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  1.  60
    The Limits of the Self: Immunology and Biological Identity.Thomas Pradeu - 2012 - Oxford University Press.
    The Limits of the Self, will be essential reading for anyone interested in the definition of biological individuality and the understanding of the immune system.
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  2. What is an Organism? An Immunological Answer.Thomas Pradeu - 2010 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 32 (2-3):247-267.
    The question “What is an organism?”, formerly considered as essential in biology, has now been increasingly replaced by a larger question, “What is a biological individual?”. On the grounds that i) individuation is theory-dependent, and ii) physiology does not offer a theory, biologists and philosophers of biology have claimed that it is the theory of evolution by natural selection which tells us what counts as a biological individual. Here I show that one physiological field, immunology, offers a theory, which makes (...)
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  3.  50
    The Many Faces of Biological Individuality.Thomas Pradeu - 2016 - Biology and Philosophy 31 (6):761-773.
    Biological individuality is a major topic of discussion in biology and philosophy of biology. Recently, several objections have been raised against traditional accounts of biological individuality, including the objections of monism, theory-centrism, ahistoricity, disciplinary isolationism, and the multiplication of conceptual uncertainties. In this introduction, I will examine the current philosophical landscape about biological individuality, and show how the contributions gathered in this special issue address these five objections. Overall, the aim of this issue is to offer a more diverse, unifying, (...)
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  4.  44
    Organisms or Biological Individuals? Combining Physiological and Evolutionary Individuality.Thomas Pradeu - 2016 - Biology and Philosophy 31 (6):797-817.
    The definition of biological individuality is one of the most discussed topics in philosophy of biology, but current debate has focused almost exclusively on evolution-based accounts. Moreover, several participants in this debate consider the notions of a biological individual and an organism as equivalent. In this paper, I show that the debates would be considerably enriched and clarified if philosophers took into account two elements. First, physiological fields are crucial for the understanding of biological individuality. Second, the category of biological (...)
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  5.  16
    Individuals Across The Sciences.Thomas Pradeu & Alexandre Guay (eds.) - 2016 - New York, État de New York, États-Unis: Oxford University Press.
    What are individuals? How can they be identified? These are crucial questions for philosophers and scientists alike. Criteria of individuality seem to differ markedly between metaphysics and the empirical sciences - and this might well explain why no work has hitherto attempted to relate the contributions of metaphysics, physics and biology on this question. This timely volume brings together various strands of research into 'individuality', examining how different sciences handle the issue, and reflecting on how this scientific work relates to (...)
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  6. Galatea of the Microbes.Thomas Pradeu - 2014 - The Philosophers' Magazine 67:89-95.
    This paper shows that the identity of living things is a composite reality. It also suggests that the immune system constitutes a unifying process for the organism.
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  7.  1
    Introduction. Progressive Steps Toward a Unified Conception of Individuality Across the Sciences.Alexandre Guay & Thomas Pradeu - 2016 - In Alexandre Guay & Thomas Pradeu (eds.), Individuals Across the Sciences. New York, État de New York, États-Unis: Oxford University Press. pp. 1-21.
    This chapter introduces the main issues and themes of the volume. Approaches to individuality from metaphysics and philosophy of science are contrasted. Recent philosophical developments regarding concepts of biological and physical individuality are exposed. These research trends show how philosophy of physics and philosophy of biology address differently the question of what an individual is. Five main divergences are identified: the centrality of part-whole questions, the issue of identical individuals, the importance of the Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles and, (...)
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  8.  63
    Understanding Multicellularity: The Functional Organization of the Intercellular Space.Leonardo Bich, Thomas Pradeu & Jean-Francois Moreau - 2019 - Frontiers in Physiology 10.
    The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework to understand how multicellular systems realize functionally integrated physiological entities by organizing their intercellular space. From a perspective centered on physiology and integration, biological systems are often characterized as organized in such a way that they realize metabolic self-production and self-maintenance. The existence and activity of their components rely on the network they realize and on the continuous management of the exchange of matter and energy with their environment. One (...)
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  9.  46
    A Mixed Self: The Role of Symbiosis in Development.Thomas Pradeu - 2011 - Biological Theory 6 (1):80-88.
