86 found
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  1.  4
    Berkeley’s Passive Obedience: The Logic of Loyalty.Timo Airaksinen - 2021 - History of European Ideas 47 (1):58-70.
    ABSTRACT Berkeley argues in Passive Obedience that what he calls morality is based on the divine laws of nature, which God gave us and whose validity is like that of the principles of geometry. One of these laws is the categorical demand for loyalty to the supreme political power. This is to say, rebellious action is strictly impermissible and passive obedience is morally required: we may disobey but only in terms of action omission and then we must accept the penalty (...)
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  2.  14
    A Threat Like No Other Threat, George Berkeley Against the Freethinkers.Timo Airaksinen & Heta Gylling - 2017 - History of European Ideas 43 (6):598-613.
    ABSTRACTIn this paper, our purpose is to show what George Berkeley really said about ethics and the background conditions of religious life. The point is that true happiness is only possible in a religious sense; it means happiness in afterlife. The major threat to this is freethinking, or what we see as emerging enlightened modernism. His rather quixotic fix against freethinking shows the man as he is behind all the conventional panegyrics. He is a real Anglican soldier who anticipated but (...)
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  3.  45
    Five Types of Knowledge.Timo Airaksinen - 1978 - American Philosophical Quarterly 15 (4):263 - 274.
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  4.  46
    The Philosophy of the Marquis de Sade.Timo Airaksinen - 1995 - Routledge.
    The Marquis de Sade is famous for his forbidden novels like _Justine, Juliette_, and the _120 Days of Sodom_. Yet, despite Sade's immense influence on philosophy and literature, his work remains relatively unknown. His novels are too long, repetitive, and violent. At last in _The Philosophy of the Marquis de Sade_, a distinguished philosopher provides a theoretical reading of Sade. Airaksinen examines Sade's claim that in order to be happy and free we must do evil things. He discusses the motivations (...)
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  5.  36
    Berkeley and Newton on Gravity in Siris.Timo Airaksinen - 2010 - In Silvia Parigi (ed.), George Berkeley: Religion and Science in the Age of Enlightenment. Springer.
  6.  31
    In the Upper Room.Timo Airaksinen - 2015 - Philosophy and Theology 27 (2):427-456.
    This paper describes Berkeley’s ethics and analyses its metaphysical presuppositions. His ethical though is based on the theological idea of virtue that means obedience to God’s will and, hence, all ethically relevant concepts contain a reference to God. Berkeley also says that happiness in this vale of tears is God’s gift to us and a reward of virtue in heaven. Happiness is a sign and criterion of virtuous conduct. Obviously this kind of supernatural ethics can work only if its metaphysical (...)
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  7.  50
    Kant on Hobbes, Peace, and Obedience.Timo Airaksinen & Arto Siitonen - 2004 - History of European Ideas 30 (3):315-328.
    Kant's essay ‘On the common saying: “This may be true in theory, but it does not apply in practice”’ contains a chapter ‘On the relationship of theory to practice in political right’ to which he added, in brackets, ‘’. The problem is that Kant leaves his Hobbes-criticism implicit. The main point seems to be the Hobbes's citizens are without any rights. We explore the differences and similarities between Kant's and Hobbes's political views and evaluate the effectiveness of Kant's criticism. We (...)
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  8.  14
    Ethics of Coercion and Authority: A Philosophical Study of Social Life.Timo Airaksinen - 1989 - University of Pittsburgh Press.
  9. The Philosophy of H.P. Lovecraft the Route to Horror.Timo Airaksinen - 1999
     
