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Timothy Schroeder [61]Tim Schroeder [4]Timothy Allan Schroeder [1]
  1. In Praise of Desire.Nomy Arpaly & Timothy Schroeder - 2013 - New York: Oxford University Press. Edited by Timothy Schroeder.
    Joining the debate over the roles of reason and appetite in the moral mind, In Praise of Desire takes the side of appetite. Acting for moral reasons, acting in a praiseworthy manner, and acting out of virtue are simply acting out of intrinsic desires for the right or the good.
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  2. Three Faces of Desire.Timothy Schroeder - 2004 - New York, US: Oxford University Press.
    To desire something is a condition familiar to everyone. It is uncontroversial that desiring has something to do with motivation, something to do with pleasure, and something to do with reward. Call these "the three faces of desire." The standard philosophical theory at present holds that the motivational face of desire presents its unique essence--to desire a state of affairs is to be disposed to act so as to bring it about. A familiar but less standard account holds the hedonic (...)
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  3. Deliberation and Acting for Reasons.Nomy Arpaly & Timothy Schroeder - 2012 - Philosophical Review 121 (2):209-239.
    Theoretical and practical deliberation are voluntary activities, and like all voluntary activities, they are performed for reasons. To hold that all voluntary activities are performed for reasons in virtue of their relations to past, present, or even merely possible acts of deliberation thus leads to infinite regresses and related problems. As a consequence, there must be processes that are nondeliberative and nonvoluntary but that nonetheless allow us to think and act for reasons, and these processes must be the ones that (...)
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  4. Praise, Blame and the Whole Self.Nomy Arpaly & Timothy Schroeder - 1999 - Philosophical Studies 93 (2):161-188.
    What is that makes an act subject to either praise or blame? The question has often been taken to depend entirely on the free will debate for an answer, since it is widely agreed that an agent’s act is subject to praise or blame only if it was freely willed, but moral theory, action theory, and moral psychology are at least equally relevant to it. In the last quarter-century, following the lead of Harry Frankfurt’s (1971) seminal article “Freedom of the (...)
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  5. Desire.Tim Schroeder - 2006 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 1 (6):631-639.
    To desire is to be in a particular state of mind. It is a state of mind familiar to everyone who has ever wanted to drink water or desired to know what has happened to an old friend, but its familiarity does not make it easy to give a theory of desire. Controversy immediately breaks out when asking whether wanting water and desiring knowledge are, at bottom, the same state of mind as others that seem somewhat similar: wishing never to (...)
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  6. Desire.Tim Schroeder - 2006 - Philosophy Compass 1 (6):631–639.
    Desires move us to action, give us urges, incline us to joy at their satisfaction, and incline us to sorrow at their frustration. Naturalistic work on desire has focused on distinguishing which of these phenomena are part of the nature of desire, and which are merely normal consequences of desiring. Three main answers have been proposed. The first holds that the central necessary fact about desires is that they lead to action. The second makes pleasure the essence of desire. And (...)
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  7. Moral Motivation.Timothy Schroeder, Adina L. Roskies & Shaun Nichols - 2010 - In John M. Doris (ed.), Moral Psychology Handbook. Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press.
    In this chapter, we begin with a discussion of motivation itself, and use that discussion to sketch four possible theories of distinctively moral motivation: caricature versions of familiar instrumentalist, cognitivist, sentimentalist, and personalist theories about morally worthy motivation. To test these theories, we turn to a wealth of scientific, particularly neuroscientific, evidence. Our conclusions are that (1) although the scientific evidence does not at present mandate a unique philosophical conclusion, it does present formidable obstacles to a number of popular philosophical (...)
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  8. Donald Davidson's theory of mind is non-normative.Timothy Schroeder - 2003 - Philosophers' Imprint 3:1-14.
    Donald Davidson's theory of mind is widely regarded as a normative theory. This is a something of a confusion. Once a distinction has been made between the categorisation scheme of a norm and the norm's force-maker, it becomes clear that a Davidsonian theory of mind is not a normative theory after all. Making clear the distinction, applying it to Davidson's theory of mind, and showing its significance are the main purposes of this paper. In the concluding paragraphs, a sketch is (...)
