50 found
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  1. Funny Business in Branching Space-Times: Infinite Modal Correlations.Thomas Müller, Nuel Belnap & Kohei Kishida - 2008 - Synthese 164 (1):141-159.
    The theory of branching space-times is designed as a rigorous framework for modelling indeterminism in a relativistically sound way. In that framework there is room for "funny business", i.e., modal correlations such as occur through quantummechanical entanglement. This paper extends previous work by Belnap on notions of "funny business". We provide two generalized definitions of "funny business". Combinatorial funny business can be characterized as "absence of prima facie consistent scenarios", while explanatory funny business characterizes situations in which no localized explanation (...)
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  2.  40
    Branch Dependence in the “Consistent Histories” Approach to Quantum Mechanics.Thomas Müller - 2007 - Foundations of Physics 37 (2):253-276.
    In the consistent histories formalism one specifies a family of histories as an exhaustive set of pairwise exclusive descriptions of the dynamics of a quantum system. We define branching families of histories, which strike a middle ground between the two available mathematically precise definitions of families of histories, viz., product families and Isham’s history projector operator formalism. The former are too narrow for applications, and the latter’s generality comes at a certain cost, barring an intuitive reading of the “histories”. Branching (...)
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  3.  31
    Branching Space-Time, Modal Logic and the Counterfactual Conditional.Thomas Müller - 2002 - In T. Placek & J. Butterfield (eds.), Non-Locality and Modality. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 273--291.
    The paper gives a physicist's view on the framework of branching space-time, 385--434). Branching models are constructed from physical state assignments. The models are then employed to give a formal semantics for the modal operators ``possibly'' and ``necessarily'' and for the counterfactual conditional. The resulting formal language can be used to analyze quantum correlation experiments. As an application sketch, Stapp's premises LOC1 and LOC2 from his purported proof of non-locality, 300--304) are analyzed.
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  4.  28
    BH-CIFOL: Case-Intensional First Order Logic.Nuel Belnap & Thomas Müller - 2013 - Journal of Philosophical Logic (2-3):1-32.
    This paper follows Part I of our essay on case-intensional first-order logic (CIFOL; Belnap and Müller (2013)). We introduce a framework of branching histories to take account of indeterminism. Our system BH-CIFOL adds structure to the cases, which in Part I formed just a set: a case in BH-CIFOL is a moment/history pair, specifying both an element of a partial ordering of moments and one of the total courses of events (extending all the way into the future) that that moment (...)
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  5.  13
    A Generalized Manifold Topology for Branching Space-Times.Thomas Müller - 2013 - Philosophy of Science 80 (5):1089-1100.
    The logical theory of branching space-times, which provides a relativistic framework for studying objective indeterminism, remains mostly disconnected from discussions of space-time theories in philosophy of physics. Earman has criticized the branching approach and suggested “pruning some branches from branching space-time.” This article identifies the different—order-theoretic versus topological—perspective of both discussions as a reason for certain misunderstandings and tries to remove them. Most important, we give a novel, topological criterion of modal consistency that usefully generalizes an earlier criterion, and we (...)
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  6. Against a Minimalist Reading of Bell's Theorem: Lessons From Fine.Thomas Müller & Tomasz Placek - 2001 - Synthese 128 (3):343 - 379.
    Since the validity of Bell's inequalities implies the existence of joint probabilities for non-commuting observables, there is no universal consensus as to what the violation of these inequalities signifies. While the majority view is that the violation teaches us an important lesson about the possibility of explanations, if not about metaphysical issues, there is also a minimalist position claiming that the violation is to be expected from simple facts about probability theory. This minimalist position is backed by theorems due to (...)
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  7.  4
    CIFOL: Case-Intensional First Order Logic.Nuel Belnap & Thomas Müller - 2014 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 43 (2-3):393-437.
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  8. Branching in the Landscape of Possibilities.Thomas Müller - 2012 - Synthese 188 (1):41-65.
    The metaphor of a branching tree of future possibilities has a number of important philosophical and logical uses. In this paper we trace this metaphor through some of its uses and argue that the metaphor works the same way in physics as in philosophy. We then give an overview of formal systems for branching possibilities, viz., branching time and (briefly) branching space-times. In a next step we describe a number of different notions of possibility, thereby sketching a landscape of possibilities. (...)
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  9.  61
    Towards a Theory of Limited Indeterminism in Branching Space-Times.Thomas Müller - 2010 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 39 (4):395-423.