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  10.  17
    Hard and Soft Offers as Constraints.Matti Häyry & Timo Airaksinen - 1988 - Philosophia 18 (4):385-398.
  11.  27
    Naturalism and Social Science: A Post-Empiricist Philosophy of Social Science.Timo Airaksinen - 1982 - Philosophy of Science 49 (1):144-146.
  12.  27
    Against All the Odds: Machiavelli on Fortune in Politics.Timo Airaksinen - 2011 - In Leonidas Donskis (ed.), Niccolò Machiavelli: History, Power, and Virtue. Rodopi. pp. 226--3.
  13.  24
    Rhetoric and Corpuscularism in Berkeley's Siris.Timo Airaksinen - 2011 - History of European Ideas 37 (1):23-34.
    Berkeley's Siris may be an unduly neglected treatise. Yet it reveals and confirms its author's philosophical ambitions and achievements. The greatest of them is his theory of causality. Berkeley tries to show that agents can influence the world by using ethereal corpuscles as their instruments. These particles are both material but also in some sense immaterial or occult because they both follow and do not follow the laws of nature. Siris is a rhetorical text which uses analogy, metaphor, paradox, and (...)
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  14.  56
    Hobbes on the Passions and Powerlessness.Timo Airaksinen - 1993 - Hobbes Studies 6 (1):80-104.
  15. Hobbes War Among Nations.Timo Airaksinen & Martin A. Bertman - 1989
  16.  38
    Kant's Elusive Self: Problems of Paralogisms.Arto Siitonen & Timo Airaksinen - 1988 - Metaphilosophy 19 (3‐4):329-336.
  17.  49
    Absolutely Certain Beliefs.Timo Airaksinen - 1985 - Philosophy Research Archives 11:393-406.
    This paper presents a critical review and discussion of three recent major theories of epistemic scepticism. Odegard and Rescher both agree that real knowledge entails certain beliefs. But they both fail to see how beliefs could be absolutely certain. Klein’s book, Certainty: A Refutationof Scepticism, presents the strongest possible view in favor of absolute certainty. I pay attention to its technical details and development by Klein. My conclusion is that Klein’s theory rests on some presupposed ideas that are either counterintuitive (...)
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  18.  3
    Absolutely Certain Beliefs: Odegard, Rescher and Klein.Timo Airaksinen - 1985 - Philosophy Research Archives 11:393-406.
    This paper presents a critical review and discussion of three recent major theories of epistemic scepticism. Odegard and Rescher both agree that real knowledge entails certain beliefs. But they both fail to see how beliefs could be absolutely certain. Klein’s book, Certainty: A Refutationof Scepticism, presents the strongest possible view in favor of absolute certainty. I pay attention to its technical details and development by Klein. My conclusion is that Klein’s theory rests on some presupposed ideas that are either counterintuitive (...)
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  19. Acerca de Hobbes, la paz y la obediencia.Timo Airaksinen & Arto Siitonenkant - 2005 - Philosophica 28:5-21.
    El presente trabajo muestra cómo, a pesar de que Kant y Hobbes parten del supuesto de una natural belicosodad de los seres humanos y una tendencia hacia la desobediencia, cada uno arriba a soluciones radicalmente diferentes. Kant, en el escrito Acerca del dicho: “Esto puede ser verdad en teoría pero no en la práctica’ contiene un capítulo expresamente contra Hobbes y, fundado en las tesis de la Ilustración, intenta salvar el derecho de los subditos frente al monarca, no obstante que (...)
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  20.  31
    Active Principles and Trinities in Berkeley's "Siris".Timo Airaksinen - 2010 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 135 (1):57 - 70.
    Berkeley's Siris is a chain of arguments which ends in God. First God is a metaphysical principle causally regulating the world or Macrocosm. But in the final paragraphs of Siris, God is treated in a theological perspective. This is to say that Berkeley introduces the idea of the Trinity and relates it to the rest of his chain argument. He says that Father, Son, and Spirit correspond to the philosophical notions of sun, light, and heat. I study the final theological (...)
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  21.  14
    Active Principles and Trinities in Berkeley's Siris.Timo Airaksinen - 2010 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 135 (1):57.
    La Siris est une série d’arguments qui aboutit à Dieu. D’abord, Dieu est un principe métaphysique qui, par causalité, régit le monde, ou macrocosme. Mais les paragraphes terminaux de la Siris traitent de Dieu dans une perspective théologique : Berkeley introduit la notion de Trinité et la relie à ses raisonnements antérieurs. Il dit que le Père, le Fils et l’Esprit correspondent aux notions philosophiques de soleil, de lumière et de chaleur. J’étudie ces paragraphes théologiques et leur articulation avec ce (...)
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  22. Berkeley and the Justification of Beliefs.Timo Airaksinen - 1987 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 48 (2):235-256.
    This paper analyzes berkeley's philosophy in the light of modern epistemology and philosophy of mind. It is shown that our knowledge of spatio-Temporal bodies cannot be certain. Certainty is restricted to the realm of sensory ideas themselves. But there is hardly any reason to be interested in ideas as such. Berkeley is a common sense thinker who wants to know the world and its scientific laws. Bodies are constructed on the basis of both real and imaginary ideas. This topic is (...)
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  23. Berkeley's Lasting Legacy: 300 Years Later.Timo Airaksinen & Bertil Belfrage (eds.) - 2011 - Cambridge Scholars Press.
     