    Since the 1950s, the common view of development has been internalist: development is seen as the result of the unfolding of potentialities already present in the egg cell. In this paper I show that this view is incorrect, because of the crucial influence of the environment on development. I focus on a fascinating example, that of the role played by symbioses in development, especially bacterial symbioses, a phenomenon found in virtually all organisms. I claim that we must consequently modify our (...)
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  10. The Self Model and the Conception of Biological Identity in Immunology.Thomas Pradeu & Edgardo D. Carosella - 2006 - Biology and Philosophy 21 (2):235-252.
    The self/non-self model, first proposed by F.M. Burnet, has dominated immunology for 60 years now. According to this model, any foreign element will trigger an immune reaction in an organism, whereas endogenous elements will not, in normal circumstances, induce an immune reaction. In this paper we show that the self/non-self model is no longer an appropriate explanation of experimental data in immunology, and that this inadequacy may be rooted in an excessively strong metaphysical conception of biological identity. We suggest that (...)
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  11.  34
    Mutualistic Viruses and the Heteronomy of Life.Thomas Pradeu - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 59:80-88.
    Though viruses have generally been characterized by their pathogenic and more generally harmful effects, many examples of mutualistic viruses exist. Here I explain how the idea of mutualistic viruses has been defended in recent virology, and I explore four important conceptual and practical consequences of this idea. I ask to what extent this research modifies the way scientists might search for new viruses, our notion of how the host immune system interacts with microbes, the development of new therapeutic approaches, and, (...)
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  12.  21
    To Be Continued: The Genidentity of Physical and Biological Processes.Alexandre Guay & Thomas Pradeu - 2016 - In Alexandre Guay & Thomas Pradeu (eds.), Individuals Across the Sciences. New York, État de New York, États-Unis: Oxford University Press. pp. 317-347.
    The concept of genidentity has been proposed as a way to better understand identity through time, especially in physics and biology. The genidentity view is utterly anti-substantialist in so far as it suggests that the identity of X through time does not presuppose whatsoever the existence of a permanent “core” or “substrate” of X. Yet applications of this concept to real science have been scarce and unsatisfying. In this paper, our aim is to show that a well-defined concept of functional (...)
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  13.  31
    Thirty Years of Biology & Philosophy: Philosophy of Which Biology?Thomas Pradeu - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (2):149-167.
    Which domains of biology do philosophers of biology primarily study? The fact that philosophy of biology has been dominated by an interest for evolutionary biology is widely admitted, but it has not been strictly demonstrated. Here I analyse the topics of all the papers published in Biology & Philosophy, just as the journal celebrates its thirtieth anniversary. I then compare the distribution of biological topics in Biology & Philosophy with that of the scientific journal Proceedings of the National Academy of (...)
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  14. Towards a Theory of Development.Alessandro Minelli & Thomas Pradeu (eds.) - 2014 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Is it possible to explain and predict the development of living things? What is development? Articulate answers to these seemingly innocuous questions are far from straightforward. To date, no systematic, targeted effort has been made to construct a unifying theory of development. This novel work offers a unique exploration of the foundations of ontogeny by asking how the development of living things should be understood. It explores the key concepts of developmental biology, asks whether general principles of development can be (...)
     
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  15.  31
    Genidentity and Biological Processes.Thomas Pradeu - 2018 - In Daniel J. Nicholson & John Dupre (eds.), Everything Flows: Towards a Processual Philosophy of Biology. Oxford University Press.
    A crucial question for a process view of life is how to identify a process and how to follow it through time. The genidentity view can contribute decisively to this project. It says that the identity through time of an entity X is given by a well-identified series of continuous states of affairs. Genidentity helps address the problem of diachronic identity in the living world. This chapter describes the centrality of the concept of genidentity for David Hull and proposes an (...)
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  16.  33
    On the Definition of a Criterion of Immunogenicity.Thomas Pradeu & Edgardo D. Carosella - 2006 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (47):17858--17861.
