1.  86
    Beyond Fairness: The Ethics of Inclusion for Transgender and Intersex Athletes.John Gleaves & Tim Lehrbach - 2016 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 43 (2):311-326.
    Sporting communities remain entangled in debate over whether and how to include transgender and intersex athletes in competition with cisgender athletes. Of particular concern is that transgender and intersex athletes may have unfair physiological advantages over their cisgender opponents. Arguments for inclusion of transgender and intersex athletes in sport attempt to demonstrate that such inclusion does not threaten the presumed physiological equivalence among competitors and is therefore fair to all. This article argues that the physiological equivalency rationale has significant limitations, (...)
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  2.  20
    Moral Communities in Anti-Doping Policy: A Response to Bowers and Paternoster.Emmanuel Macedo, Matt Englar-Carlson, Tim Lehrbach & John Gleaves - 2017 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 13 (1):49-61.
    This article argues that Bowers and Paternoster’s emphasis on a moral community marks an important step towards a more ethical and effective approach to anti-doping. However, it also argues that the authors’ proposed strategies undermine their stated goal of effectively engaging athletes as partners in anti-doping efforts and raise ethical concerns. Their proposed emphasis on exploiting shaming as a punishment and their general view of athletes as adversaries fosters mistrust between athletes and those who enforce the anti-doping rules. Instead, this (...)
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  3.  19
    Before the Rules Are Written: Navigating Moral Ambiguity in Performance Enhancement.John Gleaves, Matthew P. Llewellyn & Tim Lehrbach - 2014 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 8 (1):85-99.
    In 1984, a number of US cyclists used blood transfusions to boost their performance at the Los Angeles Olympic Games. The cyclists broke no rules and dominated the Games, yet were later maligned as cheaters and dopers?they had, it seemed, violated some important norm, albeit one which was neither an official rule nor otherwise easily identifiable. Their case illustrates the moral ambiguity that arises when a performance enhancement is employed in a sport that has not addressed it. This article takes (...)
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