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  24. Berkeley's Lasting Legacy: 300 Years Later.Timo Airaksinen & Bertil Belfrage Airaksinen (eds.) - 2011 - Cambridge Scholars Press.
     
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  25.  5
    Berkeley’s Passive Obedience: Positive and Negative Norms.Timo Airaksinen - forthcoming - History of European Ideas:1-12.
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  26.  20
    Book Reviews. [REVIEW]Timo Airaksinen, Stewart Shapiro & W. Stephen Croddy - 1984 - Philosophia 14 (3-4):427-467.
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  27.  40
    Coercion, Deterrence, and Authority.Timo Airaksinen - 1984 - Theory and Decision 17 (2):105-117.
  28. David Boonin-Vail, Thomas Hobbes and the Science of Moral Virtue Reviewed By.Timo Airaksinen - 1995 - Philosophy in Review 15 (4):230-232.
  29. David Boonin-Vail, Thomas Hobbes and the Science of Moral Virtue. [REVIEW]Timo Airaksinen - 1995 - Philosophy in Review 15:230-232.
  30.  16
    D. M. Gross, The Secret History of Emotion: From Aristotle’s Rhetoric to Modern Brain Science. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2006, X + 194 Pp. ISBN-13: 978-0-226-30980-4, Paperback. [REVIEW]Timo Airaksinen - 2012 - Hobbes Studies 25 (2):233-235.
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  31.  6
    Desire: The Concept and its Practical Context.Timo Airaksinen (ed.) - 2016 - Transaction Publishers.
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  32. Education and the praxiology of the hidden curriculum.Timo Airaksinen - 2005 - Prakseologia 145 (145):33-42.
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  33.  85
    Great Books, Bad Arguments: Republic, Leviathan and The Communist Manifesto.Timo Airaksinen - 2011 - Hobbes Studies 24 (2):192-195.
  34. Isolation and Radicalism in Democracy.Timo Airaksinen - 2000 - Acta Philosophica Fennica 65:9-26.
     
