Results for 'Threat'

998 found
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  1. Stereotype Threat and Attributional Ambiguity for Trans Women.Rachel Mckinnon - 2014 - Hypatia 29 (1):857-872.
    In this paper I discuss the interrelated topics of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity as they relate to gender and gender identity. The former has become an emerging topic in feminist philosophy and has spawned a tremendous amount of research in social psychology and elsewhere. But the discussion, at least in how it connects to gender, is incomplete: the focus is only on cisgender women and their experiences. By considering trans women's experiences of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity, (...)
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  2.  96
    Evolutionary Function of Dreams: A Test of the Threat Simulation Theory in Recurrent Dreams.Antonio Zadra, Sophie Desjardins & Éric Marcotte - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):450-463.
    Revonsuo proposed an intriguing and detailed evolutionary theory of dreams which stipulates that the biological function of dreaming is to simulate threatening events and to rehearse threat avoidance behaviors. The goal of the present study was to test this theory using a sample of 212 recurrent dreams that was scored using a slightly expanded version of the DreamThreat rating scale. Six of the eight hypotheses tested were supported. Among the positive findings, 66% of the recurrent dream reports contained one (...)
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  3. IMPLICIT BIAS, STEREOTYPE THREAT, AND POLITICAL CORRECTNESS IN PHILOSOPHY.Sean Allen-Hermanson - 2017 - Philosophies 2 (2).
    This paper offers an unorthodox appraisal of empirical research bearing on the question of the low representation of women in philosophy. It contends that fashionable views in the profession concerning implicit bias and stereotype threat are weakly supported, that philosophers often fail to report the empirical work responsibly, and that the standards for evidence are set very low—so long as you take a certain viewpoint.
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  4. Dreaming and Consciousness: Testing the Threat Simulation Theory of the Function of Dreaming.Antti Revonsuo & Katja Valli - 2000 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 6.
    We tested the new threat simulation theory of the biological function of dreaming by analysing 592 dreams from 52 subjects with a rating scale developed for quantifying threatening events in dreams. The main predictions were that dreams contain more frequent and more severe threats than waking life does; that dream threats are realistic; and that they primarily threaten the Dream Self who tends to behave in a relevant defensive manner in response to them. These predictions were confirmed and the (...)
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  5. Stereotype Threat and Intellectual Virtue.Mark Alfano - 2014 - In Owen Flanagan & Abrol Fairweather (eds.), Naturalizing Virtue. Cambridge University Press. pp. 155-74.
    For decades, intelligence and achievement tests have registered significant differences between people of different races, ethnicities, classes, and genders. We argue that most of these differences are explained not as reflections of differences in the distribution of intellectual virtues but as evidence for the metacognitive mediation of the intellectual virtues. For example, in the United States, blacks typically score worse than whites on tests of mathematics. This might lead one to think that fewer blacks possess the relevant intellectual virtues, or (...)
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  6.  53
    Is the Threat Simulation Theory Threatened by Recurrent Dreams?Sophie Desjardins & Antonio Zadra - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):470-474.
    Zadra, Desjardins, and Marcotte tested several predictions derived from the Threat Simulation Theory of dreaming in a large sample of recurrent dreams. In response to these findings, Valli and Revonsuo presented a commentary outlining alternate conceptualizations and explanations for the results obtained. We argue that many points raised by Valli and Revonsuo do not accurately reflect our main findings and at times present a biased assessment of the data. In this article, we provide necessary clarifications and responses to each (...)
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  7.  9
    Stereotype Threat Effects on Learning From a Cognitively Demanding Mathematics Lesson.Emily McLaughlin Lyons, Nina Simms, Kreshnik N. Begolli & Lindsey E. Richland - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (2):678-690.
    Stereotype threat—a situational context in which individuals are concerned about confirming a negative stereotype—is often shown to impact test performance, with one hypothesized mechanism being that cognitive resources are temporarily co-opted by intrusive thoughts and worries, leading individuals to underperform despite high content knowledge and ability. We test here whether stereotype threat may also impact initial student learning and knowledge formation when experienced prior to instruction. Predominantly African American fifth-grade students provided either their race or the date before (...)