    Branching space-times (BST; Belnap, Synthese 92:385–434, 1992 ) is the most advanced formal framework for representing indeterminism. BST is however based on continuous partial orderings, while our natural way of describing indeterministic scenarios may be called discrete. This paper establishes a theorem providing a discrete data format for BST: it is proved that a discrete representation of indeterministic scenarios leading to BST models is possible in an important subclass of cases. This result enables the representation of limited indeterminism in BST (...)
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  10. Phimsamp: Philosophy of Mathematics: Sociological Aspsects and Mathematical Practice.Benedikt Löwe & Thomas Müller (eds.) - 2010 - College Publications.
     
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  11.  31
    Defining Determinism.Thomas Müller & Tomasz Placek - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axv049.
    The article puts forward a branching-style framework for the analysis of determinism and indeterminism of scientific theories, starting from the core idea that an indeterministic system is one whose present allows for more than one alternative possible future. We describe how a definition of determinism stated in terms of branching models supplements and improves current treatments of determinism of theories of physics. In these treatments, we identify three main approaches: one based on the study of equations, one based on mappings (...)
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  12.  63
    Towards a New Epistemology of Mathematics.Bernd Buldt, Benedikt Löwe & Thomas Müller - 2008 - Erkenntnis 68 (3):309 - 329.
    In this introduction we discuss the motivation behind the workshop “Towards a New Epistemology of Mathematics” of which this special issue constitutes the proceedings. We elaborate on historical and empirical aspects of the desired new epistemology, connect it to the public image of mathematics, and give a summary and an introduction to the contributions to this issue.
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  13.  41
    A Letter on the Present State of Affairs.Thomas Müller & Niko Strobach - 2012 - Synthese 188 (3):469-485.
    The paper re-evaluates Prior's tenets about indeterminism and relativity from the point of view of the current state of the debate. We first discuss Prior's claims about indeterministic tense logic and about relativity separately and confront them with new technical developments. Then we combine the two topics in a discussion of indeterministic approaches to space-time logics. Finally we show why Prior would not have to "dig his heels in" when it comes to relativity: We point out a way of combining (...)
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  14. On the Problem of Defining the Present in Special Relativity: A Challenge for Tense Logic.Thomas Müller - 2006 - In Michael Stöltzner & Friedrich Stadler (eds.), Time and History: Proceedings of the 28. International Ludwig Wittgenstein Symposium, Kirchberg Am Wechsel, Austria 2005. De Gruyter. pp. 441-458.
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  15.  67
    Data and Phenomena in Conceptual Modelling.Benedikt Löwe & Thomas Müller - 2011 - Synthese 182 (1):131-148.
    The distinction between data and phenomena introduced by Bogen and Woodward (Philosophical Review 97(3):303–352, 1988) was meant to help accounting for scientific practice, especially in relation with scientific theory testing. Their article and the subsequent discussion is primarily viewed as internal to philosophy of science. We shall argue that the data/phenomena distinction can be used much more broadly in modelling processes in philosophy.
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  16.  9
    Branching Space-Times, General Relativity, the Hausdorff Property, and Modal Consistency.Thomas Muller - unknown
    The logical theory of branching space-times, which is intended to provide a framework for studying objective indeterminism, remains at a certain distance from the discussion of space-time theories in the philosophy of physics. In a welcome attempt to clarify the connection, Earman has recently found fault with the branching approach and suggested ``pruning some branches from branching space-time''. The present note identifies the different---order theoretic vs. topological---points of view of both discussion as a reason for certain misunderstandings, and tries to (...)
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  17.  83
    A Branching Space-Times View on Quantum Error Correction.Thomas Muller - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 38 (3):635-652.
    In this paper we describe some first steps for bringing the framework of branching space-times to bear on quantum information theory. Our main application is quantum error correction. It is shown that branching space-times offers a new perspective on quantum error correction: as a supplement to the orthodox slogan, ``fight entanglement with entanglement'', we offer the new slogan, ``fight indeterminism with indeterminism''.
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  18.  36
    Time and Determinism.Thomas Müller - 2015 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 44 (6):729-740.
    This paper gives an overview of logico-philosophical issues of time and determinism. After a brief review of historical roots and 20th century developments, three current research areas are discussed: the definition of determinism, space-time indeterminism, and the temporality of individual things and their possibilities.
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  19.  7
    Counterfactuals and Historical Possibility.Tomasz Placek & Thomas Müller - 2007 - Synthese 154 (2):173-197.
