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  1.  15
    Berkeley’s Passive Obedience: The Logic of Loyalty.Timo Airaksinen - 2021 - History of European Ideas 47 (1):58-70.
    ABSTRACT Berkeley argues in Passive Obedience that what he calls morality is based on the divine laws of nature, which God gave us and whose validity is like that of the principles of geometry. One of these laws is the categorical demand for loyalty to the supreme political power. This is to say, rebellious action is strictly impermissible and passive obedience is morally required: we may disobey but only in terms of action omission and then we must accept the penalty (...)
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  2. Vagaries of Desire: A Collection of Philosophical Essays.Timo Airaksinen - 2019 - Brill | Rodopi.
    In Vagaries of Desire, Timo Airaksinen develops a new philosophical account of desire understood as mental state that focuses on a desirable possible world. Literary and philosophical themes, including sexuality, are discussed in terms of their metaphoric and metonymic features.
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  3.  15
    A Threat Like No Other Threat, George Berkeley Against the Freethinkers.Timo Airaksinen & Heta Gylling - 2017 - History of European Ideas 43 (6):598-613.
    ABSTRACTIn this paper, our purpose is to show what George Berkeley really said about ethics and the background conditions of religious life. The point is that true happiness is only possible in a religious sense; it means happiness in afterlife. The major threat to this is freethinking, or what we see as emerging enlightened modernism. His rather quixotic fix against freethinking shows the man as he is behind all the conventional panegyrics. He is a real Anglican soldier who anticipated but (...)
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  4. The Philosophy of the Marquis de Sade.Timo Airaksinen - 1995 - Routledge.
    The Marquis de Sade is famous for his forbidden novels like _Justine, Juliette_, and the _120 Days of Sodom_. Yet, despite Sade's immense influence on philosophy and literature, his work remains relatively unknown. His novels are too long, repetitive, and violent. At last in _The Philosophy of the Marquis de Sade_, a distinguished philosopher provides a theoretical reading of Sade. Airaksinen examines Sade's claim that in order to be happy and free we must do evil things. He discusses the motivations (...)
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  5.  47
    The Philosophy of the Marquis de Sade.Timo Airaksinen - 1995 - Routledge.
    The Marquis de Sade is famous for his forbidden novels like _Justine, Juliette_, and the _120 Days of Sodom_. Yet, despite Sade's immense influence on philosophy and literature, his work remains relatively unknown. His novels are too long, repetitive, and violent. At last in _The Philosophy of the Marquis de Sade_, a distinguished philosopher provides a theoretical reading of Sade. Airaksinen examines Sade's claim that in order to be happy and free we must do evil things. He discusses the motivations (...)
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  6. Vulgar Thoughts: Berkeley on Responsibility and Freedom.Timo Airaksinen - 2015 - In Sebastien Charles (ed.), Berkeley Revisited: Moral, Social and Political Philosophy. Voltaire Foundation. pp. 115-130.
  7.  48
    Five Types of Knowledge.Timo Airaksinen - 1978 - American Philosophical Quarterly 15 (4):263 - 274.
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  8.  45
    Berkeley and Newton on Gravity in Siris.Timo Airaksinen - 2010 - In Silvia Parigi (ed.), George Berkeley: Religion and Science in the Age of Enlightenment. Springer.
  9.  38
    In the Upper Room.Timo Airaksinen - 2015 - Philosophy and Theology 27 (2):427-456.
    This paper describes Berkeley’s ethics and analyses its metaphysical presuppositions. His ethical though is based on the theological idea of virtue that means obedience to God’s will and, hence, all ethically relevant concepts contain a reference to God. Berkeley also says that happiness in this vale of tears is God’s gift to us and a reward of virtue in heaven. Happiness is a sign and criterion of virtuous conduct. Obviously this kind of supernatural ethics can work only if its metaphysical (...)
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  10.  51
    Kant on Hobbes, Peace, and Obedience.Timo Airaksinen & Arto Siitonen - 2004 - History of European Ideas 30 (3):315-328.