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  8. Recurrent Dreams: Recurring Threat Simulations?Katja Valli & Antti Revonsuo - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):464-469.
  9. The Threat of Algocracy: Reality, Resistance and Accommodation.John Danaher - 2016 - Philosophy and Technology 29 (3):245-268.
    One of the most noticeable trends in recent years has been the increasing reliance of public decision-making processes on algorithms, i.e. computer-programmed step-by-step instructions for taking a given set of inputs and producing an output. The question raised by this article is whether the rise of such algorithmic governance creates problems for the moral or political legitimacy of our public decision-making processes. Ignoring common concerns with data protection and privacy, it is argued that algorithmic governance does pose a significant (...) to the legitimacy of such processes. Modelling my argument on Estlund’s threat of epistocracy, I call this the ‘threat of algocracy’. The article clarifies the nature of this threat and addresses two possible solutions. It is argued that neither solution is likely to be successful, at least not without risking many other things we value about social decision-making. The result is a somewhat pessimistic conclusion in which we confront the possibility that we are creating decision-making processes that constrain and limit opportunities for human participation. (shrink)
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  10.  27
    Stroop Effects for Masked Threat Words: Pre-Attentive Bias or Selective Awareness?Jenny Wikström, Lars-Gunnar Lundh & Joakim Westerlund - 2003 - Cognition and Emotion 17 (6):827-842.
  11.  24
    Amygdala Activation During Masked Presentation of Emotional Faces Predicts Conscious Detection of Threat-Related Faces.Thomas Suslow, Patricia Ohrmann, Jochen Bauer, Astrid V. Rauch, Wolfram Schwindt, Volker Arolt, Walter Heindel & Harald Kugel - 2006 - Brain and Cognition 61 (3):243-248.
  12.  21
    Anxiety Sensitivity: The Role of Conscious Awareness and Selective Attentional Bias to Physical Threat.Caroline Hunt, Edmund Keogh & Christopher C. French - 2006 - Emotion 6 (3):418-428.
  13.  18
    Effects of Threat of Shock, Distraction, and Task Design on Performance.Robert E. Murphy - 1959 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 58 (2):134.
  14.  12
    Effects of Awareness and Threat of Shock on Verbal Conditioning.Charles D. Spielberger, Larry D. Southard & William F. Hodges - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (3):434.
  15.  11
    Effect of Threat and Uncertainty on Mastery of Stress.Walter D. Fenz, Brain L. Kluck & C. Peter Bankart - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 79 (3p1):473.
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  16.  5
    How Does Perceived Effectiveness Affect Adults’ Ethical Acceptance of Anti-Obesity Threat Appeals to Children? When the Going Gets Tough, the Audience Gets Going.Karine Charry, Patrick De Pelsmacker & Claude L. Pecheux - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 124 (2):243-257.
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  17.  8
    “Rivers of Blood”: Migration, Fear and Threat Construction.Monika Kopytowska & Paul Chilton - 2018 - Lodz Papers in Pragmatics 14 (1):133-161.
    The article focuses on Enoch Powell’s “Rivers of Blood” speech and its recontextualisation 50 years later in view of the rising anti-immigration sentiment and Brexit campaign. Having discussed the dynamics of the threat construction process and its role in shaping public attitudes to migration and policies related to it across time and space, we proceed to analyse Powell’s speech in terms of lexical, grammatical, and discursive fear-inciting devices and strategies. While doing so we draw on the insights from neuroscientific (...)
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  18. Cognitive Enhancement and the Threat of Inequality.Walter Veit - 2018 - Journal of Cognitive Enhancement 2:1-7.
