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Timothy F. Murphy [100]Timothy Fredric Murphy [1]
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  1.  47
    In Defense of Irreligious Bioethics.Timothy F. Murphy - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (12):3-10.
    Some commentators have criticized bioethics as failing to engage religion both as a matter of theory and practice. Bioethics should work toward understanding the influence of religion as it represents people's beliefs and practices, but bioethics should nevertheless observe limits in regard to religion as it does its normative work. Irreligious skepticism toward religious views about health, healthcare practices and institutions, and responses to biomedical innovations can yield important benefits to the field. Irreligious skepticism makes it possible to raise questions (...)
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  2.  10
    Case Studies in Biomedical Research Ethics.Timothy F. Murphy - 2004 - MIT Press.
    An overview of the key debates in biomedical researchethics, presented through a wide-ranging selection of casestudies.
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  3.  23
    The meaning of synthetic gametes for gay and lesbian people and bioethics too.Timothy F. Murphy - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics (11):doi:10.1136/medethics-2013-10169.
    Some commentators indirectly challenge the ethics of using synthetic gametes as a way for same-sex couples to have children with shared genetics. These commentators typically impose a moral burden of proof on same-sex couples they do not impose on opposite-sex couples in terms of their eligibility to have children. Other commentators directly raise objections to parenthood by same-sex couples on the grounds that it compromises the rights and/or welfare of children. Ironically, the prospect of synthetic gametes neutralises certain of these (...)
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  4.  5
    Supervaluation of pregnant women is reductive of women.Jennifer Parks & Timothy F. Murphy - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 50 (1):29-30.
    Robinson argues that by certain threshold criteria, pregnant women qualify for a higher moral status by reason of their pregnancies. While her intention is to make this a status upgrade for women, we worry that it may result in a status downgrade for women as a class, by presupposing and reinforcing women’s value in relation to their reproductive labour. Historically, central to feminist analysis is resistance to reductive accounts of women in relation to their reproductivity. For example, de Beauvoir addressed (...))
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  5.  24
    Pathways to genetic parenthood for same-sex couples.Timothy F. Murphy - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (12):823-824.
    Researchers are pursuing various ways to synthesise human male and female gametes, which would be useful for people facing infertility. Some people are unable to conceive children with their partner because one of them is infertile in the sense of having an anatomical or physiological deficit. Other people—in same sex couples—may not be individually infertile but situationally infertile in relation to one another. Segers et al have described a pathway towards synthetic gametes that would rely on embryonic stem cells, rather (...)
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  6.  9
    The meaning of synthetic gametes for gay and lesbian people and bioethics too.Timothy F. Murphy - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (11):762-765.
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  7.  8
    Theorizing Religion in Its Meanings for Bioethics.Timothy F. Murphy - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (12):47-49.
    H. Tristram Engelhardt has said that “in the 1960s and 1970s... religious bioethics fell into the shadow of established secular bioethics. I don't think that religious bioethics has ever really...
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  8.  39
    Double-effect reasoning and the conception of human embryos.Timothy F. Murphy - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (8):529-532.
    Some commentators argue that conception signals the onset of human personhood and that moral responsibilities toward zygotic or embryonic persons begin at this point, not the least of which is to protect them from exposure to death. Critics of the conception threshold of personhood ask how it can be morally consistent to object to the embryo loss that occurs in fertility medicine and research but not object to the significant embryo loss that occurs through conception in vivo. Using that apparent (...)
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  9.  44
    A cure for aging?Timothy F. Murphy - 1986 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 11 (3):237-255.
    Arthur Caplan has argued that the presumptive naturalness, universality, and inevitability of aging are no obstacles to conceptualizing aging as a disease since those traits are themselves merely contingent. Moreover, aging lends itself to discussion in terms of diagnostic symptomatology and etiology. Is aging therefore a disease? I argue that aging need not be shown to be unnatural or a disease in order to make it the subject of biomedical interest. I suggest that rather than ask "Is aging a disease?", (...)
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  10.  13
    Biogenetic ties and parent‐child relationships: The misplaced critique.Timothy F. Murphy - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (9):1029-1034.