    We show that truth conditions for counterfactuals need not always be given in terms of a vague notion of similarity. To this end, we single out the important class of historical counterfactuals and give formally rigorous truth conditions for these counterfactuals, employing a partial ordering relation called "comparative closeness" that is defined in the framework of branching space-times. Among other applications, we provide a detailed analysis of counterfactuals uttered in the context of lost bets. In an appendix we compare our (...)
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  20.  1
    Living Up to One's Commitments: Agency, Strategies and Trust.Thomas Müller - 2008 - Journal of Applied Logic 6 (2):251-266.
  21.  13
    Stochastic Libertarianism: How to Maintain Integrity in Action Without Determinism.Thomas Müller & Hans Briegel - unknown
    Theories of free agency based on indeterminism -- that is, libertarian theories -- are often accused of undermining an agent's integrity: If an action is due to indeterministic happenings, how can it be called the agent's action to begin with? Isn't a deterministic connection between an agent's circumstances and her action needed to maintain her integrity? We claim that a meaningful notion of agency does not need determinism. In this paper we introduce stochastic libertarianism, a novel theory of free agency (...)
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  22.  12
    A Chance for Attributable Agency.Hans J. Briegel & Thomas Müller - 2015 - Minds and Machines 25 (3):261-279.
    Can we sensibly attribute some of the happenings in our world to the agency of some of the things around us? We do this all the time, but there are conceptual challenges purporting to show that attributable agency, and specifically one of its most important subspecies, human free agency, is incoherent. We address these challenges in a novel way: rather than merely rebutting specific arguments, we discuss a concrete model that we claim positively illustrates attributable agency in an indeterministic setting. (...)
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  23. Arthur Priors Zeitlogik.Thomas Müller - 2004 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 35 (2):403-411.
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  24.  16
    Formal Methods in the Philosophy of Natural Science.Thomas Müller - 2010 - In F. Stadler, D. Dieks, W. Gonzales, S. Hartmann, T. Uebel & M. Weber (eds.), The Present Situation in the Philosophy of Science. Springer. pp. 111--123.
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  25.  28
    Branching Space-Times.Placek Tomasz & Müller Thomas - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 38 (3):590-592.
  26.  25
    CIFOL: Case-Intensional First Order Logic. Toward a Theory of Sorts.Nuel Belnap & Thomas Müller - unknown
    This is Part I of a two-part essay introducing case-intensional first-order logic, an easy-to-use, uniform, powerful, and useful combination of first order logic with modal logic resulting from philosophical and technical modifications of Bressan’s General interpreted modal calculus. CIFOL starts with a set of cases; each expression has an extension in each case and an intension, which is the function from the cases to the respective case-relative extensions. Predication is intensional; identity is extensional. Definite descriptions are context-independent terms, and lambda-predicates (...)
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  27.  9
    BH-CIFOL: Case-Intensional First Order Logic. Branching Histories.Nuel Belnap & Thomas Müller - unknown
    This paper follows Part I of our essay on case-intensional first-order logic. We introduce a framework of branching histories to take account of indeterminism. Our system BH-CIFOL adds structure to the cases, which in Part I formed just a set: a case in BH-CIFOL is a moment/history pair, specifying both an element of a partial ordering of moments and one of the total courses of events that that moment is part of. This framework allows us to define the familiar Ockhamist (...)
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  28.  14
    Indeterminism and Persistence.Thomas Muller - 2012 - Philosophia Naturalis 49 (1):113-136.
    This paper aims at bringing together two debates in metaphysics that so far have been kept separate: the debate about determinism vs. indeterminism as de re modality on the one hand, and the debate about persistence on the other hand. Both debates significantly involve talk of things. We will show that working out a proper semantics for singular terms and an accompanying theory of things, motivated by considerations of quantified modal logic, can significantly further the persistence debate. We will use (...)
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  29.  18
    Alternatives to Histories? Employing a Local Notion of Modal Consistency in Branching Theories.Thomas Müller - 2013 - Erkenntnis 79 (S3):1-22.
    Branching theories are popular frameworks for modeling objective indeterminism in the form of a future of open possibilities. In such theories, the notion of a history plays a crucial role: it is both a basic ingredient in the axiomatic definition of the framework, and it is used as a parameter of truth in semantics for languages with a future tense. Furthermore, histories—complete possible courses of events—ground the notion of modal consistency: a set of events is modally consistent iff there is (...)
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  30. Prior's Tense-Logical Universalism.Thomas Müller - 2007 - Logique Et Analyse 199:223-252.
     
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  31.  3
    Against a Minimalist Reading of Bell's Theorem: Lessons From Fine.Thomas Müller & Tomasz Placek - 2001 - Synthese 128 (3):343-379.
