the intention to deceive others.2. Bullshit does not constitute lying.3. The essence of bullshit is lack of concern with the truth of what one says.I offer counterexamples to all three claims. By way of defending my counterexamples, I examine Cohen’s distinction between bullshiting and bullshit and argue that my examples are indeed cases of bullshiting that Frankfurt’s analysis is intended to cover. My examples (...)
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  19. The Laws of Plato.Thomas L. Pangle (ed.) - 1988 - University of Chicago Press.
    _The Laws_, Plato's longest dialogue, has for centuries been recognized as the most comprehensive exposition of the _practical_ consequences of his philosophy, a necessary corrective to the more visionary and utopian _Republic_. In this animated encounter between a foreign philosopher and a powerful statesman, not only do we see reflected, in Plato's own thought, eternal questions of the relation between political theory and practice, but we also witness the working out of a detailed plan for a new political order that (...)
     
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  20.  54
    Bluffing in Labor Negotiations: Legal and Ethical Issues.Thomas L. Carson, Richard E. Wokutch & Kent F. Murrmann - 1982 - Journal of Business Ethics 1 (1):13 - 22.
    This paper presents an analysis of bluffing in labor negotiations from legal, economic, and ethical perspectives. It is argued that many forms of bluffing in labor negotiations are legal and economically advantageous, but that they typically constitute lying. Nevertheless it is argued that it is generally morally acceptable to bluff given a typical labor-management relationship where one's negotiating partner is familiar with and most likely employing bluffing tactics him/herself. We also consider whether it is an indictment of our present negotiating (...)
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  21. Conflicts of Interest.Thomas L. Carson - 1994 - Journal of Business Ethics 13 (5):387 - 404.
    This paper has two distinct objectives. (1) I defend an analysis of the concept of a conflict of interest. On my analysis the concept of a conflict of interest is broader than is generally supposed. I argue that a very large class of cases not ordinarily regarded as conflicts of interest should be so regarded. Conflicts of interest are an integral feature of many professional relationships and do not (as is often supposed) require the existence of external financial or personal (...)
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  22.  26
    From Mere Coincidences to Meaningful Discoveries.Thomas L. Griffiths & Joshua B. Tenenbaum - 2007 - Cognition 103 (2):180-226.
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  23. Science and the Enlightenment.Thomas L. Hankins - 1986 - Journal of the History of Biology 19 (2):321-322.
     
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  24.  9
    Eighteenth-Century Attempts to Resolve the Vis Viva Controversy.Thomas L. Hankins - 1965 - Isis 56 (3):281-297.
  25.  9
    Sir William Rowan Hamilton.Thomas L. Hankins - 1983 - Philosophy of Science 50 (2):348-349.
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  26.  33
    Doing the Best We Can: An Essay in Informal Deontic Logic. Fred Feldman.Thomas L. Carson - 1987 - Ethics 98 (1):177-178.
  27.  10
    Manifesto for a New Cognitive Revolution.Thomas L. Griffiths - 2015 - Cognition 135:21-23.
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  28.  33
    Two Proposals for Causal Grammars.Thomas L. Griffiths & Joshua B. Tenenbaum - 2007 - In Alison Gopnik & Laura Schulz (eds.), Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation. Oxford University Press. pp. 323--345.
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  29.  14
    [Book Review] Loyalty, an Essay on the Morality of Relationships. [REVIEW]Thomas L. Carson - 1993 - Criminal Justice Ethics 12 (2):36-42.
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  30.  4
    If Birds Have Sesamoid Bones, Do Blackbirds Have Sesamoid Bones? The Modification Effect With Known Compound Words.Thomas L. Spalding, Christina L. Gagné, Kelly A. Nisbet, Jenna M. Chamberlain & Gary Libben - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  31. Michel Foucault and the Politics of Freedom.Thomas L. Dumm - 2002 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    What is freedom? In this study, Thomas Dumm challenges the conventions that have governed discussions and debates concerning modern freedom by bringing the work of Michel Foucault into dialogue with contemporary liberal thought. While Foucault has been widely understood to have characterized the modern era as being opposed to the realization of freedom, Dumm shows how this characterization conflates Foucault’s genealogy of discipline with his overall view of the practices of being free. Dumm demonstrates how Foucault’s critical genealogy does (...)