    As scientific progress approaches the point where significant human enhancements could become reality, debates arise whether such technologies should be made available. This paper evaluates the widespread concern that human enhancements will inevitably accentuate existing inequality and analyzes whether prohibition is the optimal public policy to avoid this outcome. Beyond these empirical questions, this paper considers whether the inequality objection is a sound argument against the set of enhancements most threatening to equality, i.e., cognitive enhancements. In doing so, I shall (...)
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  19. Mental Action and the Threat of Automaticity.Wayne Wu - 2013 - In Andy Clark, Julian Kiverstein & Tillman Vierkant (eds.), Decomposing the Will. Oxford University Press. pp. 244-61.
    This paper considers the connection between automaticity, control and agency. Indeed, recent philosophical and psychological works play up the incompatibility of automaticity and agency. Specifically, there is a threat of automaticity, for automaticity eliminates agency. Such conclusions stem from a tension between two thoughts: that automaticity pervades agency and yet automaticity rules out control. I provide an analysis of the notions of automaticity and control that maintains a simple connection: automaticity entails the absence of control. An appropriate analysis, however, (...)
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  20. Kant, Real Possibility, and the Threat of Spinoza.Andrew Chignell - 2012 - Mind 121 (483):635-675.
    In the first part of the paper I reconstruct Kant’s proof of the existence of a ‘most real being’ while also highlighting the theory of modality that motivates Kant’s departure from Leibniz’s version of the proof. I go on to argue that it is precisely this departure that makes the being that falls out of the pre-critical proof look more like Spinoza’s extended natura naturans than an independent, personal creator-God. In the critical period, Kant seems to think that transcendental idealism (...)
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  21.  21
    Indoctrination and Social Context: A System‐Based Approach to Identifying the Threat of Indoctrination and the Responsibilities of Educators.Rebecca M. Taylor - 2017 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 51 (1):38-58.
    Debates about indoctrination raise fundamental questions about the ethics of teaching. This paper presents a philosophical analysis of indoctrination, including 1) an account of what indoctrination is and why it is harmful, and 2) a framework for understanding the responsibilities of teachers and other educational actors to avoid its negative outcomes. I respond to prominent outcomes-based accounts of indoctrination, which I argue share two limiting features—a narrow focus on the threat indoctrination poses to knowledge and on the dyadic relationship (...)
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  22.  35
    The Stereotype Threat Hypothesis: An Assessment From the Philosopher's Armchair, for the Philosopher's Classroom.Gina Schouten - 2015 - Hypatia 30 (2):450-466.
    According to Stereotype Threat Hypothesis, fear of confirming gendered stereotypes causes women to experience anxiety in circumstances wherein their performance might potentially confirm those stereotypes, such as high-stakes testing scenarios in science, technology, engineering, and math courses. This anxiety causes women to underperform, which in turn causes them to withdraw from math-intensive disciplines. STH is thought by many to account for the underrepresentation of women in STEM fields, and a growing body of evidence substantiates this hypothesis. In considering the (...)
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  23.  75
    Testimonial Knowledge and Context-Sensitivity: A New Diagnosis of the Threat.Alex Davies - 2019 - Acta Analytica 34 (1):53-69.
    Epistemologists typically assume that the acquisition of knowledge from testimony is not threatened at the stage at which audiences interpret what proposition a speaker has asserted. Attention is instead typically paid to the epistemic status of a belief formed on the basis of testimony that it is assumed has the same content as the speaker’s assertion. Andrew Peet has pioneered an account of how linguistic context sensitivity can threaten the assumption. His account locates the threat in contexts in which (...)
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  24.  16
    Embodied Harm: A Phenomenological Engagement with Stereotype Threat.Lauren Freeman - 2017 - Human Studies 40 (4):637-662.
    By applying classical and contemporary insights of the phenomenological tradition to key findings within the literature on stereotype threat, this paper considers the embodied effects of everyday exposure to racism and makes a contribution to the growing field of applied phenomenology. In what follows, the paper asks how a phenomenological perspective can both contribute to and enrich discussions of ST in psychology. In answering these questions, the paper uses evidence from social psychology as well as first personal testimonies from (...)
