Results for 'Timo Speith'

443 found
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  1.  19
    From Responsibility to Reason-Giving Explainable Artificial Intelligence.Kevin Baum, Susanne Mantel, Timo Speith & Eva Schmidt - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-30.
    We argue that explainable artificial intelligence (XAI), specifically reason-giving XAI, often constitutes the most suitable way of ensuring that someone can properly be held responsible for decisions that are based on the outputs of artificial intelligent (AI) systems. We first show that, to close moral responsibility gaps (Matthias 2004), often a human in the loop is needed who is directly responsible for particular AI-supported decisions. Second, we appeal to the epistemic condition on moral responsibility to argue that, in order to (...)
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  2. What Do We Want From Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI)? – A Stakeholder Perspective on XAI and a Conceptual Model Guiding Interdisciplinary XAI Research.Markus Langer, Daniel Oster, Timo Speith, Lena Kästner, Kevin Baum, Holger Hermanns, Eva Schmidt & Andreas Sesing - 2021 - Artificial Intelligence 296:103473.
    Previous research in Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) suggests that a main aim of explainability approaches is to satisfy specific interests, goals, expectations, needs, and demands regarding artificial systems (we call these “stakeholders' desiderata”) in a variety of contexts. However, the literature on XAI is vast, spreads out across multiple largely disconnected disciplines, and it often remains unclear how explainability approaches are supposed to achieve the goal of satisfying stakeholders' desiderata. This paper discusses the main classes of stakeholders calling for explainability (...)
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  3.  3
    Rezension: Storck, Timo, Psychosomatik – neurobiologisch fundiert und evidenzbasiert. Ein Lehr- und Handbuch.Timo Storck - 2022 - Psyche 76 (5):444-449.
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  4.  66
    A Graph-Theoretic Analysis of the Semantic Paradoxes.Timo Beringer & Thomas Schindler - 2017 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 23 (4):442-492.
    We introduce a framework for a graph-theoretic analysis of the semantic paradoxes. Similar frameworks have been recently developed for infinitary propositional languages by Cook and Rabern, Rabern, and Macauley. Our focus, however, will be on the language of first-order arithmetic augmented with a primitive truth predicate. Using Leitgeb’s notion of semantic dependence, we assign reference graphs (rfgs) to the sentences of this language and define a notion of paradoxicality in terms of acceptable decorations of rfgs with truth values. It is (...)
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  5.  8
    Evidential Strength of Intonational Cues and Rational Adaptation to Reliable Intonation.Timo B. Roettger & Michael Franke - 2019 - Cognitive Science 43 (7).
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  6. The Colonization Thesis: Habermas on Reification.Timo Jütten - 2011 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 19 (5):701 - 727.
    Abstract According to Habermas' colonization thesis, reification is a social pathology that arises when the communicative infrastructure of the lifeworld is 'colonized' by money and power. In this paper I argue that, thirty years after the publication of the Theory of Communicative Action, this thesis remains compelling. However, while Habermas offers a functionalist explanation of reification, his normative criticism of it remains largely implicit: he never explains what is wrong with reification from the perspective of the people whose social relations (...)
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  7. Reference Graphs and Semantic Paradox.Timo Beringer & Thomas Schindler - 2016 - In Adam Arazim & Michal Dancak (eds.), Logica Yearbook 2015. College Publications. pp. 1-15.
     
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  8.  5
    Listeners' Adaptation to Unreliable Intonation is Speaker-Sensitive.Timo B. Roettger & Kim Rimland - 2020 - Cognition 204:104372.
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  9.  57
    Ecology-Driven Real Options: An Investment Framework for Incorporating Uncertainties in the Context of the Natural Environment.Timo Busch & Volker H. Hoffmann - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 90 (2):295-310.
    The role of uncertainty within an organization’s environment features prominently in the business ethics and management literature, but how corporate investment decisions should proceed in the face of uncertainties relating to the natural environment is less discussed. From the perspective of ecological economics, the salience of ecology-induced issues challenges management to address new types of uncertainties. These pertain to constraints within the natural environment as well as to institutional action aimed at conserving the natural environment. We derive six areas of (...)