    According to an almost axiomatic standard in bioethics, moral commitment should ground parents’ relationship with their children, rather than biogenetic relatedness. This standard has been used lately to express skepticism about extending existing assisted reproductive treatments (ARTs) to same‐sex couples and to research into novel fertility interventions for those couples, but this skepticism is misplaced on several grounds. As a matter of access and equity, same‐sex couples seem presumptively entitled to genetic relatedness to their children as far as possible both (...)
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  11.  36
    Sex, Romance, and Research Subjects: An Ethical Exploration.Timothy F. Murphy - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (7):30-38.
    Professional standards in medicine and psychology treat concurrent sexual relationships with patients as violations of fiduciary trust, and they sometimes rule out sexual relationships even after a clinical relationship is over. These standards also rule out sex with research subjects who are also patients, but what about nonclinical relationships where there are not always parallels to the standards of clinical medicine? One way to treat sex in nonclinical research relationships is to treat it as sex is treated elsewhere among adults, (...)
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  12.  17
    First Come, First Served in the Intensive Care Unit: Always?Leonard M. Fleck & Timothy F. Murphy - 2018 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 27 (1):52-61.
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  13.  45
    In Defense of Prenatal Genetic Interventions.Timothy F. Murphy - 2012 - Bioethics 28 (7):335-342.
    Jürgen Habermas has argued against prenatal genetic interventions used to influence traits on the grounds that only biogenetic contingency in the conception of children preserves the conditions that make the presumption of moral equality possible. This argument fails for a number of reasons. The contingency that Habermas points to as the condition of moral equality is an artifact of evolutionary contingency and not inviolable in itself. Moreover, as a precedent for genetic interventions, parents and society already affect children's traits, which (...)
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  14.  21
    LGBT People and the Work Ahead in Bioethics.Timothy F. Murphy - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (6):ii-v.
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  15.  22
    The More Irreligion in Bioethics the Better: Reply to Open Peer Commentaries on “In Defense of Irreligious Bioethics”.Timothy F. Murphy - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (12):W1-W5.
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  16.  57
    Assisted Gestation and Transgender Women.Timothy F. Murphy - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (6):DOI: 10.1111.bioe.12132.
    Developments in uterus transplant put assisted gestation within meaningful range of clinical success for women with uterine infertility who want to gestate children. Should this kind of transplantation prove routine and effective for those women, would there be any morally significant reason why men or transgender women should not be eligible for the same opportunity for gestation? Getting to the point of safe and effective uterus transplantation for those parties would require a focused line of research, over and above the (...)
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  17.  74
    Choosing Disabilities and Enhancements in Children: A Choice too Far?Timothy F. Murphy - 2009 - Reproductie Biomedicine Online 2009 (18 sup. 1):43-49.
    Some parents have taken steps to ensure that they have deaf children, a choice that contrasts with the interest that other parents have in enhancing the traits of their children. Julian Savulescu has argued that, morally speaking, parents have a duty to use assisted reproductive technologies to give their children the best opportunity of the best life. This view extends beyond that which is actually required of parents, which is only that they give children reasonable opportunities to form and act (...)
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  18.  25
    Assisted Gestation and Transgender Women.Timothy F. Murphy - 2014 - Bioethics 29 (6):389-397.
    Developments in uterus transplant put assisted gestation within meaningful range of clinical success for women with uterine infertility who want to gestate children. Should this kind of transplantation prove routine and effective for those women, would there be any morally significant reason why men or transgender women should not be eligible for the same opportunity for gestation? Getting to the point of safe and effective uterus transplantation for those parties would require a focused line of research, over and above the (...)
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  19.  8
    Justice and the Human Genome Project.Timothy F. Murphy & Marc A. Lappé (eds.) - 1994 - University of California Press.
    The Human Genome Project is an expensive, ambitious, and controversial attempt to locate and map every one of the approximately 100,000 genes in the human body. If it works, and we are able, for instance, to identify markers for genetic diseases long before they develop, who will have the right to obtain such information? What will be the consequences for health care, health insurance, employability, and research priorities? And, more broadly, how will attitudes toward human differences be affected, morally and (...)