    Since the validity of Bell's inequalities implies the existence of joint probabilities for non-commuting observables, there is no universal consensus as to what the violation of these inequalities signifies. While the majority view is that the violation teaches us an important lesson about the possibility of explanations, if not about metaphysical issues, there is also a minimalist position claiming that the violation is to be expected from simple facts about probability theory. This minimalist position is backed by theorems due to (...)
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  32.  16
    Book Review. [REVIEW]Thomas Müller - 2006 - Erkenntnis 65 (3):441-447.
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  33.  16
    Preface.Bernd Buldt, Benedikt Löwe & Thomas Müller - 2008 - Erkenntnis 68 (3):305 - 307.
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  34.  6
    Eliminating Modality From the Determinism Debate? Models Vs. Equations of Physical Theories.Thomas Müller - 2009 - In Hieke Alexander & Leitgeb Hannes (eds.), Reduction, Abstraction, Analysis. Ontos Verlag.
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  35.  5
    Paul Oppenheim on Order—The Career of a Logico-Philosophical Concept.Paul Ziche & Thomas Müller - 2013 - In Nikolay Milkov & Volker Peckhaus (eds.), The Berlin Group and the Philosophy of Logical Empiricism. Springer. pp. 265--291.
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  36.  14
    Mathematical Knowledge is Context Dependent.Benedikt Löwe & Thomas Müller - 2008 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 76 (1):91-107.
    We argue that mathematical knowledge is context dependent. Our main argument is that on pain of distorting mathematical practice, one must analyse the notion of having available a proof, which supplies justification in mathematics, in a context dependent way.
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  37.  2
    A Branching Space-Times View on Quantum Error Correction.Thomas Müller - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (3):635-652.
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  38.  1
    Branching Space-Times.Tomasz Placek & Thomas Müller - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (3):590-592.
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  39.  2
    Probabilities in Branching Structures.Thomas Müller - 2011 - In Dennis Dieks, Wenceslao Gonzalo, Thomas Uebel, Stephan Hartmann & Marcel Weber (eds.), Explanation, Prediction, and Confirmation. Springer. pp. 109--121.
  40.  1
    Mathematical Knowledge is Context Dependent Benedikt Lowe Universiteit Van Amsterdam, Universitat Hamburg & Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitat Bonn.Thomas Muller - 2008 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 76:91-107.
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  41. Foundations of the Formal Sciences VII, Studies in Logic.Karen François, Benedikt Löwe, Thomas Müller & Bart van Kerkhove (eds.) - forthcoming - College Publications.
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  42. PhiMSAMP. Philosophy of Mathematics: Sociological Aspects and Mathematical Practice.Benedikt L.öwe & Thomas Müller (eds.) - 2010 - College Publications.
  43. A Branching Space-Times View on Quantum Error Correction.Thomas Müller - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (3):635-652.
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  44. Die Lehre Vom Rechtsfreien Raum Im Lichte des Suizids Eine Strafrechtsdogmatische, Rechts- Und Moralphilosophische Studie Am Grenzbereich des Rechts.Thomas Müller - 1999
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  45. Die Poetik der Philosophie Das Prinzip des Perspektivismus Bei Nietzsche.Thomas Müller - 1995
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  46. Medizinische Expertise – zionistische Visionen: Ärztinnen und Ärzte als Immigranten in Palästina / Israel†.Thomas Müller - 2005 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 28 (4):321-336.
    In National Socialist Germany Jewish academicians and professional staff were initially deprived of their rights and marginalised, later they were chased down and murdered. With regard to those, who were able to escape the National Socialist realm of power, one can speak of a forced migration of academicians that reached a dimension which until now was unknown. A greater number of different academic as well as non-academic occupational groups have been examined in the past few years in connection with their (...)
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  47. Medizinische Expertise - zionistische Visionen: Ärztinnen und Ärzte als Immigranten in Palästina / Israel.Thomas Müller - 2005 - Berichte Zur Wissenschafts-Geschichte 28 (4):321-336.
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  48.  7
    Philosophie der Zeit: Neue Analytische Ansätze.Thomas Müller (ed.) - 2007 - Klostermann.
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  49. Zur Ethik der Diagnosestellung am Beispiel der psychopathologischen Begriffe Genie und Wahnsinn im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. [REVIEW]Thomas Müller - 2005 - Schopenhauer Jahrbuch 86:73-91.
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  50. Die Musiksoziologie Theodor W. Adornos Ein Modell Ihrer Interpretation Am Beispiel Alban Bergs.Thomas Muller - 1990
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