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  35.  10
    Irony and Sarcasm in Ethical Perspective.Timo Airaksinen - 2020 - Open Philosophy 3 (1):358-368.
    Irony and sarcasm are two quite different, sometimes morally dubious, linguistic tropes. We can draw a distinction between them if we identify irony as a speech act that calls what is bad good and, correspondingly, sarcasm calls good bad. This allows us to ask, which one is morally worse. My argument is based on the idea that the speaker can legitimately bypass what is good and call it bad, which is to say that she may literally mean what she says. (...)
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  36.  49
    Insanity, Crime and the Structure of Freedom in Hegel.Timo Airaksinen - 1989 - Social Theory and Practice 15 (2):155-178.
  37.  12
    Instrumental Rationality.Timo Airaksinen & Katri Kaalikoski - 1994 - ProtoSociology 6:177-188.
    The standard view of rationality distinguishes between instrumental rationality and the rationality of ends. We discuss this conception briefly before introducing an alternative theory. According to it, means and ends are interconnected so that the means will produce the ends. In other words, the means are used to shape our ends. We describe and discuss this view, asking whether it can be called rationality. It is clear that this alternative view has many irrational features. But at the same time it (...)
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  38.  36
    Justified Coercion.Timo Airaksinen - 1990 - Social Philosophy Today 3:21-40.
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  39.  9
    Justified Coercion.Timo Airaksinen - 1990 - Social Philosophy Today 3:21-40.
  40. Kant, acerca de Hobbes, la paz y la obediencia.Timo Airaksinen & Arto Siitonen - 2005 - Philosophica 28:5-21.
    El presente trabajo muestra cómo, a pesar de que Kant y Hobbes parten del supuesto de una natural belicosodad de los seres humanos y una tendencia hacia la desobediencia, cada uno arriba a soluciones radicalmente diferentes. Kant, en el escrito Acerca del dicho: ¿Esto puede ser verdad en teoría pero no en la práctica¿ contiene un capítulo expresamente contra Hobbes y, fundado en las tesis de la Ilustración, intenta salvar el derecho de los subditos frente al monarca, no obstante que (...)
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  41.  1
    Kafka: Crime and Punishment.Timo Airaksinen - 2019 - Ethics and Bioethics (in Central Europe) 9 (3-4):148-158.
    When we read The Trial and In the Penal Colony together, we read about the logic of law, crime, punishment, and guilt. Of course, we cannot know the law, or, as Kafka writes, we cannot enter the law. I interpret the idea in this way: the law opens a gate to the truth. Alas, no one can enter the law, or come to know the truth, as Kafka says. The consequences are devastating: one cannot know the name of one’s own (...)
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  42. Light and Causality in Siris.Timo Airaksinen - 2011 - In Timo Airaksinen & Bertil Belfrage (eds.), Berkeley's Lasting Legacy: 300 Years Later. Cambridge Scholars Press.
    George Berkeley's Siris (1744) has been a neglected work, for many reasons. Some of them are good and some bad. The book is difficult to decipher, mainly because of its ancient metaphysics. He talks about the world as an animal or plant. He speculates about man as a microcosm which is analogous to the universe as a macrocosm. He recommends tar-water as a universal medicine. This was understandable in his own time. But Siris is also a Newtonian treatise which both (...)
     
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  43. Los diversos estados de naturaleza en Thomas Hobbes.Timo Airaksinen - 2004 - Philosophica 27:5-16.
    Hobbes elabora una concepción clave de estado de naturaleza, al que denomino el fundamental; lo complemento al agregar su versión moderada que ilustro con una historia acerca de los antiguos islandeses y sus Sagas. Respetaban sus leyes, a pesar de que no podían exigir su cumplimiento. La vida en dicha sociedad era grosera y embrutecida, pero no pobre o solitaria. Finalmente se instituyó el gobierno del rey noruego. Sin embargo, Hobbes necesita un concepto social adicional que se comprenda en referencia (...)
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  44.  35
    Meaning and Knowledge.Timo Airaksinen - 1981 - Dialectics and Humanism 8 (1):113-122.
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  45.  34
    Meaning and Knowledge: The Place of Criteria in Epistemology.Timo Airaksinen - 1981 - Dialectics and Humanism 8 (1):113-122.
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  46.  51
    Moral Education and Democracy in the School.Timo Airaksinen - 1982 - Synthese 51 (1):117 - 134.
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  47.  7
    Mimetic Evil: A Conceptual and Ethical Study.Timo Airaksinen - 2020 - Problemos 98.
    Irony and sarcasm are common linguistic tropes. They are both based on falsehoods that the speaker pretends to be true. I briefly characterize their differences. A third trope exists that works when the relevant propositions are true – yet its rhetorical effect resembles irony and sarcasm, I call it mocking. It is mimetic evil: an agent copies another so that the result ridicules him. The image is, in a limited way, true of him and it hurts; we all are vulnerable. (...)
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  48. Medical Ethics in Finland: Some Recent Trends.Timo Airaksinen & Manu J. Vuorio - 1988 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 9 (3).
    This paper reviews the research done in Finland on medical ethics in the last three years and published in four leading journals. The general characteristics of this area are discussed and some comments on its most conspicuous representatives are offered. The conclusion reached is that medical ethics in Finland is still in a rather embryonic stage of development, and that more systematic and theoretically sophisticated approaches are required. However, since many physicians have become interested in ethical questions, it can be (...)
     
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  49.  18
    Moral Implications of Coercion.Timo Airaksinen - 1988 - Philosophie Et Culture: Actes du XVIIe Congrès Mondial de Philosophie 3:361-364.
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  50. New Ethics--New Society or, the Dawn of Justice.Timo Airaksinen, Olli Loukola & Suomen Filosofinen Yhdistys - 2000
     
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