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Thornton C. Lockwood [26]Thornton C. Lockwood Jr [3]
  1. “Sparta in Greek political thought: Xenophon, Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch,”.Thornton C. Lockwood - unknown - In Carol Atack (ed.), Oxford Handbook on Ancient Greek Political Thought. Oxford University Press.
    In his account of the Persian Wars, the 5th century historian Herodotus reports an exchange between the Persian monarch Xerxes and a deposed Spartan king, Demaratus, who became what Lattimore later classified as a “tragic warner” to Xerxes. On the eve of the battle of Thermopylae, Xerxes asks how a small number of free Spartiates can stand up against the massive ranks of soldiers that Xerxes has assembled. Herodotus has Demaratus reply: So is it with the Lacedaemonians; fighting singly they (...)
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  2. Artemisia of Halicarnassus: Herodotus’ excellent counsel.Thornton C. Lockwood - 2023 - Classical World: A Quarterly Journal on Antiquity 116:147–172.
    Numerous ancient sources attest that Artemisia of Halicarnassus, a fifth-century BCE tyrant whose polis came under Persian rule in 524 BCE, figures prominently in Xerxes’ naval campaign against Greece. At least since Pompeius Trogus’ first-century BCE Philippic History, interpretations of Artemisia have juxtaposed her “virile courage” (uirilem audaciam) with Xerxes’ “womanish fear” (muliebrem timorem) primarily as a means of belittling the effeminate non-Greeks. My paper argues that although Herodotus is aware of such interpretations of Artemisia, he depicts her primarily as (...)
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  3.  45
    Non-human animals in the Nicomachean and Eudemian Ethics.Thornton C. Lockwood - forthcoming - In Peter Adamson & Miira Tuominen (eds.), Animals in Greek, Arabic, and Latin Philosophy.
    At first glance, it looks like Aristotle can’t make up his mind about the ethical or moral status of non-human animals in his ethical treatises. Somewhat infamously, the Nicomachean Ethics claims that “there is neither friendship nor justice towards soulless things, nor is there towards an ox or a horse” (EN 8.11.1161b1–2). Since Aristotle thinks that friendship and justice are co-extensive (EN 8.9.1159b25–32), scholars have often read this passage to entail that humans have no ethical obligations to non-human animals. By (...)
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  4. Carthage: Aristotle’s Best (non-Greek) Constitution.Thornton C. Lockwood - 2024 - In Luca Gili, Benoît Castelnérac & Laetitia Monteils-Laeng (eds.), Actes du colloque Influences étrangères. pp. 182-205.
    Aristotle’s discussions of natural slavery, ‘barbarian kingship’, and the natural characteristics of barbarians or non-Greeks are usually read as calling into question the intellectual, ethical, and political accomplishments of non-Greeks. Such accounts of non-Greek inferiority or inability to self-govern also appear to presuppose a climatic or environmental account that on the whole would imply severe limitations on the possibility of political flourishing for peoples living outside the Greek Mediterranean basin. In light of such accounts, it is somewhat astounding to find (...)
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  5. Justice in Aristotle’s Household and City.Thornton C. Lockwood - 2003 - Polis 20 (1-2):1-21.
    In Nicomachean Ethics V.6 Aristotle contrasts political justice with household justice, paternal justice, and despotic justice. My paper expands upon Aristotle’s sometimes enigmatic remarks about political justice through an examination of his account of justice within the oikia or ‘household’. Understanding political justice requires explicating the concepts of freedom and equality, but for Aristotle, the children and wife within the household are free people even if not citizens, and there exists proportionate equality between a husband and wife. Additionally, Aristotle’s articulation (...)
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  6.  21
    The Best Way of Life for a Polis.Thornton C. Lockwood - 2019 - Polis 36 (1):5-22.
    Politics VII.1-3 enacts a contest that concludes that ‘whether for a whole city-state in common or for an individual, the best way of life would be a practical one’. Scholarship on VII.1-3 has focused on the best way of life for an individual to the neglect and even misunderstanding of the best way of life for a polis. The best way of life for a polis is, I argue, a specification of the foreign policy or ‘inter-polis’ relations for the best (...)
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  7. Aristotle on the (alleged) inferiority of poetry to history.Thornton C. Lockwood - 2017 - In William Wians & Ron Polansky (eds.), Reading Aristotle: Argument and Exposition. Boston: Brill. pp. 315-333.