    Kant's essay ‘On the common saying: “This may be true in theory, but it does not apply in practice”’ contains a chapter ‘On the relationship of theory to practice in political right’ to which he added, in brackets, ‘’. The problem is that Kant leaves his Hobbes-criticism implicit. The main point seems to be the Hobbes's citizens are without any rights. We explore the differences and similarities between Kant's and Hobbes's political views and evaluate the effectiveness of Kant's criticism. We (...)
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  11.  80
    Hobbes on the Passions and Powerlessness.Timo Airaksinen - 1993 - Hobbes Studies 6 (1):80-104.
  12.  15
    Ethics of Coercion and Authority: A Philosophical Study of Social Life.Timo Airaksinen - 1988 - University of Pittsburgh Press.
    "The work would be of great value to philosophers engaged in the conceptual analysis of coercion, to political scientists studying the state or other coercive institutions, and to advanced readers interested in the field of peace research."--Choice.
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  13.  27
    The Philosophy of H.P. Lovecraft the Route to Horror.Timo Airaksinen - 1999 - Peter Lang.
    H. P. Lovecraft was a great horror writer, correspondent, and philosopher. This book focuses on his stories, texts, and ideas. It attempts to make sense of their underlying unity. The main themes are value nihilism, cosmicism, the language of the unsayable, and the tension between science and magic. Special attention is paid to Lovecraft's style, which is shown to be an essential aspect of his creativity. Lovecraft was also an interesting person whose life is documented in his many letters. This (...)
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  14.  17
    Hard and Soft Offers as Constraints.Matti Häyry & Timo Airaksinen - 1988 - Philosophia 18 (4):385-398.
  15.  27
    Naturalism and Social Science: A Post-Empiricist Philosophy of Social Science.Timo Airaksinen - 1982 - Philosophy of Science 49 (1):144-146.
  16. On the foundations of rescher's coherence theory of truth.Timo Airaksinen - 1979 - Logique Et Analyse 22 (85):147.
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  17.  7
    Socratic Irony and Argumentation.Timo Airaksinen - 2022 - Argumentation 36 (1):85-100.
    Socratic irony can be understood independently of the immortal heroics of Plato’s Socrates. We need a systematic account and criticism of it both as a debate-winning strategy of argumentation and teaching method. The Speaker introduces an issue pretending to be at a lower intellectual level than her co-debaters, or Participants. An Audience looks over and evaluates the results. How is it possible that the Speaker like Socrates is, consistently, in the winning position? The situation is ironic because the Participants fight (...)
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  18.  6
    Vulgar Talk and Learned Reasoning in Berkeley’s Moral and Religious Thought.Timo Airaksinen - 2021 - Philosophia 50 (3):965-981.
    Berkeley “argues with the learned and speaks with the vulgar.” I use his double maxim to interpret his ethics. My approach is new. The Sermons and Guardian Essays mainly speak to the vulgar and Passive Obedience and Alciphron reason with the learned. The reward of ethics is eternal bliss in a future state: religion and ethics are connected. I study a set of problems: resurrection, eternal life, happiness, benevolence, the goodness of God, and self-love. Divine bliss is unlike any earthly (...)
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  19. Light and Causality in Siris.Timo Airaksinen - 2011 - In Timo Airaksinen & Bertil Belfrage (eds.), Berkeley's Lasting Legacy: 300 Years Later. Cambridge Scholars Press.
    George Berkeley's Siris (1744) has been a neglected work, for many reasons. Some of them are good and some bad. The book is difficult to decipher, mainly because of its ancient metaphysics. He talks about the world as an animal or plant. He speculates about man as a microcosm which is analogous to the universe as a macrocosm. He recommends tar-water as a universal medicine. This was understandable in his own time. But Siris is also a Newtonian treatise which both (...)
     
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  20.  27
    Against All the Odds: Machiavelli on Fortune in Politics.Timo Airaksinen - 2011 - In Leonidas Donskis (ed.), Niccolò Machiavelli: History, Power, and Virtue. Rodopi. pp. 226--3.
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  21.  26
    Rhetoric and Corpuscularism in Berkeley's Siris.Timo Airaksinen - 2011 - History of European Ideas 37 (1):23-34.