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  9. New norms for teleosemantics.Timothy Schroeder - 2004 - In Hugh Clapin (ed.), Representation in Mind: New Approaches to Mental Representation. Elsevier. pp. 1--91.
    Teleosemantics has a problem: it holds that to have a mind one must have a history, often a long evolutionary history. The solution to the problem is for teleosemanticists to give up on natural selection as the source of natural norms (functions) for neural structures, and to find a different source of natural norms which is not essentially history-involving. Such a source in fact exists, in cybernetic governance. This paper argues for the existence of natural norms derived from cybernetic governance, (...)
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  10.  95
    An Ontology of Ideas.Wesley D. Cray & Timothy Schroeder - 2015 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 1 (4):757-775.
    Philosophers often talk about and engage with ideas. Scientists, artists, and historians do, too. But what is an idea? In this paper, we first motivate the desire for an ontology of ideas before discussing what conditions a candidate ontology would have to satisfy to be minimally adequate. We then offer our own account of the ontology of ideas, and consider various strategies for specifying the underlying metaphysics of the account. We conclude with a discussion of potential future work to be (...)
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  11. Alienation and Externality.Timothy Schroeder & Nomy Arpaly - 1999 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 29 (3):371-387.
    Harry Frankfurt introduces the concept of externality. Externality is supposed to be a fact about the structure of an agent's will. We argue that the pre-theorethical basis of externality has a lot more to do with feelings of alienation than it does with the will. Once we realize that intuitions about externality are guided by intuitions about feelings of alienation surprising conclusions follow regarding the structure of our will.
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  12. Moral responsibility and tourette syndrome.Timothy Schroeder - 2005 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 71 (1):106–123.
    Philosophers generally assume that individuals with Tourette syndrome are not responsible for their Tourettic tics, and so not blameworthy for any harm their tics might cause. Yet this assumption is based largely on ignorance of the lived experience of Tourette syndrome. Individuals with Tourette syndrome often experience their tics as freely chosen and reason-responsive. Yet it still seems wrong to treat a Tourettic individual’s tic as on a moral par with others’ actions. In this paper, I examine the options and (...)
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  13. Ideas for stories.Anthony Everett & Timothy Schroeder - 2015 - In Stuart Brock & Anthony Everett (eds.), Fictional Objects. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
     
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  14.  38
    On the content of experience.Timothy Schroeder & Ben Caplan - 2007 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 75 (3):590–611.
    The intentionalist about consciousness holds that the qualitative character of experience.
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  15.  58
    Functions From Regulation.Timothy Schroeder - 2004 - The Monist 87 (1):115-135.
    Here is a rather mundane set of claims about the stapler on my desk: The function of my stapler is to staple sheets of paper together. If the stapler is loaded with staples, but for some reason will not staple papers, the stapler is malfunctioning. That is, it is not doing what it is supposed to do. It is defective, or misshapen, misaligned or inadequate to its task, or in some other way normatively defective: there is something wrong with it. (...)
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  16. Propositional attitudes.Timothy Schroeder - 2006 - Philosophy Compass 1 (1):65-73.
    The propositional attitudes are attitudes such as believing and desiring, taken toward propositions such as the proposition that snow flurries are expected, or that the Prime Minister likes poutine. Collectively, our views about the propositional attitudes make up much of folk psychology, our everyday theory of how the mind works.
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  17. A Casual Theory of Acting for Reasons.Nomy Arpaly & Timothy Schroeder - 2015 - American Philosophical Quarterly 52 (2):103-114.
    Amanda works in a library, and a patron asks for her help in learning about duty-to- rescue laws in China. She throws herself into the task, spending hours on retrieving documents from governmental and non-governmental sources, getting electronic translations, looking for literature on Scandinavian duty-to-rescue laws that mention Chinese laws for comparison, and so on. Why? She likes to gain this sort of general knowledge of the world; perhaps the reason she works so hard is that she is learning fascinating (...)
