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Tim Mulgan [61]Timothy Mulgan [3]
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Tim Mulgan
University of Auckland
  1. Future People: A Moderate Consequentialist Account of Our Obligations to Future Generations.Tim Mulgan - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    What do we owe to our descendants? How do we balance their needs against our own? Tim Mulgan develops a new theory of our obligations to future generations, based on a new rule-consequentialist account of the morality of individual reproduction. He also brings together several different contemporary philosophical discussions, including the demands of morality and international justice. His aim is to produce a coherent, intuitively plausible moral theory that is not unreasonably demanding, even when extended to cover future people. While (...)
  2. The Demands of Consequentialism.Tim Mulgan - 2001 - Oxford University Press.
    Tim Mulgan presents a penetrating examination of consequentialism: the theory that human behavior must be judged in terms of the goodness or badness of its consequences. The problem with consequentialism is that it seems unreasonably demanding, leaving us no room for our own aims and interests. In response, Mulgan offers his own, more practical version of consequentialism--one that will surely appeal to philosophers and laypersons alike.
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  3.  61
    Utilitarianism for a Broken World.Tim Mulgan - 2015 - Utilitas 27 (1):92-114.
    Drawing on the author's recent book Ethics for a Broken World, this article explores the philosophical implications of the fact that climate change might lead to a broken world where resources are insufficient to meet everyone's basic needs, and where our affluent way of life is no longer an option. It argues that the broken world has an impact, not only on applied ethics, but also on moral theory. It then explores that impact. The article first argues that the broken (...)
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  4. The Demands of Consequentialism.Tim Mulgan - 2003 - Philosophy 78 (304):289-296.
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  5. Purpose in the Universe: The Moral and Metaphysical Case for Ananthropocentric Purposivism.Tim Mulgan - 2015 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Two familiar worldviews dominate Western philosophy: materialist atheism and the benevolent God of the Abrahamic faiths. Tim Mulgan explores a third way. Ananthropocentric Purposivism claims that there is a cosmic purpose, but human beings are irrelevant to it. Purpose in the Universe develops a philosophical case for Ananthropocentric Purposivism that it is at least as strong as the case for either theism or atheism. He draws on a range of secular and religious ethical traditions to conclude that a non-human-centred cosmic (...)
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  6.  17
    Answering to Future People: Responsibility for Climate Change in a Breaking World.Tim Mulgan - 2018 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 35 (3):532-548.
    Our everyday notions of responsibility are often driven by our need to justify ourselves to specific others – especially those we harm, wrong, or otherwise affect. One challenge for contemporary ethics is to extend this interpersonal urgency to our relations with those future people who are harmed or affected by our actions. In this article, I explore our responsibility for climate change by imagining a possible ‘broken future’, damaged by the carbon emissions of previous generations, and then asking what its (...)
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  7. Future People: A Moderate Consequentialist Account of Our Obligations to Future Generations.Tim Mulgan - 2007 - Philosophical Quarterly 57 (229):679-685.
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  8.  63
    Answering to Future People: Responsibility for Climate Change in a Breaking World.Tim Mulgan - 2017 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 34 (2).
    Our everyday notions of responsibility are often driven by our need to justify ourselves to specific others – especially those we harm, wrong, or otherwise affect. One challenge for contemporary ethics is to extend this interpersonal urgency to our relations with those future people who are harmed or affected by our actions. In this article, I explore our responsibility for climate change by imagining a possible ‘broken future’, damaged by the carbon emissions of previous generations, and then asking what its (...)
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  9. Ethics for a Broken World: Imagining Philosophy After Catastrophe.Tim Mulgan - 2011 - Routledge.
    Imagine living in the future in a world already damaged by humankind, a world where resources are insufficient to meet everyone's basic needs and where a chaotic climate makes life precarious. Then imagine looking back into the past, back to our own time and assessing the ethics of the early twenty-first century. "Ethics for a Broken World" imagines how the future might judge us and how living in a time of global environmental degradation might utterly reshape the politics and ethics (...)
     
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  10. Understanding Utilitarianism.Tim Mulgan - 2007 - Routledge.
    Utilitarianism - a philosophy based on the principle of the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people - has been hugely influential over the past two centuries. Beyond ethics or morality, utilitarian assumptions and arguments abound in modern economic and political life, especially in public policy. An understanding of utilitarianism is indeed essential to any understanding of contemporary society. "Understanding Utilitarianism" presents utilitarianism very much as a living tradition. The book begins with a summary of the classical utilitarianism of (...)
     
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  11.  28
    How Should Utilitarians Think About the Future?Tim Mulgan - 2017 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 47 (2-3):290-312.