    Berkeley's Siris may be an unduly neglected treatise. Yet it reveals and confirms its author's philosophical ambitions and achievements. The greatest of them is his theory of causality. Berkeley tries to show that agents can influence the world by using ethereal corpuscles as their instruments. These particles are both material but also in some sense immaterial or occult because they both follow and do not follow the laws of nature. Siris is a rhetorical text which uses analogy, metaphor, paradox, and (...)
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  22. Thomas Hobbes's Many States of Nature.Timo Airaksinen - 2007 - Acta Philosophica Fennica 83:21-35.
  23.  71
    On Time Travel.Timo Airaksinen - 1980 - Dialectics and Humanism 7 (1):113-121.
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  24.  86
    Great Books, Bad Arguments: Republic, Leviathan and The Communist Manifesto.Timo Airaksinen - 2011 - Hobbes Studies 24 (2):192-195.
  25.  8
    Berkeley’s Passive Obedience: Positive and Negative Norms.Timo Airaksinen - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (1):66-77.
    ABSTRACT In Berkeley’s Passive Obedience, moral duties are negative and positive as well as civil or legal and natural. Natural duties are from God and therefore valid norms. The supreme civil authority makes civil laws. We must obey the law because loyalty to supreme civil power is one of our natural duties: to be loyal is to obey, which means ‘do not rebel.’ This is a negative duty and as such categorical or unconditional. Positive duties are conditional on conscientious acceptance. (...)
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  26. The Path of Fire : The Meaning and Interpretation of Berkeley's Siris.Timo Airaksinen - 2008 - In Stephen H. Daniel (ed.), New Interpretations of Berkeley's Thought. Humanity Books.
     
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  27.  68
    Starting with Hobbes.Timo Airaksinen - 2010 - Hobbes Studies 23 (2):189-192.
  28.  68
    Values in Mackie's Error Theory of Ethics.Timo Airaksinen - 1983 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 26 (4):467 – 475.
  29.  56
    Insanity, Crime and the Structure of Freedom in Hegel.Timo Airaksinen - 1989 - Social Theory and Practice 15 (2):155-178.
  30.  60
    On Nonfoundationalistic Theories of Epistemic Justification.Timo Airaksinen - 1981 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 19 (4):403-412.
  31.  10
    Irony and Sarcasm in Ethical Perspective.Timo Airaksinen - 2020 - Open Philosophy 3 (1):358-368.
    Irony and sarcasm are two quite different, sometimes morally dubious, linguistic tropes. We can draw a distinction between them if we identify irony as a speech act that calls what is bad good and, correspondingly, sarcasm calls good bad. This allows us to ask, which one is morally worse. My argument is based on the idea that the speaker can legitimately bypass what is good and call it bad, which is to say that she may literally mean what she says. (...)
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  32.  9
    Mimetic Evil: A Conceptual and Ethical Study.Timo Airaksinen - 2020 - Problemos 98.
    Irony and sarcasm are common linguistic tropes. They are both based on falsehoods that the speaker pretends to be true. I briefly characterize their differences. A third trope exists that works when the relevant propositions are true – yet its rhetorical effect resembles irony and sarcasm, I call it mocking. It is mimetic evil: an agent copies another so that the result ridicules him. The image is, in a limited way, true of him and it hurts; we all are vulnerable. (...)
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  33.  34
    Meaning and Knowledge: The Place of Criteria in Epistemology.Timo Airaksinen - 1981 - Dialectics and Humanism 8 (1):113-122.
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  34.  49
    Absolutely Certain Beliefs: Odegard, Rescher and Klein.Timo Airaksinen - 1985 - Philosophy Research Archives 11:393-406.
    This paper presents a critical review and discussion of three recent major theories of epistemic scepticism. Odegard and Rescher both agree that real knowledge entails certain beliefs. But they both fail to see how beliefs could be absolutely certain. Klein’s book, Certainty: A Refutationof Scepticism, presents the strongest possible view in favor of absolute certainty. I pay attention to its technical details and development by Klein. My conclusion is that Klein’s theory rests on some presupposed ideas that are either counterintuitive (...)
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  35. Acerca de Hobbes, la paz y la obediencia.Timo Airaksinen & Arto Siitonenkant - 2005 - Philosophica 28:5-21.