    The main objective of immunology is to establish why and when an immune response occurs, that is, to determine a criterion of immunogenicity. According to the consensus view, the proper criterion of immunogenicity lies in the discrimination between self and nonself. Here we challenge this consensus by suggesting a simpler and more comprehensive criterion, the criterion of continuity. Moreover, we show that this criterion may be considered as an interpretation of the immune 'self'. We conclude that immunologists can continue to (...)
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  17.  23
    CRISPR-Cas Immunity: Beyond Nonself and Defence.Thomas Pradeu & Jean-François Moreau - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (1):6.
    In this commentary of Koonin’s target paper, we defend an extended view of CRISPR-Cas immunity by arguing that CRISPR-Cas includes, but cannot be reduced to, defence against nonself. CRISPR-Cas systems can target endogenous elements and tolerate exogenous elements. We conclude that the vocabulary of “defence” and “nonself” might be misleading when describing CRISPR-Cas systems.
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  18.  27
    The Speed of Change: Towards a Discontinuity Theory of Immunity?Thomas Pradeu, Sébastien Jaeger & Eric Vivier - 2013 - Nature Reviews Immunology 13 (10):764–769.
    Immunology — though deeply experimental in everyday practice — is also a theoretical discipline. Recent advances in the understanding of innate immunity, how it is triggered and how it shares features that have previously been uniquely ascribed to the adaptive immune system, can contribute to the refinement of the theoretical framework of immunology. In particular, natural killer cells and macrophages are activated by transient modifications, but adapt to long-lasting modifications that occur in the surrounding tissue environment. This process facilitates the (...)
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  19.  46
    The Boundaries of Development.Thomas Pradeu, Lucie Laplane, Michel Morange, Antonine Nicoglou & Michel Vervoort - 2011 - Biological Theory 6 (1):1 - 3.
    This special issue of Biological Theory is focused on development; it raises the problem of the temporal and spatial boundaries of development. From a temporal point of view, when does development start and stop? From a spatial point of view, what is it exactly that "develops", and is it possible to delineate clearly the developing entity? This issue explores the possible answers to these questions, and thus sheds light on the definition of development itself.
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  20. The Organism in Developmental Systems Theory.Thomas Pradeu - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (3):216-222.
    In this paper, I address the question of what the Developmental Systems Theory (DST) aims at explaining. I distinguish two lines of thought in DST, one which deals specifically with development, and tries to explain the development of the individual organism, and the other which presents itself as a reconceptualization of evolution, and tries to explain the evolution of populations of developmental systems (organism-environment units). I emphasize that, despite the claiming of the contrary by DST proponents, there are two very (...)
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  21.  76
    Right Out of the Box: How to Situate Metaphysics of Science in Relation to Other Metaphysical Approaches.Alexandre Guay & Thomas Pradeu - forthcoming - Synthese:1-20.
    Several advocates of the lively field of “metaphysics of science” have recently argued that a naturalistic metaphysics should be based solely on current science, and that it should replace more traditional, intuition-based, forms of metaphysics. The aim of the present paper is to assess that claim by examining the relations between metaphysics of science and general metaphysics. We show that the current metaphysical battlefield is richer and more complex than a simple dichotomy between “metaphysics of science” and “traditional metaphysics”, and (...)
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  22.  49
    Understanding Viruses: Philosophical Investigations.Thomas Pradeu, Gladys Kostyrka & John Dupré - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 59:57-63.
    Viruses have been virtually absent from philosophy of biology. In this editorial introduction, we explain why we think viruses are philosophically important. We focus on six issues, and we show how they relate to classic questions of philosophy of biology and even general philosophy.
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  23. Ontologies of Living Beings: Introduction.Adam Ferner & Thomas Pradeu - 2017 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 9 (4).
    Part of a special issue, Ontologies of Living Beings, guest-edited by A. M. Ferner and Thomas Pradeu.
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  24.  22
    Defining "Development".Thomas Pradeu, Lucie Laplane, Karine Prévot, Thierry Hoquet, Valentine Reynaud, Giuseppe Fusco, Alessandro Minelli, Virginie Orgogozo & Michel Vervoort - unknown
    Is it possible, and in the first place is it even desirable, to define what "development" means and to determine the scope of the field called "developmental biology"? Though these questions appeared crucial for the founders of "developmental biology" in the 1950s, there seems to be no consensus today about the need to address them. Here, in a combined biological, philosophical, and historical approach, we ask whether it is possible and useful to define biological development, and, if such a definition (...)