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  25.  26
    Indoctrination and Social Context: A System‐Based Approach to Identifying the Threat of Indoctrination and the Responsibilities of Educators.Rebecca M. Taylor - 2016 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 50 (4).
    Debates about indoctrination raise fundamental questions about the ethics of teaching. This paper presents a philosophical analysis of indoctrination, including 1) an account of what indoctrination is and why it is harmful, and 2) a framework for understanding the responsibilities of teachers and other educational actors to avoid its negative outcomes. I respond to prominent outcomes-based accounts of indoctrination, which I argue share two limiting features—a narrow focus on the threat indoctrination poses to knowledge and on the dyadic relationship (...)
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  26.  11
    Does Confabulation Pose a Threat to First-Person Authority? Mindshaping, Self-Regulation and the Importance of Self-Know-How.Leon de Bruin & Derek Strijbos - forthcoming - Topoi:1-11.
    Empirical evidence suggests that people often confabulate when they are asked about their choices or reasons for action. The implications of these studies are the topic of intense debate in philosophy and the cognitive sciences. An important question in this debate is whether the confabulation studies pose a serious threat to the possibility of self-knowledge. In this paper we are not primarily interested in the consequences of confabulation for self-knowledge. Instead, we focus on a different issue: what confabulation implies (...)
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  27.  34
    The Threat Simulation Theory of the Evolutionary Function of Dreaming: Evidence From Dreams of Traumatized Children.Katja Valli, Antti Revonsuo, Outi Pälkäs, Kamaran Hassan Ismail, Karzan Jalal Ali & Raija-Leena Punamäki - 2005 - Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):188-218.
    The threat simulation theory of dreaming states that dream consciousness is essentially an ancient biological defence mechanism, evolutionarily selected for its capacity to repeatedly simulate threatening events. Threat simulation during dreaming rehearses the cognitive mechanisms required for efficient threat perception and threat avoidance, leading to increased probability of reproductive success during human evolution. One hypothesis drawn from TST is that real threatening events encountered by the individual during wakefulness should lead to an increased activation of the (...)
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  28.  5
    Status Threat and Ethical Leadership: A Power-Dependence Perspective.Guangxi Zhang, Jianan Zhong & Muammer Ozer - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-21.
    Whether, how and when do leaders engage in ethical leadership as a response to status threat? We propose that leaders facing status threat are likely to develop ethical leadership behaviors toward subordinates. Drawing on power dependence theory, we theorize that experiencing status threat augments leaders’ dependence on subordinates who can provide them with status-relevant resources. Dependence on subordinates further motivates leaders to absorb the resource constraints through displaying ethical leadership. However, if leaders are able to obtain alternative (...)
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  29.  49
    Free Will and Substance Dualism: The Real Scientific Threat to Free Will?Alfred Mele - 2014 - In W. Sinnot-Armstrong (ed.), Moral Psychology, Vol. 4: Free Will and Responsibility. MIT Press.
    Mele uses survey methods of experimental philosophy to argue that folk notions of freedom and responsibility do not really require any dubious mind–body dualism. In his comment, Nadelhoffer questions Mele's interpretation of the experiments and adds contrary data of his own. Vargas then suggests that Mele overlooks yet another threat to free will—sourcehood. Mele replies by reinterpreting Nadelhoffer's data and rejecting Vargas’ claim that free will requires sourcehood.
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  30. Contesting the Market: An Assessment of Capitalism's Threat to Democracy.Michael Fuerstein - 2015 - In Subramanian Rangan (ed.), Performance and Progress: Essays on Capitalism, Business, and Society. Oxford University Press.
    I argue that capitalism presents a threat to “democratic contestation”: the egalitarian, socially distributed capacity to affect how, why, and whether power is used. Markets are not susceptible to mechanisms of accountability, nor are they bearers of intentions in the way that political power-holders are. This makes them resistant to the kind of rational, intentional oversight that constitutes one of democracy’s social virtues. I identify four social costs associated with this problem: the vulnerability of citizens to arbitrary interference, the (...)