     
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  18.  86
    Reply to critics.Timothy Schroeder - 2006 - Dialogue 45 (1):165-174.
  19.  96
    Pleasure, displeasure, and representation.Timothy Schroeder - 2001 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 31 (4):507-530.
    The object of the present work is to rectify the neglect that pleasure and displeasure have been suffering from in the philosophy of mind, and to give an account of pleasure and displeasure which reveals a striking degree of unity and theoretical tractabiliy underlying the diverse phenomena: a representationalist account.
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  20.  98
    The Impossibility of Conscious Desire.Donovan Hulse, Cynthia Read & Timothy Schroeder - 2004 - American Philosophical Quarterly 41 (1):73 - 80.
    We argue for the conclusion that intrinsic desires, at least, and every other propositional attitude having the world-to-mind direction of fit exclusively, are never found within consciousness. All desire-like states found in consciousness are experiences or exercises of imaginative capacities pertaining either to the desire or the content of the desire, but never the desire itself.
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  21.  60
    Replies to Critics.Nomy Arpaly & Timothy Schroeder - 2014 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 89 (2):509-515.
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  22. Unexpected pleasure.Timothy Schroeder - 2008 - In Luc Faucher & Christine Tappolet (eds.), The modularity of emotions. Calgary, Alta., Canada: University of Calgary Press. pp. 255-272.
    As topics in the philosophy of emotion, pleasure and displeasure get less than their fair share of attention. On the one hand, there is the fact that pleasure and displeasure are given no role at all in many theories of the emotions, and secondary roles in many others.1 On the other, there is the centrality of pleasure and displeasure to being emotional. A woman who tears up because of a blustery wind, while an ill-advised burrito weighs heavily upon her digestive (...)
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  23. A recipe for concept similarity.Tim Schroeder - 2007 - Mind and Language 22 (1):68-91.
    Sometimes your concept and mine have exactly the same content. When this is so, it is comparatively easy for me to understand what you say when you deploy your concept, for us to disagree, agree, and so on. But what if your concept and mine do not have exactly the same content? This question has occupied a number of philosophers, including Paul Churchland, Jerry Fodor, and Ernie Lepore. This paper develops a novel and rigorous measure of concept similarity, Proportion, such (...)
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  24. Practical rationality is a problem in the philosophy of mind.Timothy Schroeder - 2010 - Philosophical Issues 20 (1):394-409.
    The philosophy of mind encompasses a familiar set of topics: consciousness, intentionality, mental causation, emotion, whatever topics in psychology happen to capture our interest (concepts, mindreading . . .), and so on. There is a topic deserving of addition to this list, a topic that should be receiving regular attention from philosophers of mind but is not: practical rationality. The philosophy of mind bears directly upon what can be called the ‘meta-theory’ of practical rationality, and meta-theories of rationality likewise impose (...)
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  25. The Causal Map and Moral Psychology.Timothy Schroeder - 2016 - Philosophical Quarterly 67 (267):347-369.
    Some philosophers hold that the neuroscience of action is, in practice or in principle, incapable of touching debates in action theory and moral psychology. The role of desires in action, the existence of basic actions, and the like are topics that must be sorted out by philosophers alone: at least at present, and perhaps by the very nature of the questions. This paper examines both philosophical and empirical arguments against the relevance of neuroscience to such questions and argues that neither (...)
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  26. Monsters Among Us.Timothy Schroeder - 2001 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 31 (sup1):167-184.
    There are monsters that scare children and monsters that scare grownups, and then there are monsters that scare philosophers of mind. This paper is concerned with this third sort of monster, whose primary representative is the zombie—a living being, physically just like a person but lacking consciousness. Though zombies act like normal people and appear to have normal brains, everything is blank inside. Unfortunately, the term ‘zombie’ covers a narrower class of deficits than is convenient, failing to cover apparently normal (...)