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  10. The Theory of the Organism-Environment System: I. Description of the Theory.Timo Jarvilehto - 1998 - Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science 33 (4):321-334.
    The theory of the organism-environment system starts with the proposition that in any functional sense organism and environment are inseparable and form only one unitary system. The organism cannot exist without the environment and the environment has descriptive properties only if it is connected to the organism. Although for practical purposes we do separate organism and environment, this common-sense starting point leads in psychological theory to problems which cannot be solved. Therefore, separation of organism and environment cannot be the basis (...)
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  11. Privileged Detection of Conspecifics: Evidence From Inversion Effects During Continuous Flash Suppression.Timo Stein, Philipp Sterzer & Marius V. Peelen - 2012 - Cognition 125 (1):64-79.
  12.  27
    Unconscious Processing Under Interocular Suppression: Getting the Right Measure.Timo Stein & Philipp Sterzer - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  13.  21
    Eye Contact Facilitates Awareness of Faces During Interocular Suppression.Timo Stein, Atsushi Senju, Marius V. Peelen & Philipp Sterzer - 2011 - Cognition 119 (2):307-311.
  14. Phenomenology and Political Idealism.Timo Miettinen - 2015 - Continental Philosophy Review 48 (2):237-253.
    This article considers the possibility of articulating a renewed understanding of the principle of political idealism on the basis of Edmund Husserl’s phenomenology. By taking its point of departure from one of the most interesting political applications of Husserl’s phenomenological method, the ordoliberal tradition of the so-called Freiburg School of Economics, the article raises the question of the normative implications of Husserl’s eidetic method. Contrary to the “static” idealism of the ordoliberal tradition, the article proposes that the phenomenological concept of (...)
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  15. Is the Market a Sphere of Social Freedom?Timo Jütten - 2015 - Critical Horizons 16 (2):187-203.
    In this paper I examine Axel Honneth’s normative reconstruction of the market as a sphere of social freedom in his 2014 book, Freedom’s Right. Honneth’s position is complex: on the one hand, he acknowledges that modern capitalist societies do not realise social freedom; on the other hand, he insists that the promise of social freedom is implicit in the market sphere. In fact, the latter explains why modern subjects have seen capitalism as legitimate. I will reconstruct Honneth’s conception of social (...)
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  16.  60
    The Role of Short-Termism and Uncertainty Avoidance in Organizational Inaction on Climate Change: A Multi-Level Framework.Subhabrata Bobby Banerjee, Timo Busch, Jonatan Pinkse & Natalie Slawinski - 2017 - Business and Society 56 (2):253-282.
    Despite increasing pressure to deal with climate change, firms have been slow to respond with effective action. This article presents a multi-level framework for a better understanding of why many firms are failing to reduce their absolute greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to climate change. The concepts of short-termism and uncertainty avoidance from research in psychology, sociology, and organization theory can explain the phenomenon of organizational inaction on climate change. Antecedents related to short-termism and uncertainty avoidance reinforce one another at (...)
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  17. Teleology Beyond Metaphysics: Husserlian Phenomenology and the Historical Consciousness of Modernity.Timo Miettinen - 2014 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 28 (3):273-283.
    Throughout its history, the relationship of phenomenology to historical reflection has appeared ambiguous. On the one hand, phenomenology—with the help of its founding figures—gave a promise to return from the world-historical speculations of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to the phenomenon of lived historicity, that is, to the question of how historical time is experienced within the life of the individual. On the other hand, phenomenology could not resist the temptation to critically reconsider some of the fundamental historical narratives that (...)
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  18.  15
    Conflict, Context, Concreteness: Koselleck and Schmitt on Concepts.Timo Pankakoski - 2010 - Political Theory 38 (6):749-779.
    In Reinhart Koselleck's history of concepts, the general orientation that concepts are to be understood in their proper contexts is intertwined with the assumption that they are manifestations of particular political conflicts. The essay shows that the dense compound of context and conflict in Koselleck's thought springs from Carl Schmitt's political theory and also forms an important point of continuity between Koselleck's early work and his later methodological writings. The formalized assumption of conflict, somewhat problematically, binds Koselleckian conceptual history to (...)