    Utilitarians must think collectively about the future because many contemporary moral issues require collective responses to avoid possible future harms. But current rule utilitarianism does not accommodate the distant future. Drawing on my recent books Future People and Ethics for a Broken World, I defend a new utilitarianism whose central ethical question is: What moral code should we teach the next generation? This new theory honours utilitarianism’s past and provides the flexibility to adapt to the full range of credible futures (...)
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  12.  2
    The Demands of Consequentialism.Tim Mulgan - 2002 - Mind 111 (444):891-897.
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  13. The Demands of Consequentialism.Tim Mulgan - 2004 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 194 (3):355-355.
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  14.  47
    III—Ethics for Possible Futures.Tim Mulgan - 2014 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 114 (1pt1):57-73.
    I explore the moral implications of four possible futures: a broken future where our affluent way of life is no longer available; a virtual future where human beings spend their entire lives in Nozick's experience machine; a digital future where humans have been replaced by unconscious digital beings; and a theological future where the existence of God has been proved. These futures affect our current ethical thinking in surprising ways. They raise the importance of intergenerational ethics, alter the balance between (...)
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  15. Morality, Rules, and Consequences: A Critical Reader.Brad Hooker, Elinor Mason, Dale E. Miller, D. W. Haslett, Shelly Kagan, Sanford S. Levy, David Lyons, Phillip Montague, Tim Mulgan, Philip Pettit, Madison Powers, Jonathan Riley, William H. Shaw, Michael Smith & Alan Thomas (eds.) - 2000 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    What determines whether an action is right or wrong? Morality, Rules, and Consequences: A Critical Reader explores for students and researchers the relationship between consequentialist theory and moral rules. Most of the chapters focus on rule consequentialism or on the distinction between act and rule versions of consequentialism. Contributors, among them the leading philosophers in the discipline, suggest ways of assessing whether rule consequentialism could be a satisfactory moral theory. These essays, all of which are previously unpublished, provide students in (...)
     
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  16. The Reverse Repugnant Conclusion.Tim Mulgan - 2002 - Utilitas 14 (3):360.
    Total utilitarianism implies Parfit's repugnant conclusion. For any world containing ten billion very happy people, there is a better world where a vast number of people have lives barely worth living. One common response is to claim that life in Parfit's Z is better than he suggests, and thus that his conclusion is not repugnant. This paper shows that this strategy cannot succeeed. Total utilitarianism also implies a reverse repugnant conclusion. For any world where ten billion people have lives of (...)
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  17.  56
    Transcending the Infinite Utility Debate.Tim Mulgan - 2002 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 80 (2):164 – 177.
    An infinite future thus threatens to paralyze utilitarianism. Utilitarians need principled ways to determine which possible infinite futures are better or worse. In this article, I discuss a recent suggestion of Peter Vallentyne and Shelly Kagan. I conclude that the best way forward for utilitarians is, in fact, to by-pass the infinite utility debate altogether. (edited).
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  18. Slote's Satisficing Consequentialism.Tim Mulgan - 1993 - Ratio 6 (2):121 - 134.
    The article discusses Michael Slote's Satisficing Consequentialism, which is the view that moral agents are not required to maximise the good, but merely to produce a sufficient amount of good. It is argued that Satisficing Consequentialism is not an acceptable alternative to Maximising Consequentialism. In particular, it is argued that Satisficing Consequentialism cannot be less demanding in practice than Maximising Consequentialism without also endorsing a wide range of clearly unacceptable actions. It is then argued that Slote's inability to provide adequate (...)
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  19. How Satisficers Get Away with Murder.Tim Mulgan - 2001 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 9 (1):41 – 46.
    Traditional Consequentialism is based on a demanding principle of impartial maximization. Michael Slote's 'Satisficing Consequentialism' aims to reduce the demands of Consequentialism, by no longer requiring us to bring about the best possible outcome. This paper presents a new objection to Satisficing Consequentialism. We begin with a simple thought experiment, in which an agent must choose whether to save the lives of ten innocent people by using a sand bag or by killing an innocent person. The main aim of the (...)
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  20. The Future of Utilitarianism.Tim Mulgan - 2012 - In James Maclaurin (ed.), Rationis Defensor.
    Climate change has obvious practical implications. It will kill millions of people, wipe out thousands of species, and so on. My question in this paper is much narrower. How might climate change impact on moral theory – and especially on the debate between utilitarians and their non-utilitarian rivals? I argue that climate change creates serious theoretical difficulties for non-utilitarian moral theories – especially those that based morality or justice on any contract or bargain for reciprocal advantage. Climate change thus tips (...)