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  27. Précis of In Praise of Desire.Nomy Arpaly & Timothy Schroeder - 2014 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 89 (2):490-495.
  28.  27
    Book Forum on In Praise of Desire.Nomy Arpaly & Timothy Schroeder - 2016 - Journal of Value Inquiry 50 (2):425-432.
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  29.  31
    Response to Swanton and Badhwar.Nomy Arpaly & Timothy Schroeder - 2016 - Journal of Value Inquiry 50 (2):445-448.
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  30. The reward theory of desire in moral psychology.Timothy Schroeder & Nomy Arpaly - 2014 - In Justin D'Arms & Daniel Jacobson (eds.), Moral Psychology and Human Agency: Philosophical Essays on the Science of Ethics. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
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  31.  66
    Reasons, Causes, and the Extended Mind Hypothesis.Daniel Pearlberg & Timothy Schroeder - 2016 - Erkenntnis 81 (1):41-57.
    In this paper we develop a novel argument against the extended mind hypothesis. Our argument constitutes an advance in the debate, insofar as we employ only premises that are acceptable to a coarse-grained functionalist, and we do not rely on functional disanalogies between putative examples of extended minds and ordinary human beings that are just a matter of fine detail or degree. Thus, we beg no questions against proponents of the extended mind hypothesis. Rather, our argument consists in making use (...)
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  32.  21
    A Sentimentalist Theory of Mind, by Michael Slote.Timothy Schroeder - 2016 - Mind 125 (497):228-231.
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  33. Unexpected pleasure.Timothy Schroeder - 2008 - In Luc Faucher & Christine Tappolet (eds.), The modularity of emotions. Calgary, Alta., Canada: University of Calgary Press. pp. 255-272.
    As topics in the philosophy of emotion, pleasure and displeasure get less than their fair share of attention. On the one hand, there is the fact that pleasure and displeasure are given no role at all in many theories of the emotions, and secondary roles in many others.1 On the other, there is the centrality of pleasure and displeasure to being emotional. A woman who tears up because of a blustery wind, while an ill-advised burrito weighs heavily upon her digestive (...)
     
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  34.  30
    An Unexpected Pleasure.Timothy Schroeder - 2006 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 36 (sup1):255-272.
    This paper considers the hedonic aspect of emotions: the fact that part of an emotion is feeling good (pleasure) or feeling bad (displeasure), in various ways, to various degrees. It argues that some aspects of what might reasonably be called the modularity of emotions reduces to the modularity of the hedonic aspects of emotions. In this regard, the way in which pleasure and displeasure reflect what is expected at the visceral level (what one is jaded to, what one is hardened (...)
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  35. Clean and Messy Theories.Timothy Schroeder - 2004 - In Three Faces of Desire. New York, US: Oxford University Press.
    This chapter tries to resolve the lingering questions about the divide between theoretical reduction and elimination, and about the justifications for insisting on placing a single face of desire at the center of a theory of desire. It is shown that by reviewing the points of agreement and disagreement between the reward theory and common sense, the reward theory passes the test. Research on desire has suffered from the incompleteness of the knowledge applied. By putting together all the evidence available (...)
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  36. Colin McGinn, Mindsight: Image, Dream, Meaning Reviewed by.Timothy Schroeder - 2006 - Philosophy in Review 26 (3):213-216.
     
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  37. Desire and Aversion.Timothy Schroeder - 2004 - In Three Faces of Desire. New York, US: Oxford University Press.
    This chapter reports a detailed version of the theory of desire and resolves the long list of questions appropriate to every theory of desire. It begins with a statement of a reward theory of desire. It also presents what is thought the most plausible set of positions available to a reward theorist on the metaphysically inessential, but very important, features of human desires. Specifically discussed are the desire strength, consciousness and desire, acquiring and losing desires, fleeting desires, instrumental desires and (...)
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  38.  7
    Desire and Pleasure.Timothy Schroeder - 2010 - In Timothy O'Connor & Constantine Sandis (eds.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Action. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 114–120.