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  25.  50
    Immunity and the Emergence of Individuality.Thomas Pradeu - 2013 - In Philippe Huneman & Frédéric Bouchard (eds.), From Groups to Individuals. Evolution and Emerging Individuality. MIT Press. pp. 77.
    Since, it has become clear that individuality is not to be considered as a given, but rather as something which needs to be explained. How has individuality emerged through evolution, and how has it subsequently been maintained? In particular, why is it that multicellular organisms appeared and persisted, despite the obvious interest of each cell of favoring its own replication? Several biologists see the immune system as one of the key components for explaining the maintenance of multicellular organisms’ individuality. Indeed, (...)
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  26. Les limites du soi: Immunologie et identité biologique.Thomas Pradeu - forthcoming - Philosophical Explorations.
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  27. Regenerating Theories in Developmental Biology.Thomas Pradeu - forthcoming - Towards a Theory of Development:15.
  28.  89
    Protective Microbiota: From Localized to Long-Reaching Co-Immunity.Lynn Chiu, Thomas Bazin, Marie-Elise Truchetet, Thierry Schaeverbeke, Laurence Delhaes & Thomas Pradeu - 2017 - Frontiers Immunology 8:1678.
    Resident microbiota do not just shape host immunity, they can also contribute to host protection against pathogens and infectious diseases. Previous reviews of the protective roles of the microbiota have focused exclusively on colonization resistance localized within a microenvironment. This review shows that the protection against pathogens also involves the mitigation of pathogenic impact without eliminating the pathogens (i.e., “disease tolerance”) and the containment of microorganisms to prevent pathogenic spread. Protective microorganisms can have an impact beyond their niche, interfering with (...)
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  29. Mapping the Future of Biology: Evolving Concepts and Theories Vol. 266.Anouk Barberousse, Michel Morange & Thomas Pradeu - 2009 - Springer.
     
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  30.  29
    Immune-Mediated Repair: A Matter of Repair.Paôline Laurent, Marie-Elise Truchetet, Valérie Jolivel, Pauline Manicki, Lynn Chiu & Thomas Pradeu - 2017 - Frontiers in Immunology 8:454.
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  31. Toolbox Murders: Putting Genes in Their Epigenetic and Ecological Contexts: P. Griffiths and K. Stotz: Genetics and Philosophy: An Introduction. [REVIEW]Thomas Pradeu - 2016 - Biology and Philosophy 31 (1):125-142.
    Griffiths and Stotz’s Genetics and Philosophy: An Introduction offers a very good overview of scientific and philosophical issues raised by present-day genetics. Examining, in particular, the questions of how a “gene” should be defined and what a gene does from a causal point of view, the authors explore the different domains of the life sciences in which genetics has come to play a decisive role, from Mendelian genetics to molecular genetics, behavioural genetics, and evolution. In this review, I highlight what (...)
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  32.  21
    The Organism in Developmental Systems Theory.Thomas Pradeu - 2009 - Biological Theory 5 (3):216-222.
    In this article, I address the question of what Developmental Systems Theory aims at explaining. I distinguish two lines of thought in DST, one that deals specifically with development and tries to explain the development of the individual organism, and the other that presents itself as a reconceptualization of evolution and tries to explain the evolution of populations of developmental systems. I emphasize that, despite the claim of the contrary by DST proponents, there are two very different definitions of the (...)
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  33. Theories of Development in Biology—Problems and Perspectives.Alessandro Minelli & Thomas Pradeu - forthcoming - Towards a Theory of Development:1.
     
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  34. Qu'est-ce qu'un individu biologique?Thomas Pradeu - forthcoming - L’Individu: Perspectives Contemporaines:97--125.
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  35.  20
    Une objectivité kaléidoscopique : construire l'image scientifique du monde.Pierre-Alain Braillard, Alexandre Guay, Cyrille Imbert & Thomas Pradeu - 2011 - Philosophie 110 (3):46-71.