     
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  32. Thomas L. Carson: Lying and Deception. Theory and Practice, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010, 280 Pp, £ 37.00. [REVIEW]Norbert Anwander - 2011 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (2):277-279.
    Thomas L. Carson: Lying and Deception. Theory and Practice, Oxford Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-3 DOI 10.1007/s10677-011-9320-9 Authors Norbert Anwander, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Philosophie, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin, Germany Journal Ethical Theory and Moral Practice Online ISSN 1572-8447 Print ISSN 1386-2820.
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  33.  83
    Determinants of Ethical Decision Making: The Relationship of the Perceived Organizational Environment. [REVIEW]Randi L. Sims & Thomas L. Keon - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 19 (4):393 - 401.
    This study attempts to help explain the ethical decision making of individual employees by determining how the perceived organizational environment is related to that decision. A self- administered questionnaire design was used for gathering data in this study with a sample size of 245 full-time employees. Perceived supervisor expectation, formal policies, and informal policies were used to assess the expressed ethical decision of the respondents. The findings indicate that the perceived organizational environment is significantly related to the ethical decision of (...)
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  34.  1
    Montesquieu's Philosophy of Liberalism: A Commentary on The Spirit of the Laws.Thomas L. Pangle - 1973 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    This first comprehensive commentary on The Spirit of the Laws uncovers and explicates the plan of Montesquieu's famous but baffling treatise. Pangle brings to light Montesquieu's rethinking of the philosophical groundwork of liberalism, showing how The Spirit of the Laws enlarges and enriches the liberal conception of natural right by means of a new appeal to History as the source of basic norms.
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  35.  61
    Ethical Work Climate as a Factor in the Development of Person-Organization Fit.Randi L. Sims & Thomas L. Keon - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (11):1095-1105.
    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between the ethical climate of the organization and the development of person-organization fit. The relationship between an individual's stage of moral development and his/her perceived ethical work environment was examined using a sample of 86 working students. Results indicate that a match between individual preferences and present position proved most satisfying. Subjects expressing a match between their preferences for an ethical work climate and their present ethical work (...)
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  36.  20
    Using Category Structures to Test Iterated Learning as a Method for Identifying Inductive Biases.Thomas L. Griffiths, Brian R. Christian & Michael L. Kalish - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (1):68-107.
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  37.  60
    Whistle-Blowing for Profit: An Ethical Analysis of the Federal False Claims Act.Thomas L. Carson, Mary Ellen Verdu & Richard E. Wokutch - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 77 (3):361 - 376.
    This paper focuses on the 1986 Amendments to the False Claims Act of 1863, which offers whistle-blowers financial rewards for disclosing fraud committed against the U.S. government. This law provides an opportunity to examine underlying assumptions about the morality of whistle-blowing and to consider the merits of increased reliance on whistle-blowing to protect the public interest. The law seems open to a number of moral objections, most notably that it exerts a morally corrupting influence on whistle-blowers. We answer these objections (...)
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  38.  66
    On the Definition of Lying: A Reply to Jones and Revisions.Thomas L. Carson - 1988 - Journal of Business Ethics 7 (7):509-514.
    Standard definitions of lying imply that intending to deceive others is a necessary condition of one's telling a lie. In an earlier paper, which appeared in this journal, Wokutch, Murrmann and I argued that intending to deceive others is not a necessary condition of one's telling a lie and proposed an alternative definition. In a reply which also appeared in this journal, Gary Jones argues that our arguments fail to establish the claim that it is possible to lie without intending (...)
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  39. Happiness, Contentment and the Good Life.Thomas L. Carson - 1981 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 62 (4):378.
    tentment and its relationship to the notions of happiness and the good life. Many philosophers have argued that the concept of happiness can be defined or analyzed simply in terms of "contentment" or "being satisfied (or pleased) with one' s life."' Others have made the more modest claim that being satisfied with one' s..