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  31.  62
    Outscoping and Discourse Threat.Theodore Sider - 2014 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 57 (4):413-426.
    Sometimes we give truth-conditions for sentences of a discourse in other terms. According to Agustín Rayo, when doing so it is sometimes legitimate to use the terms of that very discourse, so long as the terms do not occur in the truth-conditions themselves. I argue that giving truth-conditions in this "outscoping" way prevents one from answering "discourse threat" (for example, the threat of indeterminacy).
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  32. Kant's Theory of Punishment: Deterrence in its Threat, Retribution in its Execution. [REVIEW]B. Sharon Byrd - 1989 - Law and Philosophy 8 (2):151 - 200.
    Kant's theory of punishment is commonly regarded as purely retributive in nature, and indeed much of his discourse seems to support that interpretation. Still, it leaves one with certain misgivings regarding the internal consistency of his position. Perhaps the problem lies not in Kant's inconsistency nor in the senility sometimes claimed to be apparent in the Metaphysic of Morals, but rather in a superimposed, modern yet monistic view of punishment. Historical considerations tend to show that Kant was discussing not one, (...)
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  33.  77
    A Difficulty Still Awaits: Kant, Spinoza, and the Threat of Theological Determinism.Kimberly Brewer & Eric Watkin - 2012 - Kant-Studien 103 (2):163-187.
    In a short and much-neglected passage in the second Critique, Kant discusses the threat posed to human freedom by theological determinism. In this paper we present an interpretation of Kant’s conception of and response to this threat. Regarding his conception, we argue that he addresses two versions of the threat: either God causes appearances (and hence our spatio-temporal actions) directly or he does so indirectly by causing things in themselves which in turn cause appearances. Kant’s response to (...)
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  34.  29
    The Threat of Intergenerational Extortion: On the Temptation to Become the Climate Mafia, Masquerading as an Intergenerational Robin Hood.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2017 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 47 (2-3):368-394.
    This paper argues that extortion is a clear threat in intergenerational relations, and that the threat is manifest in some existing proposals in climate policy and latent in some background tendencies in mainstream moral and political philosophy. The paper also claims that although some central aspects of the concern about extortion might be pursued in terms of the entitlements of future generations, this approach is likely to be incomplete. In particular, intergenerational extortion raises issues about the appropriate limits (...)
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  35.  4
    Context Learning for Threat Detection.Akos Szekely, Suparna Rajaram & Aprajita Mohanty - 2017 - Cognition and Emotion 31 (8):1525-1542.
    It is hypothesised that threatening stimuli are detected better due to their salience or physical properties. However, these stimuli are typically embedded in a rich context, motivating the question whether threat detection is facilitated via learning of contexts in which threat stimuli appear. To address this question, we presented threatening face targets in new or old spatial configurations consisting of schematic faces and found that detection of threatening targets was faster in old configurations. This indicates that individuals are (...)
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  36. Climate Change and the Threat of Disaster: The Moral Case for Taking Out Insurance at Our Grandchildren's Expense.Matthew Rendall - 2011 - Political Studies 59 (4):884-99.
    Is drastic action against global warming essential to avoid impoverishing our descendants? Or does it mean robbing the poor to give to the rich? We do not yet know. Yet most of us can agree on the importance of minimising expected deprivation. Because of the vast number of future generations, if there is any significant risk of catastrophe, this implies drastic and expensive carbon abatement unless we discount the future. I argue that we should not discount. Instead, the rich countries (...)
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  37.  9
    Threat Interpretation and Innovation in the Context of Climate Change: An Ethical Perspective.Aoife Haney - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 143 (2):261-276.
    The ability of managers to identify and interpret challenges in the external environment is one of the micro-foundations of dynamic capabilities. The underlying literature on strategic issue interpretation suggests that interpreting environmental challenges as opportunities rather than threats is more likely to lead to proactive and innovative responses, but there are also potentially positive effects of threat interpretation, for instance high levels of commitment and risk-seeking behaviour. In this paper, I use the context of climate change to explore the (...)