    Aristotle’s claim that poetry is ‘a more philosophic and better thing’ than history (Poet 9.1451b5-6) and his description of the ‘poetic universal’ have been the source of much scholarly discussion. Although many scholars have mined Poetics 9 as a source for Aristotle’s views towards history, in my contribution I caution against doing so. Critics of Aristotle’s remarks have often failed to appreciate the expository principle which governs Poetics 6-12, which begins with a definition of tragedy and then elucidates the terms (...)
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  8. A Topical Bibliography of Scholarship on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics.Thornton C. Lockwood - 2005 - Journal of Philosophical Research 30:1-116.
    Scholarship on Aristotle’s NICOMACHEAN ETHICS (hereafter “the Ethics”) flourishes in an almost unprecedented fashion. In the last ten years, universities in North America have produced on average over ten doctoral dissertations a year that discuss the practical philosophy that Aristotle espouses in his Nicomachean Ethics, Eudemian Ethics, and Politics. Since the beginning of the millennium there have been three new translations of the entire Ethics into English alone, several more that translate parts of the work into English and other modern (...)
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  9. Polity, political justice and political mixing.Thornton C. Lockwood - 2006 - History of Political Thought 27 (2):207-222.
    In numerous places in his Ethics and Politics, Aristotle associates political justice (or ruling in turns) and the regime of polity. I argue that there is a necessary connection between political justice and polity due to their origins in political mixing. Aristotle is the first to discover political justice and polity because his predecessors had thought that the elements which they combine -- excellence and equality in the case of political justice, and oligarchy and democracy in the case of polity (...)
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  10. Defining Friendship in Cicero’s De amicitia.Thornton C. Lockwood - 2019 - Ancient Philosophy 39 (2):409-426.
    Scholars have disagreed on whether Cicero’s De Amicitia is a philosophically serious or even coherent work. Such criticisms, I believe, can be met by an examination of the successive accounts of friendship that the character of Gaius Laelius provides in the dialogue. I argue that the dialogue offers three such accounts of friendship which taken together provide a comprehensive and coherent account of friendship. Further, I defend Cicero’s account against criticisms that Aulus Gellius had raised in the 2nd century CE (...)
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  11.  63
    A Topical Bibliography of Scholarship on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics.Thornton C. Lockwood - 2005 - Journal of Philosophical Research 30:1-116.
    Scholarship on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics (hereafter “the Ethics”) flourishes in an almost unprecedented fashion. In the last ten years, universities in North America have produced on average over ten doctoral dissertations a year which discuss the practical philosophy which Aristotle espouses in his Nicomachean Ethics, Eudemian Ethics, and Politics. Since the beginning of the millennium there has been three new translations of the entire Ethics into English alone, several more which translate parts of the work into English and other modern (...)
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  12.  8
    Colloquium 2 Commentary on Trott.Thornton C. Lockwood - 2021 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 36 (1):57-62.
    In her “Saving the Appearances of Plato’s Cave,” Dr. Adriel M. Trott argues that “the philosopher’s claim to true knowledge always operates within the realm of the cave.” In order to probe her claim, I challenge her to make sense of “politics in the cave,” namely, the status and practices of two categories of people in the cave: “woke” cave-dwellers and “woke” puppeteers.
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  13.  65
    Lessons New and Old.Thornton C. Lockwood - 2007 - Political Theory 35 (3):354-363.
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  14. Political Justice in Aristotle's "Nicomachean Ethics" and "Politics".Thornton C. Lockwood - 2004 - Dissertation, Boston University
    In the center of the fifth book of the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle elliptically characterizes political justice as a form of reciprocal rule that exists between free and equal persons pursuing a common life directed toward self-sufficiency under the rule of law. My dissertation analyzes Aristotle's thematic treatments of political justice in the Nicomachean Ethics and Politics in order to elucidate its meaning, clarify its relationship to the other forms of justice that he also discusses, and compare it to contemporary neo-Aristotelian (...)
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  15.  21
    Richard Bodéüs’s The Political Dimensions of Aristotle’s Ethics_: 25 Years in Hindsight / _Le philosophe et la cité de Richard Bodéüs : rétrospective.Thornton C. Lockwood - 2020 - Dialogue 59 (1):1-4.