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  19.  16
    Unconscious Processing of Facial Dominance: The Role of Low-Level Factors in Access to Awareness.Timo Stein, Deema Awad, Surya Gayet & Marius V. Peelen - 2018 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 147 (11):e1-e13.
  20.  52
    What is Reification? A Critique of Axel Honneth.Timo Jütten - 2010 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 53 (3):235-256.
    In this paper I criticise Axel Honneth's reactualization of reification as a concept in critical theory in his 2005 Tanner Lectures and argue that he ultimately fails on his own terms. His account is based on two premises: (1) reification is to be taken literally rather than metaphorically, and (2) it is not conceived of as a moral injury but as a social pathology. Honneth concludes that reification is ?forgetfulness of recognition?, more specifically, of antecedent recognition, an emphatic and engaged (...)
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  21.  19
    The Intriguing Relation Between Counterfactual Explanations and Adversarial Examples.Timo Freiesleben - 2021 - Minds and Machines 32 (1):1-33.
    The same method that creates adversarial examples to fool image-classifiers can be used to generate counterfactual explanations that explain algorithmic decisions. This observation has led researchers to consider CEs as AEs by another name. We argue that the relationship to the true label and the tolerance with respect to proximity are two properties that formally distinguish CEs and AEs. Based on these arguments, we introduce CEs, AEs, and related concepts mathematically in a common framework. Furthermore, we show connections between current (...)
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  22.  36
    Short-Interval Intracortical Inhibition is Not Affected by Varying Visual Feedback in an Isometric Task in Biceps Brachii Muscle.Timo Rantalainen, Ashleigh Weier, Michael Leung, Chris Brandner, Michael Spittle & Dawson Kidgell - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  23.  51
    Towards an Evolutionary Biosemiotics: Semiotic Selection and Semiotic Co-Option. [REVIEW]Timo Maran & Karel Kleisner - 2010 - Biosemiotics 3 (2):189-200.
    In biosemiotics, living beings are not conceived of as the passive result of anonymous selection pressures acted upon through the course of evolution. Rather, organisms are considered active participants that influence, shape and re-shape other organisms, the surrounding environment, and eventually also their own constitutional and functional integrity. The traditional Darwinian division between natural and sexual selection seems insufficient to encompass the richness of these processes, particularly in light of recent knowledge on communicational processes in the realm of life. Here, (...)
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  24.  6
    From Historical Structures to Temporal Layers: Hans Freyer and Conceptual History.Timo Pankakoski - 2020 - History and Theory 59 (1):61-91.
  25.  1
    Processing Probability Information in Nonnumerical Settings – Teachers’ Bayesian and Non-Bayesian Strategies During Diagnostic Judgment.Timo Leuders & Katharina Loibl - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  26.  14
    Content-Specific Expectations Enhance Stimulus Detectability by Increasing Perceptual Sensitivity.Timo Stein & Marius V. Peelen - 2015 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 144 (6):1089-1104.
  27. Habermas and Markets.Timo Jütten - 2013 - Constellations 20 (4):587-603.
    In this paper I examine Habermas’ conception of the market in The Theory of Communicative Action (TCA). Habermas’ characterization of the market as norm-free has been controversial and I discuss three objections to it: the claims that it (1) conflates of action types, types of action coordination and spheres of action, (2) cannot account for the normative structure of the social organization of labour, and (3) that it makes impossible to make moral judgments about behaviour in the market. I conclude (...)
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  28. Sexual Objectification.Timo Jütten - 2016 - Ethics 127 (1):27-49.
    According to Martha Nussbaum, objectification is essentially a form of instrumentalization or use. I argue that this instrumentalization account fails to capture the distinctive harms and wrongs of sexual objectification, because it does not explain the relationship between instrumentalization and the processes of social stereotyping that make it possible. I develop an imposition account of sexual objectification that provides such an explanation and, therefore, should be preferred over the instrumentalization account. It draws on a contrast between imposition and self-presentation and (...)
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  29. The Theory of the Organism-Environment System: IV. The Problem of Mental Activity and Consciousness.Timo Jarvilehto - 2000 - Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science 35 (1):35-57.