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  38.  10
    Detention and the Evolving Threat of Tuberculosis: Evidence, Ethics, and Law.Richard Coker, Marianna Thomas, Karen Lock & Robyn Martin - 2007 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 35 (4):609-615.
    The issue of detention as a public health control measure has attracted attention recently. This is because the threat of strains of tuberculosis that are resistant to a wider range of drugs has been identified, and there is renewed concern that public health is threatened. This paper considers whether involuntary detention is justified where voluntary measures have failed or where a patient poses a danger, albeit uncertain, to the public. We discuss the need for strengthening evidence-based assessments of public (...)
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  39. The Terrorist Threat: World Risk Society Revisited.U. Beck - 2002 - Theory, Culture and Society 19 (4):39-55.
    This article differentiates between three different axes of conflict in world risk society. The first axis is that of ecological conflicts, which are by their very essence global. The second is global financial crises, which, in a first stage, can be individualized and nationalized. And the third, which suddenly broke upon us on September 11th, is the threat of transnational terror networks, which empowers governments and states. Two sets of implications are drawn: first, there are the political dynamics of (...)
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  40.  13
    How to Test the Threat-Simulation Theory☆.Antti Revonsuo & Katja Valli - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1292-1296.
    Malcolm-Smith, Solms, Turnbull and Tredoux [Malcolm-Smith, S., Solms, M.,Turnbull, O., & Tredoux, C. . Threat in dreams: An adaptation? Consciousness and Cognition, 17, 1281–1291.] have made an attempt to test the Threat-Simulation Theory , a theory offering an evolutionary psychological explanation for the function of dreaming [Revonsuo, A. . The reinterpretation of dreams: An evolutionary hypothesis of the function of dreaming. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 877–901]. Malcolm-Smith et al. argue that empirical evidence from their own study as (...)
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  41.  16
    Threat in Dreams: An Adaptation?Susan Malcolm-Smith, Mark Solms, Oliver Turnbull & Colin Tredoux - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1281-1291.
    Revonsuo’s influential Threat Simulation Theory predicts that people exposed to survival threats will have more threat dreams, and evince enhanced responses to dream threats, compared to those living in relatively safe conditions. Participants in a high crime area differed significantly from participants in a low crime area in having greater recent exposure to a life-threatening event . Contrary to TST’s predictions, the SA participants reported significantly fewer threat dreams , and did not differ from the Welsh participants (...)
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  42.  9
    Difficulty Still Awaits: Kant, Spinoza, and the Threat of Theological Determinism.Kimberly Brewer & Eric Watkin - 2012 - Kant-Studien 103 (2):163-187.
    : In a short and much-neglected passage in the second Critique, Kant discusses the threat posed to human freedom by theological determinism. In this paper we present an interpretation of Kant’s conception of and response to this threat. Regarding his conception, we argue that he addresses two versions of the threat: either God causes appearances directly or he does so indirectly by causing things in themselves which in turn cause appearances. Kant’s response to the first version is (...)
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  43.  29
    Understanding the Precautionary Principle and its Threat to Human Welfare.H. Sterling Burnett - 2009 - Social Philosophy and Policy 26 (2):378-410.
    Over the past three decades, the Precautionary Principle has become popular in discussions of public policy, especially in relation to health and environmental policy. Though there are a number of different versions of the principle, the genesis of the idea is that it is better to be safe than sorry. In terms of public policy, proponents of the PP argue that being safe means that, if there is a possibility of harm from a new activity or novel technology, even if (...)
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  44.  31
    The Threat From Manipulation Arguments.Benjamin Matheson - 2018 - American Philosophical Quarterly 55 (1):37-50.