    Il y a vingt-cinq ans, j’étais un étudiant de doctorat intéressé par la philosophie d’Aristote et à la recherche d’un sujet de thèse. Au cours de mes études supérieures, j’ai eu la chance d’étudier l’Éthique à Nicomaque avec Rémi Brague et Les Politiques avec Judith Swanson. Ces deux érudits m’ont, à leur façon, fait prendre conscience de l’importance d’enquêter sur le public cible des œuvres d’Aristote. Tous deux parlaient en bien du livre Le philosophe et la cité (Les Belles Lettres, (...)
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  16.  29
    ὁμόνοια: The Hinge of Aristotle’s Ethics_ and _Politics?Thornton C. Lockwood - 2020 - Dialogue 59 (1):7-30.
    Les études sur les ramifications politiques de la conception aristotélicienne de l’amitié ont été consacrées à «l’amitié politique» et ont perdu de vue l’importance de sa description de la «concorde» (ὁμόνοια). Cela s’explique par un certain nombre de raisons, dont la plus importante est qu’Aristote offre un compte rendu précis de la concorde, mais qu’il n’a presque rien à dire sur l’amitié politique. Mon article examine les aspects éthiques et politiques de la concorde à la lumière d’un désaccord entre Richard (...)
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  17. Review of Johnson, Philosophy and Politics in Aristotle's Politics. [REVIEW]Thornton C. Lockwood - 2017 - Ancient Philosophy 37 (1):227-230.
    It is a truism that Aristotle distinguishes theoretical, practical, and productive sciences; but Aristotle’s Metaphysics begins with a discussion of the nature of the free person and his Nicomachean Ethics concludes with one of his clearest statement of the nature of theoria, so perhaps the boundaries between those sci-ences in existing works are more porous. Curtis Johnson, author of Aristotle’s Theory of the State (New York: Macmillan, 1990), in his current volume seeks to clarify the boundary between theoretical science (the (...)
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  18. Review of Riesbeck, Aristotle on Political Community. [REVIEW]Thornton C. Lockwood - 2021 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 141:297-298.
    Community (κοινωνία) is one of the most fundamental and distinctive concepts in Aristotle’s writings on human action; the political species of community (alongside spousal community, household community, and the community of friendship) is probably the most complicated iteration of the concept. Thus, scholars of Aristotle’s Politics (the primary audience of the volume under review) are much indebted to the publication of Riesbeck’s revised doctoral dissertation (University of Texas, Austin, 2012) that successfully and persuasively elucidates political community by showing both its (...)
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  19. ARISTOTLE'S POLITICS - E. Bermon, V. Laurand, J. Terrel Politique d'Aristote. Famille, régimes, éducation. Pp. 188. Pessac: Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux, 2011. Paper, €22. ISBN: 978-2-86781-632-1. [REVIEW]Thornton C. Lockwood - 2013 - The Classical Review 63 (2):366-368.
  20. Review of Helfer, Socrates and Alcibiades: Plato’s Drama of Political Ambition and Philosophy. [REVIEW]Thornton C. Lockwood - 2018 - International Philosophical Quarterly 58 (1):109-110.
    Although determination, perseverance, and high expectations appear to be laudable characteristics within our society, ambition seems to carry a hint of selfishness or self-promotion (perhaps especially at the cost of others). One can speak of the goals or aims of a team or group, but it seems more characteristic to ascribe ambition to a single individual. Etymologi-cally, ambition derives from the Latin word ambire, which can mean to strive or go around (ambo + ire), but the term also characterizes one (...)
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  21. Review of Inwood, Ethics After Aristotle. [REVIEW]Thornton C. Lockwood - 2017 - Review of Metaphysics 70 (4):873-74.
    The revised and polished version of Inwood’s 2011 Carl Newell Jackson at Harvard University, Ethics after Aristotle surveys the ethical teachings of the original “neo-Aristotelians,” namely those self-identified (although not always named) members of the Peripatetic school from the time of Theophrastus (fl. 300 BCE) until that of Alexander of Aphrodisias (fl. 200 CE). An initial chapter surveys the sorts of problems in Aristotle’s ethical corpus which would generate subsequent debate amongst members of the Peripatetic school. Chapter Two examines the (...)
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  22. Review of Collins, Aristotle and the Rediscovery of Citizenship. [REVIEW]Thornton C. Lockwood Jr - 2007 - International Philosophical Quarterly 47 (1):121-123.