    The present article is an attempt to bring together the development of mental activity and consciousness in the framework of the organism-environment theory (Jarvilehto, 1998a, 1998b, 1999); the main question is how the development of mental activity and consciousness can be formulated if the starting point is not the separation of man and environment as in traditional cognitive psychology, but a unitary organism-environment system. According to the present formulation, mental activity is conceived as activity of the whole organism-environment system and (...)
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  30.  1
    Ricoeur, Culture, and Recognition: A Hermeneutic of Cultural Subjectivity.Timo Helenius - 2016 - Lexington Books.
    Ricoeur, Culture, and Recognition: A Hermeneutic of Cultural Subjectivity presents Ricoeur’s work from the beginning to its end in form of a cultural theory and proposes a cultural hermeneutic that clarifies the cultural facilitation in a person’s process of attaining a sense of being a human. This exploration of human being as profoundly formed and influenced by the cultural condition also enables a new understanding of intercultural questions by revealing the common human condition that the various cultures manifest.
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  31.  2
    Distributional Semantics of Objects in Visual Scenes in Comparison to Text.Timo Lüddecke, Alejandro Agostini, Michael Fauth, Minija Tamosiunaite & Florentin Wörgötter - 2019 - Artificial Intelligence 274:44-65.
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  32. What is Reification? A Critique of Axel Honneth.Timo Jütten - 2010 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 53 (3):235-256.
    In this paper I criticise Axel Honneth's reactualization of reification as a concept in critical theory in his 2005 Tanner Lectures and argue that he ultimately fails on his own terms. His account is based on two premises: (1) reification is to be taken literally rather than metaphorically, and (2) it is not conceived of as a moral injury but as a social pathology. Honneth concludes that reification is “forgetfulness of recognition”, more specifically, of antecedent recognition, an emphatic and engaged (...)
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  33.  37
    Timo Bolt, Van Zenuwachtig Tot Hyperactief. Andere Kijk Op ADHD.Nelleke Bakker - 2011 - Studium : Revue D’Histoire des Sciences Et des Universités 4 (1):55.
  34.  33
    Own-Race and Own-Age Biases Facilitate Visual Awareness of Faces Under Interocular Suppression.Timo Stein, Albert End & Philipp Sterzer - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  35. The Theory of the Organism-Environment System: III. Role of Efferent Influences on Receptors in the Formation of Knowledge.Timo Jarvilehto - 1999 - Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science 34 (2):90-100.
    The present article is an attempt to give - in the frame of the theory of the organism - environment system - a new interpretation to the role of efferent influences on receptor activity and to the functions of senses in the formation of knowledge. It is argued, on the basis of experimental evidence and theoretical considerations, that the senses are not transmitters of environmental information, but they create a direct connection between the organism and the environment, which makes the (...)
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  36.  13
    Unconscious Semantic Priming From Pictures Under Backward Masking and Continuous Flash Suppression.Timo Stein, Vanessa Utz & Filip van Opstal - 2020 - Consciousness and Cognition 78:102864.
  37. Timo Kaitaro: Diderot's Holism.C. T. Wolfe - 2002 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 10 (2):315-317.
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  38.  50
    Adorno on Hope.Timo Jütten - 2019 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 45 (3):284-306.
    I argue that Theodor W. Adorno’s philosophy articulates a radical conception of hope. According to Lear, radical hope is ‘directed toward a future goodness that transcends the current ability to understand what it is’. Given Adorno’s claim that the current world is radically evil, and that we cannot know or even imagine what the good is, it is plausible that his conception of hope must be radical in this sense. I develop this argument through an analysis of Adorno’s engagement with (...)
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  39.  24
    Semiotic Interpretations of Biological Mimicry.Timo Maran - 2007 - Semiotica 2007 (167):223-248.
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  40. On the Philosophical Foundations of Universalism: Reason, Task, Critique.Timo Miettinen - 2012 - SATS 13 (1):19-38.
    This article investigates the philosophical history of European universalism with the aim of differentiating between its two senses: the modern and the Ancient. Based on Edmund Husserl’s late interpretations on the unique character of Greek philosophy, this distinction is articulated in terms of “substantial” and “formal” accounts of universalism. Against the modern (substantial) idea of universalism, which took its point of departure especially from the natural law theories of the early modern period, Husserl conceived Greek universalism as an essentially formal (...)