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  21.  83
    Rule Consequentialism and Famine.Tim Mulgan - 1994 - Analysis 54 (3):187 - 192.
  22.  18
    Corporate Agency and Possible Futures.Tim Mulgan - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 154 (4):901-916.
    We need an account of corporate agency that is temporally robust – one that will help future people to cope with challenges posed by corporate groups in a range of credible futures. In particular, we need to bequeath moral resources that enable future people to avoid futures dominated by corporate groups that have no regard for human beings. This paper asks how future philosophers living in broken or digital futures might re-imagine contemporary debates about corporate agency. It argues that the (...)
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  23.  66
    Roger Crisp and Brad Hooker , Well-Being and Morality: Essays in Honour of James Griffin , Pp. X + 316. [REVIEW]Tim Mulgan - 2004 - Utilitas 16 (3):326-331.
  24.  11
    Replies to Critics.Tim Mulgan - 2014 - Philosophy and Public Issues - Filosofia E Questioni Pubbliche.
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  25.  32
    The Future of Philosophy.Tim Mulgan - 2013 - Metaphilosophy 44 (3):241-253.
    In this article the editor of the Philosophical Quarterly briefly outlines the editorial process at that journal; explains why it is foolhardy to attempt to predict the future of philosophy; and, finally, attempts such a prediction. Drawing on his recent book Ethics for a Broken World, he argues that climate change, or some other disaster, may lead to a broken world where the optimistic assumptions underlying contemporary philosophy no longer apply. He argues that the possibility of a broken world has (...)
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  26.  27
    Neutrality, Rebirth and Intergenerational Justice.Tim Mulgan - 2002 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (1):3–15.
  27.  3
    The Ethics of Killing: Problems at the Margins of Life.Tim Mulgan - 2004 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 34 (3):443-459.
    In this exceptional new book, Jeff McMahan sets out to provide such an account. Along the way, he offers nuanced and illuminating accounts of personal identity, human nature, the badness of death, the wrongness of killing, the rights of animals, abortion, and euthanasia. This book is a major contribution to both moral theory and applied ethics, and makes a strong case for the relevance of the former to the latter. It is also beautifully written and a joy to read.
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  28.  34
    Beyond Theism and Atheism: Axiarchism and Ananthropocentric Purposivism.Tim Mulgan - 2017 - Philosophy Compass 12 (6):e12420.
    Two familiar worldviews dominate Western philosophy: materialist atheism and Abrahamic theism. One exciting development in recent philosophy of religion is the exploration of alternatives to both theism and atheism. This paper explores two alternatives: axiarchism and ananthropocentrism. Drawing on the long tradition of Platonism, axiarchists such as John Leslie, Derek Parfit and Nicholas Rescher posit a direct link between goodness and existence. The goodness of a possible world is what makes it actual. Ananthropocentric Purposivism holds that the universe has a (...)
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  29.  72
    Experience, Utilitarianism and Climate Change.Tim Mulgan - 2008 - Rivista di Filosofia 99 (3):511-530.
  30.  8
    Justifying Present Partiality to Possible Future People.Tim Mulgan - 2018 - Revue D’Études Benthamiennes 14.
    Cet article s’interroge sur la manière dont la distinction entre soi et autrui – ainsi que les débats associés sur la partialité, l’altruisme et les exigences d’une morale – peut être amenée à être reformulée dans les différentes configurations de futurs possibles. L’article s’intéresse plus particulièrement aux cas où l’argumentation en faveur d’une partialité présente pourrait être remise en cause.
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  31.  20
    Rule Consequentialism and Non-Identity.Tim Mulgan - 2009 - In David Wasserman & Melinda Roberts (eds.), Harming Future Persons. Springer. pp. 115--134.
  32.  22
    One False Virtue of Rule Consequentialism, and One New Vice.Tim Mulgan - 1996 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 77 (4):362-373.
    A common objection to _act consequentialism (AC) is that it makes unreasonable demands on moral agents. _Rule consequentialism (RC) is often presented as a less demanding alternative. It is argued that this alleged virtue of RC is false, as RC will not be any less demanding in practice than AC. It is then demonstrated that RC has an additional (hitherto unnoticed) vice, as it relies upon the undefended simplifying assumption that the best possible consequences would arise in a society in (...)
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  33.  6
    What If God is Just Not That Into You?Tim Mulgan - unknown
    Tim Mulgan asks whether the universe could have a non-human-centred purpose.
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  34.  34
    Weighing Lives. [REVIEW]Tim Mulgan - 2008 - Philosophical Quarterly 58 (231):363–368.
