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Thomas Nickles [91]Thomas Jacob Nickles [1]
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Thomas Nickles
University of Nevada, Reno
  1. Two Concepts of Intertheoretic Reduction.Thomas Nickles - 1973 - Journal of Philosophy 70 (April):181-201.
  2. What is a Problem That We May Solve It?Thomas Nickles - 1981 - Synthese 47 (1):85 - 118.
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  3.  17
    Science and Hypothesis.Thomas Nickles - 1984 - Erkenntnis 21 (3):433-438.
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  4.  27
    Alien Reasoning: Is a Major Change in Scientific Research Underway?Thomas Nickles - forthcoming - Topoi:1-14.
    Are we entering a major new phase of modern science, one in which our standard, human modes of reasoning and understanding, including heuristics, have decreasing value? The new methods challenge human intelligibility. The digital revolution inspires such claims, but they are not new. During several historical periods, scientific progress has challenged traditional concepts of reasoning and rationality, intelligence and intelligibility, explanation and knowledge. The increasing intelligence of machine learning and networking is a deliberately sought, somewhat alien intelligence. As such, it (...)
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  5.  23
    Heuristic Appraisal: Context of Discovery or Justification?Thomas Nickles - 2006 - In Jutta Schickore & Friedrich Steinle (eds.), Revisiting Discovery and Justification. Springer. pp. 159--182.
  6.  48
    Selectivity and Discord: Two Problems of Experiment.Thomas Nickles - 2004 - Mind 113 (450):344-347.
  7.  38
    Beyond Divorce: Current Status of the Discovery Debate.Thomas Nickles - 1985 - Philosophy of Science 52 (2):177-206.
    Does the viability of the discovery program depend on showing either (1) that methods of generating new problem solutions, per se, have special probative weight (the per se thesis); or, (2) that the original conception of an idea is logically continuous with its justification (anti-divorce thesis)? Many writers have identified these as the key issues of the discovery debate. McLaughlin, Pera, and others recently have defended the discovery program by attacking the divorce thesis, while Laudan has attacked the discovery program (...)
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  8.  35
    Thomas Kuhn.Thomas Nickles (ed.) - 2002 - Cambridge University Press.
    Contemporary Philosophy in Focus offers a series of introductory volumes to many of the dominant philosophical thinkers of the current age. Thomas Kuhn, the author of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, is probably the best-known and most influential historian and philosopher of science of the last 25 years, and has become something of a cultural icon. His concepts of paradigm, paradigm change and incommensurability have changed the way we think about science. This volume offers an introduction to Kuhn's life and (...)
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  9. Modeling and Inferring in Science.Emiliano Ippoliti, Thomas Nickles & Fabio Sterpetti - 2016 - In Emiliano Ippoliti, Fabio Sterpetti & Thomas Nickles (eds.), Models and Inferences in Science. Springer. pp. 1-9.
    Science continually contributes new models and rethinks old ones. The way inferences are made is constantly being re-evaluated. The practice and achievements of science are both shaped by this process, so it is important to understand how models and inferences are made. But, despite the relevance of models and inference in scientific practice, these concepts still remain contro-versial in many respects. The attempt to understand the ways models and infer-ences are made basically opens two roads. The first one is to (...)
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  10.  17
    Perspectivism Versus a Completed Copernican Revolution.Thomas Nickles - 2016 - Axiomathes 26 (4):367-382.
    I discuss changes of perspective of four kinds in science and about science. Section 2 defends a perspectival nonrealism—something akin to Giere’s perspectival realism but not a realism—against the idea of complete, “Copernican” objectivity. Section 3 contends that there is an inverse relationship between epistemological conservatism and scientific progress. Section 4 casts doubt on strong forms of scientific realism by taking a long-term historical perspective that includes future history. Section 5 defends a partial reversal in the status of so-called context (...)
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  11. Scientific Discovery, Logic and Rationality.Thomas Nickles - 1982 - Mind 91 (363):468-470.
     