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  41.  12
    The Altered States Database: Psychometric Data of Altered States of Consciousness.Timo T. Schmidt & Hendrik Berkemeyer - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  42. Adorno on Kant, Freedom and Determinism.Timo Jütten - 2012 - European Journal of Philosophy 20 (4):548-574.
    In this paper I argue that Adorno's metacritique of freedom in Negative Dialectics and related texts remains fruitful today. I begin with some background on Adorno's conception of ‘metacritique’ and on Kant's conception of freedom, as I understand it. Next, I discuss Adorno's analysis of the experiential content of Kantian freedom, according to which Kant has reified the particular social experience of the early modern bourgeoisie in his conception of unconditioned freedom. Adorno argues against this conception of freedom and suggests (...)
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  43. The Role of Anticipation in Reading.Timo Järvilehto, Veli-Matti Nurkkala & Kyösti Koskela - 2009 - Pragmatics and Cognition 17 (3):509-526.
    The paper introduces measurement of fixation-speech intervals as an important tool for the study of the reading process. Using the theory of the organism-environment system, we developed experiments to investigate the time course of reading. By combining eye tracking with synchronous recording of speech during reading in a single measure, we issue a fundamental challenge to information processing models. Not only is FSI an authentic measure of the reading process, but it shows that we exploit verbal patterns, textual features and, (...)
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  44. Timo Veijola (éd.), Das Deuteronomium und seine Querbeziehungen, Helsinki, Finnische Exegetische Gesellschaft/Gôttingen, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1996, 296 pages (= Schriften der Finnischen Exegetischen Gesellschaft 62), ISBN 0356-2786 ou 951-9217-17-7 ou 3-525-53640-2. Le présent ouvrage est le résultat d'une rencontre entre spécialistes du. [REVIEW]Ph de Robert - 1998 - Revue D'Histoire Et de Philosophie Religieuses 78:91.
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  45. Musik Als Spiel. Anthropologisch-Pädagogische Reflexionen.Timo Fischinger - 2007 - In Hanns-Werner Heister (ed.), Mimetische Zeremonien: Musik Als Spiel, Ritual, Kunst. Weidler. pp. 7--71.
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  46. Zwischen Selbstinszenierung Und Rezeption: Carl Schmitts Ort in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland.Timo Frasch - 2006 - Bouvier.
  47. Timo Airaksinen and Martin A. Bertman, Eds., Hobbes: War Among Nations Reviewed By.Jan Narveson - 1991 - Philosophy in Review 11 (1):3-5.
  48. Timo Airaksinen and Martin A. Bertman, Eds., Hobbes: War Among Nations. [REVIEW]Jan Narveson - 1991 - Philosophy in Review 11:3-5.
     
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  49. The Theory of the Organism-Environment System: II. Significance of Nervous Activity in the Organism-Environment System.Timo Jarvilehto - 1998 - Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science 33 (4):335-342.
    The relation between mental processes and brain activity is studied from the point of view of the theory of the organism-environment system. It is argued that the systemic point of view leads to a new kind of definition of the primary tasks of neurophysiology and to a new understanding of the traditional neurophysiological concepts. Neurophysiology is restored to its place as a part of biology: its task is the study of neurons as living units, not as computer chips. Neurons are (...)
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  50.  32
    D. M. Gross, The Secret History of Emotion: From Aristotle’s Rhetoric to Modern Brain Science. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2006, X + 194 Pp. ISBN-13: 978-0-226-30980-4, Paperback. [REVIEW]Timo Airaksinen - 2012 - Hobbes Studies 25 (2):233-235.
    This paper discusses sovereignty and examines in detail Hobbes's debates with the two leading legal theorists of his day, Coke and Hale, both Lord Chief Justices of the King's Bench. I argue that Hobbes came to change his mind somewhat about the desirability of divided sovereignty by the time, near the end of his life, that he wrote the Dialogue . But I also argue that Hobbes should have developed more than a very thin conception of the rule of law. (...)
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