    Dans Science, Perception and Reality, Sellars distingue l’image manifeste de l’homme et l’image scientifique de l’homme. La première est obtenue à partir de la façon dont nous prenons conscience de nous-mêmes comme humains dans le monde. La seconde correspond à ce que les différentes sciences nous amènent à postuler sur la manière dont l’homme est constitué. Van Fraassen, lui, étend au monde ces concepts...
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  36. Immune System.Thomas Pradeu - 2009 - Science 325:393--393.
     
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  37. Transplantation and Identity: A Dangerous Split?Edgardo D. Carosella & Thomas Pradeu - 2006 - The Lancet 368 (9531):183--184.
  38. First Human Face Allograft: Early Report. Commentary.Patrick Warnke, Carosella H., D. Edgardo, Thomas Pradeu, Bernard Devauchelle, Lionel Badet, Benoit Lengele, Emmanuel Morelon, Sylvie Testelin, Mauricette Michallet, Cédric D.’Hauthuille & Others - 2006 - Lancet 368 (9531).
     
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  39. The Danger Theory: 20 Years Later.Thomas Pradeu & Edwin L. Cooper - 2012 - Frontiers in Immunology 3.
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  40.  61
    Obituary: Marie-Claude Lorne (1969–2008).Thomas Pradeu - 2009 - Biology and Philosophy 24 (3):281-282.
  41.  16
    Philosophy of CRISPR-Cas: Introduction to Eugene Koonin’s Target Paper and Commentaries.Thomas Pradeu - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (1):16.
    In this commentary of Koonin’s target paper, we defend an extended view of CRISPR-Cas immunity by arguing that CRISPR-Cas includes, but cannot be reduced to, defence against nonself. CRISPR-Cas systems can target endogenous elements and tolerate exogenous elements. We conclude that the vocabulary of “defence” and “nonself” might be misleading when describing CRISPR-Cas systems.
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  42. Apport de la Philosophie À la Question de L’Immunogénicité.Thomas Pradeu - 2010 - la Presse Médicale 39 (7):747--752.
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  43.  53
    Introduction: Reassessing Developmental Systems Theory.Anouk Barberousse, Francesca Merlin & Thomas Pradeu - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (3):199-201.
    The Developmental Systems Theory (DST) presented by its proponents as a challenging approach in biology is aimed at transforming the workings of the life sciences from both a theoretical and experimental point of view (see, in particular, Oyama [1985] 2000; Oyama et al. 2001). Even though some may have the impression that the enthusiasm surrounding DST has faded in very recent years, some of the key concepts, ideas, and visions of DST have in fact pervaded biology and philosophy of biology. (...)
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  44. L'identité immunologique: soi ou continuité?Thomas Pradeu, Edgardo Carosella & Others - forthcoming - L’Identité? Soi, Non-Soi, Individu Et Personne:47--58.
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  45. [Critical Analysis of the Immunological Self/Non-Self Model and of its Implicit Metaphysical Foundations].Thomas Pradeu & Edgardo D. Carosella - 2004 - Comptes Rendus Biologies 327 (5):481--492.
  46. What Philosophy of Biology Should Be: Rosenberg, McShea: Philosophy of Biology. A Contemporary Introduction. Routledge, 2008.Thomas Pradeu - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (1):119-127.
    This paper reviews Rosenberg’s and McShea’s textbook in philosophy of biology, entitled Philosophy of Biology. A Contemporary Introduction. I insist on the excellent quality of this textbook, then I turn to more critical comments, which deal mainly with what philosophy of biology is, and what it should be.
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  47. Philosophie de la biologie.Thomas Pradeu - 2011 - In Précis de Philosophie des Sciences. Vuibert (Paris).
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  48. [What Philosophy Can Say About Immunogenicity].Thomas Pradeu - 2009 - Presse Medicale 39 (7-8):747--752.
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  49. Darwinisme, évolution et immunologie.Thomas Pradeu - forthcoming - Les Mondes Darwiniens:759--788.
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  50. Analyse critique du modèle immunologique du soi et du non-soi et de ses fondements métaphysiques implicites.Thomas Pradeu & Edgardo D. Carosella - 2004 - Comptes Rendus Biologies 327 (5):481--492.
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