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  12.  21
    6 Some Puzzles About Kuhn's Exemplars.Thomas Nickles - 2012 - In Vasō Kintē & Theodore Arabatzis (eds.), Kuhn's the Structure of Scientific Revolutions Revisited. Routledge. pp. 112.
  13.  62
    Life at the Frontier: The Relevance of Heuristic Appraisal to Policy. [REVIEW]Thomas Nickles - 2009 - Axiomathes 19 (4):441-464.
    Economic competitive advantage depends on innovation, which in turn requires pushing back the frontiers of various kinds of knowledge. Although understanding how knowledge grows ought to be a central topic of epistemology, epistemologists and philosophers of science have given it insufficient attention, even deliberately shunning the topic. Traditional confirmation theory and general epistemology offer little help at the frontier, because they are mostly retrospective rather than prospective. Nor have philosophers been highly visible in the science and technology policy realm, despite (...)
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  14. Lakatosian Heuristics and Epistemic Support.Thomas Nickles - 1987 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38 (2):181-205.
  15.  36
    Discovery Logics.Thomas Nickles - 1990 - Philosophica 45 (1):7-32.
  16.  51
    Remarks on the Use of History as Evidence.Thomas Nickles - 1986 - Synthese 69 (2):253 - 266.
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  17.  3
    Science and Hypothesis.Thomas Nickles - 1981 - Philosophy of Science 49 (4):653-655.
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  18. Scientific Revolutions.Thomas Nickles - 2010 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  19.  16
    A Multi-Pass Conception of Scientific Inquiry.Thomas Nickles - 1997 - Danish Yearbook of Philosophy 32:11-44.
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  20.  29
    Methods of Discovery.Thomas Nickles - 1997 - Biology and Philosophy 12 (1):127-140.
  21.  50
    Heuristic Appraisal: A Proposal.Thomas Nickles - 1989 - Social Epistemology 3 (3):175 – 188.
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  22.  38
    The Problem of Demarcation History and Future.Thomas Nickles - 2013 - In Massimo Pigliucci & Maarten Boudry (eds.), Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem. University of Chicago Press. pp. 101.
  23. Scientific Discovery Case Studies.Thomas Nickles - 1980
     
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  24.  44
    Deflationary Methodology and Rationality of Science.Thomas Nickles - 1996 - Philosophica 58.
  25. Problem of Demarcation.Thomas Nickles - 2006 - In J. Pfeifer & Sahotra Sarkar (eds.), The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press. pp. 1--188.
  26. From Natural Philosophy to Metaphilosophy of Science.Thomas Nickles - 1987 - In P. Achinstein & R. Kagon (eds.), Kelvin's Baltimore Lectures and Modern Theoretical Physics. MIT Press. pp. 507--541.
     
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  27.  27
    Truth or Consequences? Generative Versus Consequential Justification in Science.Thomas Nickles - 1988 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:393 - 405.
    Pure consequentialists hold that all theoretical justification derives from testing the consequences of hypotheses, while generativists maintain that reasoning (some feature of) the hypothesis from we already know is an important form of justification. The strongest form of justification (they claim) is an idealized discovery argument. In the guise of H-D methodology, consequentialism is widely supposed to have defeated generativism during the 19th century. I argue that novel prediction fails to overcome the logical weakness of consequentialism or to render generative (...)
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  28.  24
    Scientific Problems: Three Empiricist Models.Thomas Nickles - 1980 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:3 - 19.
    One component of a viable account of scientific inquiry is a defensible conception of scientific problems. This paper specifies some logical and conceptual requirements that an acceptable account of scientific problems must meet as well as indicating some features that a study of scientific inquiry indicates scientific problems have. On the basis of these requirements and features, three standard empiricist models of problems are examined and found wanting. Finally a constraint inclusion-model of scientific problems is proposed.
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  29.  30
    Questioning and Problems in Philosophy of Science: Problem-Solving Versus Directly Truth-Seeking Epistemologies.Thomas Nickles - 1988 - In Michel Meyer (ed.), Questions and Questioning. W. De Gruyter. pp. 43--67.
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  30.  63
    The Methodological Study of Creativity and Discovery -- Some Background.Joke Meheus & Thomas Nickles - 1999 - Foundations of Science 4 (3):231-235.
  31.  10
    Bounded Rationality, Scissors, Crowbars, and Pragmatism: Reflections on Herbert Simon.Thomas Nickles - 2018 - Mind and Society 17 (1-2):85-96.
    The paper locates, appreciates, and extends several dimensions of Simon’s work in the direction of more recent contributions by people such as Gigerenzer and Dennett. The author’s “crowbar model of method” is compared to Simon’s scissors metaphor. Against an evolutionary background, both support a pragmatic rather than strong realist approach to theoretically deep and complex problems. The importance of implicit knowledge is emphasized, for humans, as well as nonhuman animals. Although Simon was a realist in some respects, his work on (...)
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  32.  27
    Theory and Meaning. David Papineau.Thomas Nickles - 1981 - Philosophy of Science 48 (3):500-502.
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  33.  46
    Davidson on Explanation.Thomas Nickles - 1977 - Philosophical Studies 31 (February):141-145.
    Davidson's defective defense of the consistency of (1) the causal interaction of mental and physical events, (2) the backing law thesis on causation, (3) the impossibility of lawfully explaining mental events is repaired by closer attention to the description-Relativity of explanation. Davidson wrongly allows that particular mental events are explainable when particular identities to physical events are known. The author argues that such identities are powerless to affect what features a given law can explain. Thus a great intelligence knowing all (...)
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  34.  47
    Scientific Problems and Constraints.Thomas Nickles - 1978 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1978:134 - 148.
    In this paper the relation between scientific problems and the constraints on their solutions is explored. First the historical constraints on the solution to the blackbody radiation problem are set out. The blackbody history is used as a guide in sketching a working taxonomy of constraints, which distinguishes various kinds of reductive and nonreductive constraints. Finally, this discussion is related to some work in erotetic logic. The hypothesis that scientific problems can be identified with structured sets of constraints is interesting; (...)
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  35.  16
    Positive Science and Discoverability.Thomas Nickles - 1984 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1984:13 - 27.
    Although seriously defective, 17th-century ideas about discovery, justification, and positive science are not as hopeless, useless, and out of date as many philosophers assume. They appear to underlie modern scientific practice. The generationist view of justification interestingly links justification with discovery issues while employing a concept of empirical support quite foreign to the modern, consequentialist concept, which identifies empirical evidence with favorable test results (predictive/explanatory success). In the generationist sense, justification amounts to potential discovery or "discoverability". A partial defense of (...)
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  36. Integrating the Science Studies Disciplines.Thomas Nickles - 1989 - In Steve Fuller (ed.), The Cognitive Turn: Sociological and Psychological Perspectives on Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
     