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  35.  47
    Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies.Tim Mulgan - forthcoming - Philosophical Quarterly:pqv034.
  36.  41
    Two Conceptions of Benevolence.Tim Mulgan - 1997 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 26 (1):62-79.
  37. Teoria etica e intuizioni in un mondo in frantumi [Theory and Intuition in a Broken World].Tim Mulgan - 2010 - la Società Degli Individui 39.
    Il cambiamento climatico presenta caratteristiche inedite che mettono in di- scussione il pensiero morale cui siamo abituati. In questo saggio, si rico- struiscono le modifiche che sarebbero necessarie per pensare le questioni morali poste dalla prospettiva di un mondo che subisca gli effetti del cam- biamento climatico: si potrebbe trattare di un mondo in frantumi, dove non ci sono più le condizioni minime di benessere, e le nozioni cui siamo abi- tuati – come certi diritti o l'ideale dell'eguaglianza – non (...)
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  38.  34
    Reply to John Turri.Timothy Mulgan - 2005 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 13 (4):493 – 496.
  39.  87
    Liam Murphy, Moral Demands in Nonideal Theory, New York, Oxford University Press, 2000, Pp. Viii + 168.Tim Mulgan - 2003 - Utilitas 15 (1):113.
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  40.  49
    Intuitions and the Demands of Consequentialism.Garrett Cullity, Brad Hooker & Tim Mulgan - 2011 - Utilitas 23 (1).
  41.  13
    The Happiness Philosophers: The Lives and Works of the Great Utilitarians by Bart Schultz.Tim Mulgan - 2018 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 56 (1):179-180.
    Bart Schultz's fascinating study weaves together the lives and works of the four founders of classical utilitarianism—William Godwin, Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, and Henry Sidgwick—challenging historical interpretations and opening exciting new possibilities for contemporary moral and political philosophy. Schultz reminds us that the founders of utilitarianism were not lifeless proponents of a simplistic theory, but rounded individuals in whose hands the utilitarian project ranged widely over acts, rules, institutions, political economy, politics, law, and much else. Anyone interested in the (...)
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  42.  59
    A Non-Proportional Hybrid Moral Theory.Tim Mulgan - 1997 - Utilitas 9 (3):291.
    A common objection to consequentialism is that it makes unreasonable demands upon moral agents, by failing to allow agents to give special weight to their own personal projects and interests. A prominent recent response to this objection is that of Samuel Scheffler, who seeks to make room for moral agents by building agent-centred prerogatives into a consequentialist moral theory. In this paper, I present a new objection to Scheffler's account. I then sketch an improved prerogative, which avoids this objection by (...)
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  43.  37
    Critical Notice of Jeff McMahan, The Ethics of Killing: Problems at the Margins of Life.Tim Mulgan - 2004 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 34 (3):443-459.
    In this exceptional new book, Jeff McMahan sets out to provide such an account. Along the way, he offers nuanced and illuminating accounts of personal identity, human nature, the badness of death, the wrongness of killing, the rights of animals, abortion, and euthanasia. This book is a major contribution to both moral theory and applied ethics, and makes a strong case for the relevance of the former to the latter. It is also beautifully written and a joy to read.
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  44.  48
    The Unhappy Conclusion and the Life of Virtue.Tim Mulgan - 1993 - Philosophical Quarterly 44 (172):357-359.
  45.  31
    Dissolving the Mere Addition Paradox.Timothy Mulgan - 2000 - American Philosophical Quarterly 37 (4):359 - 372.
  46.  14
    Critical Notice.Tim Mulgan - 2004 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 34 (3):443-459.
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  47.  11
    Open Letter: The Ethics of Non‐Commercial IVF Surrogacy.Andrew Moore & Tim Mulgan - 1997 - Health Care Analysis 5 (1):85-91.
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  48.  26
    A Minimal Test for Political Theories.Tim Mulgan - 2001 - Philosophia 28 (1-4):283-296.
    Any adequate political theory must provide a plausible account of our obligations to future generations. It must also derive those obligations from morally significant features of our relationship to those who will live in the future, not from contingent accidents of human biology. The Minimal Test outlined in this paper offers a simple way to assess whether political theories are able to meet this challenge. It appears that several popular contemporary political theories will have difficulty passing that test.
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  49.  12
    The Non-Identity Problem.Tim Mulgan - 2003 - In Heather Dyke (ed.), Time and Ethics: Essays at the Intersection. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 209--218.
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  50.  28
    Two Moral Counterfactuals.Tim Mulgan - 2000 - Philosophical Forum 31 (1):47–55.
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