    Current events force upon Americans not only the duties of a citizen of a nation at war but also the conceptual challenge of understanding the nature of citizenship. In Aristotle and the Rediscovery of Citizenship Susan Collins argues that contemporary liberal political theory, based on presuppositions about the priority of the individual to the state, is incapable of responding to such an intellectual challenge. At least since the publication of John Rawls’ Political Liberalism (1993), contemporary liberal political theory has struggled (...)
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  23. Review of Frank, A Democracy of Distinction: Aristotle and the Work of Politics. [REVIEW]Thornton C. Lockwood Jr - 2006 - International Philosophical Quarterly 46 (1):111-114.
    Any modern reader of Aristotle’s Politics confronts the question of what a treatise on 4th century BCE political institutions can say to a contemporary audience. Some authors, confronted with such a question, choose to examine Aristotle’s Politics as a work in the history of political philosophy or classics worthy of careful study because of its place in the Aristotelian corpus, because of the light it sheds on ancient Greek history and political institutions, or because of its relation to other works (...)
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  24. Review of Annas, Virtue and Law in Plato and Beyond. [REVIEW]Thornton C. Lockwood - 2019 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 57 (4):749-750.
    About Plato's Laws, Aristotle rather uninspiringly wrote, "Most of the Laws consists, in fact, of laws, and [Plato] has said little about the constitution. He wishes to make it more generally attainable [κοινοτέραν] by actual city-states, yet he gradually turns it back towards the Republic". Julia Annas's new volume seeks to counter such dismissive interpretations of Plato's Laws. Rather than view the work as Plato's final written dialogue, written by a crabby, old, pessimistic author, she argues that "the Laws presents (...)
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  25. Review of Gottlieb, The Virtue of Aristotle’s Ethics. [REVIEW]Thornton C. Lockwood Jr - 2011 - International Philosophical Quarterly 51 (3):418-420.
    In his Metaphysics of Morals, Kant famously wrote “The distinction between virtue and vice can never be sought in the degree to which one follows certain maxims…In other words, the well-known principle (Aristotle’s) that locates virtue in the mean between two vices is false.” Kant is not the first (or the last) thinker to take to task Aristotle’s doctrine of the mean, but he is representative of a line of criticism of Aristotle’s doctrine which argues that ethics is the realm (...)
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  26. Review of Flannery, Action and Character According to Aristotle: The Logic of Moral Life. [REVIEW]Thornton C. Lockwood - 2018 - Ancient Philosophy 38 (1):217-218.
    Flannery’s volume looks in two directions. On the one hand, as Flannery announces in the book’s introduction, the chapters in the volume were intended to shed light on three specific ‘background’ issues in contemporary ethics and the interpretation of Thomas Aquinas, namely, Aquinas’ notion of ethical theory (as articulated especially in Summa Theologica 1-2.6-21), the ramifications of physical actions on moral evaluation in contemporary ethics (for instance, whether the fact that an abortion consists specifically in the crushing of a fetus’ (...)
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  27. Review of Reeve, Action, Contemplation, and Happiness: An Essay on Aristotle. [REVIEW]Thornton C. Lockwood - 2014 - Ancient Philosophy 34 (1):219-223.
    Action, Contemplation, and Happiness (hereafter ACH) is a magisterial expo­sition of both central and obscure texts from throughout Aristotle's writings that aims to elucidate the terms in its title by showing their foundations in Aristotle's natural and metaphysical writings. Reeve assembles supportive texts from throughout the corpus in support of an interpretive holism, viz., one in which the various interpretations of a text are narrowed by drawing upon other texts in the corpus that shed light on the passage. Although holism (...)
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  28. Review: Lessons New and Old. [REVIEW]Thornton C. Lockwood - 2007 - Political Theory 35 (3):354 - 363.
    In 1816, Thomas Jefferson wrote that the discovery of “representative democracy has rendered useless almost everything written before on the structure of government; and in great measure, relieves our regret, if the political writing of Aristotle, or of any other ancient, have been lost, or are unfaithfully rendered or explained to us” (quoted in Saxonhouse, p. 13). No doubt there are historical reasons to study classical Greece, but between us and them lies not only the discovery of representative democracy, but (...)
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  29.  29
    Philosophy and Politics in Aristotle’s Politics. [REVIEW]Thornton C. Lockwood - 2017 - Ancient Philosophy 37 (1):227-230.