     
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  40.  20
    Situation Selection is a Particularly Effective Emotion Regulation Strategy for People Who Need Help Regulating Their Emotions.Thomas L. Webb, Kristen A. Lindquist, Katelyn Jones, Aya Avishai & Paschal Sheeran - 2017 - Cognition and Emotion 32 (2):231-248.
    Situation selection involves choosing situations based on their likely emotional impact and may be less cognitively taxing or challenging to implement compared to other strategies for regulating emotion, which require people to regulate their emotions “in the moment”; we thus predicted that individuals who chronically experience intense emotions or who are not particularly competent at employing other emotion regulation strategies would be especially likely to benefit from situation selection. Consistent with this idea, we found that the use of situation selection (...)
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  41.  3
    A Gating Function for the Hippocampus in Working Memory.Thomas L. Bennett - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (3):322-323.
  42.  37
    Conflicts of Interest and Self-Dealing in the Professions: A Review Essay - Conflict of Interest in the ProfessionsMichael Davis and Andrew Stark New York: Oxford University Press, 2001; ISBN 0-19-512863-X. [REVIEW]Thomas L. Carson - 2004 - Business Ethics Quarterly 14 (1):161-182.
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  43.  17
    Whistle-Blowing for Profit: An Ethical Analysis of the Federal False Claims Act.Thomas L. Carson, Mary Ellen Verdu & Richard E. Wokutch - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 77 (3):361-376.
    This paper focuses on the 1986 Amendments to the False Claims Act of 1863, which offers whistle-blowers financial rewards for disclosing fraud committed against the U.S. government. This law provides an opportunity to examine underlying assumptions about the morality of whistle-blowing and to consider the merits of increased reliance on whistle-blowing to protect the public interest. The law seems open to a number of moral objections, most notably that it exerts a morally corrupting influence on whistle-blowers. We answer these objections (...)
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  44.  25
    Lying, Deception, and Related Concepts.Thomas L. Carson - 2009 - In Clancy W. Martin (ed.), The Philosophy of Deception. Oxford University Press. pp. 153--87.
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  45.  21
    Resource-Rational Analysis: Understanding Human Cognition as the Optimal Use of Limited Computational Resources.Falk Lieder & Thomas L. Griffiths - forthcoming - Behavioral and Brain Sciences:1-85.
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  46.  24
    Perpetual Peace.Thomas L. Carson - 1988 - Social Theory and Practice 14 (2):173-214.
  47. Objectivity is Not Neutrality: Rhetoric Vs. Practice in Peter Novick's That Noble Dream.Thomas L. Haskell - 1990 - History and Theory 29 (2):129-157.
    Objectivity can be effectively described as striving for detachment -a capacity to achieve some distance from one's own spontaneous perceptions and convictions, to experimentally adopt perspectives that do not come naturally. Novick's treatment of objectivity satisfies the requirements of objectivity, while on a rhetorical level he rejects the notion as unrealistic. Detachment enables an intellectual, specifically an historian, to operate with self-reflexivity and simultaneously socializes him or her. The ultimate power in a community of detached intellectuals striving for objectivity is (...)
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  48.  21
    Revealing Ontological Commitments by Magic.Thomas L. Griffiths - 2015 - Cognition 136:43-48.
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  49.  19
    Rational Approximations to Rational Models: Alternative Algorithms for Category Learning.Adam N. Sanborn, Thomas L. Griffiths & Daniel J. Navarro - 2010 - Psychological Review 117 (4):1144-1167.
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  50.  63
    The Morality of Bluffing: A Reply to Allhoff.Thomas L. Carson - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 56 (4):399-403.
    In a recent paper that appeared in this journal Fritz Allhoff addresses the morality of bluffing in negotiations1. He focuses on cases in which people misstate their reservation price in negotiations, e.g., suppose that I am selling a house and tell a prospective buyer that $300,000 is absolutely the lowest price that I will accept, when I know that I would be willing to accept as little as $270,000 for the house rather than continue to try to sell it. Allhoff (...)
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