    This chapter contains sections titled: Action ‐ Based Theories of Desire Pleasure ‐ Based Theories of Desire Combined Action ‐ Based and Pleasure ‐ Based Theories Holistic Theories of Desire Natural Kind Theories The Nature of Pleasure References.
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  39.  35
    Kelly, Daniel,. Yuck! The Nature and Moral Significance of Disgust. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2011. Pp. 194. $30.00.Timothy Schroeder - 2012 - Ethics 122 (2):430-434.
  40. Moravcsik and the contents of consciousness.Timothy Schroeder - unknown
    There is a doctrine in the theory of consciousness known as representationalism, or intentionalism. According to this doctrine, what it feels like to be in a particular state of consciousness — the qualitative character of that state — is identical to the content of some mental representation(s) For instance, the state of consciousness I am enjoying just now as I see a pattern of sunlight and shadow falling on my wall is, in part, a state of consciousness that presents to (...)
     
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  41. Moral motivation.Timothy Schroeder, Adina L. Roskies & Shaun Nichols - 2010 - In John M. Doris (ed.), Moral Psychology Handbook. Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press.
     
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  42. Michael Tye, Consciousness and Persons: Unity and Identity Reviewed by.Timothy Schroeder - 2004 - Philosophy in Review 24 (4):303-305.
     
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  43.  66
    On Romantic Love: Simple Truths about a Complex Emotion.Timothy Schroeder - 2016 - Philosophical Review Recent Issues 125 (2):287-289.
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  44. Preliminaries.Timothy Schroeder - 2004 - In Three Faces of Desire. New York, US: Oxford University Press.
    This book provides a full account of the nature of desire. It is a work about a single phenomenon that is more general than passionate yearning, but less general than the whole of the pro attitudes. It is a phenomenon for which everyday usage has at least three labels: ‘desiring’, ‘wanting’, and ‘wishing’. The book is a work on intrinsic desires, wants, and wishes: on desires. It faces a danger shared by other books importing science into philosophy: that it will (...)
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  45. Pleasure and Displeasure.Timothy Schroeder - 2004 - In Three Faces of Desire. New York, US: Oxford University Press.
    Pleasure and displeasure are phenomena so familiar that there seems no need for a summary of everyday knowledge of them. This chapter describes the folk psychology of hedonic tone and the evidence on neuroscience of pleasure. In addition, the four incorrect theories of pleasure are shown. It also provides the three brief arguments to defend the thesis that pleasure and displeasure are distinctive types of conscious events rather than behavioral styles. Moreover, a representational theory of pleasure and the objections to (...)
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  46.  55
    Précis of Three Faces of Desire.Timothy Schroeder - 2006 - Dialogue 45 (1):125-130.
  47.  16
    Précis of Three Faces of Desire.Timothy Schroeder - 2006 - Dialogue 45 (1):125-130.
  48. Reward and Punishment.Timothy Schroeder - 2004 - In Three Faces of Desire. New York, US: Oxford University Press.
    This chapter begins with three sections dedicated to the three main fields of knowledge about the psychology of reward and punishment. The findings of common sense, behaviorism, and neuroscience are surveyed in turn, and found to have much in common. Then, these commonalities are used to produce a more unified theory of the nature of reward. A wide variety of organisms, including both rats and people, appear capable of constituting some things as rewards and others as punishments, in a sense (...)
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  49. Robert Brandom, Articulating Reasons: An Introduction to Inferentialism Reviewed by.Timothy Schroeder - 2001 - Philosophy in Review 21 (4):235-237.
  50.  46
    Reflection, reason, and free will.Timothy Schroeder - 2007 - Philosophical Explorations 10 (1):77 – 84.
    Ju¨rgen Habermas has a familiar style of compatibilism to offer, according to which a person has free will insofar as that person responds appropriately to her reasons. But because of the ways in which Habermas understands reasons and causes, he sees a special objection to his style of compatibilism: it is not clear that our reasons can suitably cause our responses. This objection, however, takes us out of the realm of free will and into the realm of mental causation. In (...)
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