On the day before Christmas, 1170, Robert de Broc, member of a family of royal servants that had taken up King Henry II's fierce opposition to Thomas Becket, seized a horse bringing goods to the archbishop and cut off its tail. The next day, Archbishop Thomas noted this incident after his Christmas sermon when renewing his excommunication of Robert and several others, and he discussed it again four days later in his initial meeting with the men who would (...) shortly murder him. The excision of the horse's tail appears in five of the biographies of the martyr and subsequently in the national chronicles of Roger of Howden and Ralph of Diceto. Why did a minor act of cruelty inflicted on a horse seem so noteworthy to contemporaries? The sources recording it resound with the rich Latin vocabulary of shame: “dedecus, contemptus, ignominia, dehonestatio, opprobrium.” Robert's highly symbolic act, part of a pattern of harassment by the Brocs, was designed not just to threaten Becket but also to humiliate him. (shrink)
What rights govern heterosexual and homosexual behaviors? Two distinguished philosophers debate this important issue in Sexual Orientation and Human Rights. Laurence M. Thomas argues that a society which has the constitutional resources to protect hate groups can protect homosexuals without valorizing the homosexual life-style. He defends the view that the Bible cannot warrant the venom that, in the name of religion, is often expressed against homosexuals. Michael E. Levin defends the unorthodox view that the aversion some people experience toward (...) homosexuality deserves respect. He further argues that while homosexuals enjoy the same rights as others to be free of violence and discrimination, they do not have more extensive rights. (shrink)
The 2C by 2C S-wave survey generated significant excitement in the mid-1980s, but then it fell out of favor when S-wave splitting initially attributed to fractures was also found to be associated with an anisotropic stress regime. In general, 2C by 2C data require more expensive acquisition and more processing effort to obtain images comparable to 1C “compressional wave” data acquired with vertical component sources and receivers. Because S-waves are insensitive to fluids, and hence the water table, the effective S-wave (...) weathering zone is greater than that for compressional waves, making statics more difficult. S-wave splitting due to anisotropy complicates residual statics and velocity analysis as well as the final image. S-wave frequencies and S-wave moveout are closer to those of contaminating ground roll than compressional waves. Since Alford’s introduction of S-wave rotation from survey coordinates to the principal axes in 1986, geoscientist and engineers retain their interest in fractures but are also keenly interested in the direction and magnitude of maximum horizontal stress. Simultaneous sweep and improved recording technology have reduced the acquisition cost to approximate that of 1C data. Alford’s work was applied to 2C by 2C poststack data. We extended the Alford rotation to prestack data using a modern high-fold 2C by 2C survey acquired over a fractured carbonate reservoir in the Diamond M Field, Texas. Through careful processing, the resulting images were comparable and in many places superior to that of the contemporaneously acquired 1C data. More importantly, we found a good correlation between our derived fracture azimuth map and the fracture azimuth log data from wells present in the field. (shrink)
Moreau sketches here with enthusiasm the large features of Aquinas’s epistemology. He is not, as he makes clear, a Thomist either by training or by avowal. The book is not, then, a specialist’s monograph or dogmatic treatise. It is Moreau’s attempt to hear what Aquinas will say to the great questions. The attempt is largely successful in attending to Aquinas’s remarks, though it does not catch their ambiguities.
To study the salt-related tectonic evolution of the Leinetal Graben, located in the southernmost part of the Central European Basin in Germany, we acquired two P-wave reflection seismic profiles across the eastern border faults of the graben. The profiles were acquired with a minivibro along a 1.8-km active spread, densely sampled by geophones spaced at 5 m. The resulting sections showed stratigraphic and fault geometries to a depth of approximately 1200 m. Using two deep boreholes for calibration, we interpreted Mesozoic (...) strata down to the Triassic Zechstein salt and the faults that affected these strata. We recognized two sets of faults: steep, planar faults that are closely clustered and terminated in the Zechstein salt and shallow faults that connected between the first set of faults and have very variable dip, depending on the lithology they intersect. We discovered that the faults do not cross cut the Zechstein salt, but instead they decoupled at this layer. The present-day structure can be interpreted using a two-stage tectonic model. Either there was “downbuilding” during the Triassic, “rafting” of lower Buntsandstein blocks on the Zechstein salt, or both. This resulted in a proto-Leinetal Graben Zechstein diapir surrounded by depocenters. During the Late Cretaceous/Early Tertiary inversion phase, the diapir collapsed, first along type 1 steep faults that detached in the salt layer, and later along type 2 faults; the latter formed as the result of continued extension. Recognition of such early halokinesis was important for the understanding of the behavior of the salt in the CEB and salt tectonics in general. (shrink)