    Most seem to presume that what is threatening about manipulation arguments is the ‘no difference’ premise – that is, the claim that there are no responsibility-relevant differences between a manipulated agent and her merely causally determined counterpart. This presumption underlies three recent replies to manipulation arguments from Kearns (2012), King (2013), and Schlosser (2015). But these replies fail to appreciate the true threat from manipulation arguments – namely, the manipulation cases that are allegedly counterexamples to the leading compatibilist conditions (...)
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  45.  18
    Subconscious Detection of Threat as Reflected by an Enhanced Response Bias.S. Windmann & T. Kruger - 1998 - Consciousness and Cognition 7 (4):603-633.
    Neurobiological and cognitive models of unconscious information processing suggest that subconscious threat detection can lead to cognitive misinterpretations and false alarms, while conscious processing is assumed to be perceptually and conceptually accurate and unambiguous. Furthermore, clinical theories suggest that pathological anxiety results from a crude preattentive warning system predominating over more sophisticated and controlled modes of processing. We investigated the hypothesis that subconscious detection of threat in a cognitive task is reflected by enhanced ''false signal'' detection rather than (...)
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  46.  33
    Is It a Promise or a Threat?Cristiano Castelfranchi & Marco Guerini - 2007 - Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 15 (2):277-311.
    In this paper we analyse the concepts of Promise and Threat and their inter-relations. Our objective is to study the uses of P and T in persuasion and to shed some light on related concepts such as requesting, ordering, giving prizes, punishing, etc. First, we show that some Ps and Ts are used for persuasion and some are conditional in nature. Using general definitions of P and T and a broad notion of persuasion, four different typologies of P and (...)
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  47.  7
    The “Constant” Threat to the Dispositional Essentialist Conception of Laws.Vassilios Livanios - 2014 - Metaphysica 15 (1).
    According to the dispositional essentialist account of laws of nature, the latter express the dispositional nature of fundamental natural properties. In this paper I discuss the difficulty that the existence of fundamental constants of nature raises for that account. To this end, I examine a relevant argument against the account and describe how an advocate of the dispositionalist conception may try to undermine it by raising objections to its premises. Then I discuss those objections and show that eventually all fail. (...)
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  48.  37
    Society Under Threat… but Not From AI.Ajit Narayanan - 2013 - AI and Society 28 (1):87-94.
    25 years ago, when AI & Society was launched, the emphasis was, and still is, on dehumanisation and the effects of technology on human life, including reliance on technology. What we forgot to take into account was another very great danger to humans. The pervasiveness of computer technology, without appropriate security safeguards, dehumanises us by allowing criminals to steal not just our money but also our confidential and private data at will. Also, denial-of-service attacks prevent us from accessing the information (...)
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  49.  15
    Understanding the Role of Dispositional and Situational Threat Sensitivity in Our Moral Judgments.Jennifer Cole Wright & Galen L. Baril - 2013 - Journal of Moral Education 42 (3):383-397.
    Previous research has identified different moral judgments in liberals and conservatives. While both care about harm/fairness (?individualizing? foundations), conservatives emphasize in-group/authority/purity (?binding? foundations) more than liberals. Thus, some argue that conservatives have a more complex morality. We suggest an alternative view?that consistent with conservatism as ?motivated social cognition?, binding foundation activation satisfies psychological needs for social structure/security/certainty. Accordingly, we found that students who were dispositionally threat-sensitive showed stronger binding foundation activation, and that conservatives are more dispositionally threat-sensitive than (...)
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  50.  96
    Do Global Warming and Climate Change Represent a Serious Threat to Our Welfare and Environment?Michael E. Mann - 2009 - Social Philosophy and Policy 26 (2):193-230.
    The science underlying global warming, climate change, and the connections between these phenomena are reviewed. Projected future climate changes under various plausible scenarios of future human behavior are explored, as are the potential impacts of projected climate changes on society, ecosystems, and our environment. The economic, security, and ethical considerations relevant to determining the threat posed by climate change are subsequently assessed. The article then discusses the various means available for climate change mitigation, focusing on the relative strengths and (...)
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