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  20.  20
    Gestation as mothering.Timothy F. Murphy & Jennifer A. Parks - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (9):960-968.
    Some commentators maintain that gestational surrogates are not ‘mothers’ in a way capable of grounding a claim to motherhood. These commentators find that the practices that constitute motherhood do not extend to gestational surrogates. We argue that gestational surrogates should be construed as mothers of the children they bear, even if they fully intend to surrender those children at birth to the care of others. These women stand in a certain relationship to the expected children: they live in changed moral (...)
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  21.  69
    Research Priorities and the Future of Pregnancy.Timothy F. Murphy - 2012 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (1):78-89.
    The term “ectogenesis” has been around for about a century now, and it is generally understood as the development of embryos and fetuses outside a uterus. In this sense, all in vitro fertilization is ectogenesis, but in vitro development can only proceed to a certain point, at which time human embryos are then either implanted in the attempt to achieve a pregnancy, frozen for that use in the future, used in research, or discarded.
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  22.  37
    What Justifies a Future with Humans in It?Timothy F. Murphy - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (9):751-758.
    Antinatalist commentators recommend that humanity bring itself to a close, on the theory that pain and suffering override the value of any possible life. Other commentators do not require the voluntary extinction of human beings, but they defend that outcome if people were to choose against having children. Against such views, Richard Kraut has defended a general moral obligation to people the future with human beings until the workings of the universe render such efforts impossible. Kraut advances this view on (...)
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  23.  30
    Gay and lesbian exceptions to the heterosexual rule.Timothy F. Murphy - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (4):18.
  24.  13
    Genetic modifications for personal enhancement: a defence.Timothy F. Murphy - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (4):242-245.
    Bioconservative commentators argue that parents should not take steps to modify the genetics of their children even in the name of enhancement because of the damage they predict for values, identities and relationships. Some commentators have even said that adults should not modify themselves through genetic interventions. One commentator worries that genetic modifications chosen by adults for themselves will undermine moral agency, lead to less valuable experiences and fracture people's sense of self. These worries are not justified, however, since the (...)
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  25.  41
    Health care workers with hiv and a patient's right to know.Timothy F. Murphy - 1994 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19 (6):553-569.
    Accidental human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of patients in health care settings raises the question about whether patients have a right to expect disclosure of HIV/AIDS diagnoses by their health workers. Although such a right – and the correlative duty to disclose – might appear justified by reason of standards of informed consent, I argue that such standards should only apply to questions of risks of and barriers to HIV infection involved in a particular medical treatment, not to disclosure of (...)
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  26.  19
    Preventing Ultimate Harm as the Justification for Biomoral Modification.Timothy F. Murphy - 2014 - Bioethics 29 (5):369-377.
    Most advocates of biogenetic modification hope to amplify existing human traits in humans in order to increase the value of such traits as intelligence and resistance to disease. These advocates defend such enhancements as beneficial for the affected parties. By contrast, some commentators recommend certain biogenetic modifications to serve social goals. As Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu see things, human moral psychology is deficient relative to the most important risks facing humanity as a whole, including the prospect of Ultimate Harm, (...)
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  27.  36
    The Vatican on gender theory and the responsibilities of medicine.Timothy F. Murphy - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (9):981-983.
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  28.  25
    Ethics in an Epidemic: Aids, Morality, and Culture.Timothy F. Murphy - 1994 - University of California Press.
    In this humane and graceful book, philosopher Timothy Murphy offers insight into our attempts--popular and academic, American and non-American, scientific and ...
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  29. Same-Sex Marriage: Not a Threat to Marriage or Children.Timothy F. Murphy - 2011 - Journal of Social Philosophy 42 (3):288-304.
    Some critics of same-sex marriage allege that this kind of union not only betrays the nature of marriage but that it also opens children to various kinds of harm. Same-sex marriage is objectionable, on this view, in its nature and in its effects. A view of marriage as requiring an unassisted capacity to conceive children may be respect as one idea of marriage, but this view need not be understood as marriage itself. It is not clear, in any case, why (...)
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  30.  60
    Commentary: Crossing Cultural Divides: Transgender People Who Want to Have Children.Timothy F. Murphy - 2012 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (2):284-286.