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  37. Problem Reduction: Some Thoughts.Thomas Nickles - 2005 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 84 (1):107-133.
    Reduction was once a central topic in philosophy of science. I claim that it remains important, especially when applied to problems and problem-solutions rather than only to large theory-complexes. Without attempting a comprehensive classification, I discuss various kinds of problem reductions and similar relations, illustrating them, inter alia, in terms of the blackbody problem and early quantization problems. Kuhn's early work is suggestive here both for structuralist theory of science and for the line I prefer to take. My central claims (...)
     
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  38.  10
    On the Independence of Singular Causal Explanation in Social Science: Archaeology.Thomas Nickles - 1977 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 7 (2):163-187.
  39. Justification as Discoverability II.Thomas Nickles - 1984 - Philosophia Naturalis 21 (2/4):563-576.
     
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  40. The Discovery-Justification (DJ) Distinction and Professional Philosophy of Science: Comments on the First Day's Five Papers.Thomas Nickles - 2002 - In Schickore J. & Steinle F. (eds.), Revisiting Discovery and Justification. Max-Planck-Institut. pp. 67--78.
     
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  41.  46
    Explanation and Description-Relativity.Thomas Nickles - 1973 - Philosophy of Science 40 (3):408-414.
  42.  46
    Kuhnian Puzzle Solving and Schema Theory.Thomas Nickles - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3):255.
    Looking at Thomas Kuhn's work from a cognitive science perspective helps to articulate and to legitimize, to some degree, his rejection of traditional views of concepts, categorization, theory structure, and rule-based problem solving. Whereas my colleagues focus on the later Kuhn of the MIT years, I study the early Kuhn as an anticipation of case-based reasoning and schema theory. These recent developments in cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence may point toward a more computational version of Kuhn's ideas, but they also (...)
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  43.  14
    Review. [REVIEW]Colin Howson & Thomas Nickles - 1979 - Erkenntnis 14 (1):87-102.
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  44.  13
    John Lukacs. At the End of an Age. X + 230 Pp., Table, Index. New Haven, Conn./London: Yale University Press, 2002. $22.95. [REVIEW]Thomas Nickles - 2003 - Isis 94 (2):407-408.
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  45.  11
    Theory Generalization, Problem Reduction and the Unity of Science.Thomas Nickles - 1974 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1974:33 - 75.
  46.  22
    Kuhn’s Philosophical Conception of Science as Evolutionary, Social, and Epistemological: K. Brad Wray: Kuhn’s Evolutionary Social Epistemology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, Xiii+229pp, £58 HB.Thomas Nickles - 2014 - Metascience 23 (1):37-42.
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  47.  29
    Book Review:Science and Hypothesis Larry Laudan. [REVIEW]Thomas Nickles - 1982 - Philosophy of Science 49 (4):653-.
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  48. Twixt Method and Madness.Thomas Nickles - 1987 - In Nancy J. Nersessian (ed.), The Process of Science: Contemporary Philosophical Approaches to Understanding Scientific Practice. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  49.  28
    Thomas Kuhn's Legacy: Some Remarks.Thomas Nickles - 2003 - Social Epistemology 17 (2-3):253-258.
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  50.  31
    Covering Law Explanation.Thomas Nickles - 1971 - Philosophy of Science 38 (4):542-561.
    A serious problem for covering law explanation is raised and its consequences for the Hempelian theory of explanation are discussed. The problem concerns an intensional feature of explanations, involving the manner in which theoretical law statements are related to the events explained. The basic problem arises because explanations are not of events but of events under descriptions; moreover, in a sense, our linguistic descriptions outrun laws. One form of the problem, termed the problem of weak intensionality, is apparently solved by (...)
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