    El presente trabajo muestra cómo, a pesar de que Kant y Hobbes parten del supuesto de una natural belicosodad de los seres humanos y una tendencia hacia la desobediencia, cada uno arriba a soluciones radicalmente diferentes. Kant, en el escrito Acerca del dicho: “Esto puede ser verdad en teoría pero no en la práctica’ contiene un capítulo expresamente contra Hobbes y, fundado en las tesis de la Ilustración, intenta salvar el derecho de los subditos frente al monarca, no obstante que (...)
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  36.  11
    Berkeley's Lasting Legacy: 300 Years Later.Timo Airaksinen & Bertil Belfrage (eds.) - 2011 - Cambridge Scholars Press.
    George Berkeley (1685-1753) is, with John Locke and David Hume, one of the three major figures in the British empiricist school of philosophy. He has been the centre of much attention recently and his philosophical profile has gradually changed. In the 20th century he was almost exclusively known for his denial of the existence of matter (as this term was defined in those days), but today it is no longer reasonable to confine an account of Berkeley to the challenging philosophical (...)
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  37. Berkeley's Lasting Legacy: 300 Years Later.Timo Airaksinen & Bertil Belfrage Airaksinen (eds.) - 2011 - Cambridge Scholars Press.
    George Berkeley is, with John Locke and David Hume, one of the three major figures in the British empiricist school of philosophy. He has been the centre of much attention recently and his philosophical profile has gradually changed. In the 20th century he was almost exclusively known for his denial of the existence of matter, but today it is no longer reasonable to confine an account of Berkeley to the challenging philosophical inventions that he published when he was a young (...)
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  38. David Boonin-Vail, Thomas Hobbes and the Science of Moral Virtue. [REVIEW]Timo Airaksinen - 1995 - Philosophy in Review 15:230-232.
  39.  6
    Desire: The Concept and its Practical Context.Timo Airaksinen (ed.) - 2016 - Transaction Publishers.
    Desire is a rich term meaning wish and want, willingness and relish, appetite and lust. This volume is an effort to analyze the concept of desire and its different practical contexts from a morally philosophic point of view. By analyzing multiple definitions and studying underlying motivations, the authors offer a variety of explanations and interpretations. The volume consists of three main parts. The first part, "Desire and Practice," examines desire as a mental state that seeks personal satisfaction. The second part (...)
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  40. Education and the praxiology of the hidden curriculum.Timo Airaksinen - 2005 - Prakseologia 145 (145):33-42.
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  41. Isolation and Radicalism in Democracy.Timo Airaksinen - 2000 - Acta Philosophica Fennica 65:9-26.
     
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  42. New Ethics--New Society, or, the Dawn of Justice.Timo Airaksinen & Olli Loukola - 2000
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  43. Of Glamor, Sex, and de Sade.Timo Airaksinen - 1991 - Longwood PressLtd.
  44. Peter Geach, Ed., Logic and Ethics Reviewed By.Timo Airaksinen - 1991 - Philosophy in Review 11 (6):393-394.
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  45. Peter Geach, Ed., Logic and Ethics. [REVIEW]Timo Airaksinen - 1991 - Philosophy in Review 11:390-394.
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  46. R.E. Ewin, Virtues And Rights: The Moral Philosophy Of Thomas Hobbes. [REVIEW]Timo Airaksinen - 1992 - Philosophy in Review 12:100-101.
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  47. The Espistemological Relevance of Social Power.Timo Airaksinen - 1984 - Dialectics and Humanism 11 (4):575-583.
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  48.  1
    The Ontological Criteria of Reality: A Study of Bradley and Mctaggart.Timo Airaksinen - 1975 - Turun Yliopisto.
  49. Winai inne negatywne emocje moralne.Timo Airaksinen - 2001 - Prakseologia 141 (141):299-308.
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  50. Praxiology and the Philosophy of Technology: Praxiology: The International Annual of Practical Philosophy and Methodology.Wojciech W. Gasparski & Timo Airaksinen - 2008 - Routledge.
    Addresses useful questions about the philosophy and ethics of technology. This book discusses general questions about the theory of technology. It focuses on special topics like information and communication technologies and work systems, as well as the foundations of problem solving and the history of innovation in the age of enlightenment.
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