  31.  44
    The Ethics of Fertility Preservation in Transgender Body Modifications.Timothy F. Murphy - 2012 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (3):311-316.
    In some areas of clinical medicine, discussions about fertility preservation are routine, such as in the treatment of children and adolescents facing cancer treatments that will destroy their ability to produce gametes of their own. Certain professional organizations now offer guidelines for people who wish to modify their bodies and appearance in regard to sex traits, and these guidelines extend to recommendations about fertility preservation. Since the removal of testicles or ovaries will destroy the ability to have genetically related children (...)
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  32.  21
    So not mothers: responsibility for surrogate orphans.Jennifer A. Parks & Timothy F. Murphy - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (8):551-554.
    The law ordinarily recognises the woman who gives birth as the mother of a child, but in certain jurisdictions, it will recognise the commissioning couple as the legal parents of a child born to a commercial surrogate. Some commissioning parents have, however, effectively abandoned the children they commission, and in such cases, commercial surrogates may find themselves facing unexpected maternal responsibility for children they had fully intended to give up. Any assumption that commercial surrogates ought to assume maternal responsibility for (...)
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  33.  37
    Dead sperm donors or world Hunger: Are bioethicists studying the right stuff?Timothy F. Murphy & Gladys B. White - 2005 - Hastings Center Report 35 (2):c3-c3.
  34.  1
    Case Studies in Biomedical Research Ethics.Jacquelyn Slomka & Timothy F. Murphy - 2005 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 27 (1):18.
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  35. A Thought Experiment in Life Prolongation: The Tortoise Transformation.Timothy F. Murphy - 2013 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (4):645–649.
    The value of extending the human lifespan remains a key philosophical debate in bioethics. In building a case against the extension of the species-typical human life, Nicolas Agar considers the prospect of transforming human beings near the end of their lives into Galapagos tortoises, which would then live on decades longer. A central question at stake in this transformation is the persistence of human consciousness as a condition of the value of the transformation. Agar entertains the idea that consciousness could (...)
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  36. What is gay and lesbian philosophy?Raja Halwani, Gary Jaeger, James S. Stramel, Richard Nunan, William S. Wilkerson & Timothy F. Murphy - 2008 - Metaphilosophy 39 (4-5):433-471.
    Abstract: This essay explores recent trends and major issues related to gay and lesbian philosophy in ethics (including issues concerning the morality of homosexuality, the natural function of sex, and outing and coming out); religion (covering past and present debates about the status of homosexuality and how biblical and qur'anic passages have been interpreted by both sides of the debate); the law (especially a discussion of the debates surrounding sodomy laws, same-sex marriage and its impact on transsexuals, and whether the (...)
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  37. Gay Science: Assisted Reproductive Technologies and the Sexual Orientation of Children.Timothy F. Murphy - 2005 - Reproductive Biomedicine Online 10 (Sup. 1):102-106.
    There are no technologies at the present time that would allow parents to select the sexual orientation of their children. But what if there were? Some commentators believe that parents should be able to use those techniques so long as they are effective and safe. Others believe that these techniques are unethical because of the dangers they pose to homosexual men and women in general. Both sides point to motives and consequences when trying to analyse the ethics of this question. (...)
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  38. The afterlife of embryonic persons: what a strange place heaven must be.Timothy F. Murphy - 2012 - Reproductive Biomedicine Online 25:684-688.
    Some commentators argue that conception constitutes the onset of human personhood in a metaphysical sense. This threshold is usually invoked as the basis both for protecting zygotes and embryos from exposure to risks of death in clinical research and fertility medicine and for objecting to abortion, but it also has consequences for certain religious perspectives, including Catholicism whose doctrines directly engage questions of personhood and its meanings. Since more human zygotes and embryos are lost than survive to birth, conferral of (...)
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  39. Genetic modifications for personal enhancement: a defense.Timothy F. Murphy - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics (4):2012-101026.
    Bioconservative commentators argue that parents should not take steps to modify the genetics of their children even in the name of enhancement because of the damage they predict for values, identities and relationships. Some commentators have even said that adults should not modify themselves through genetic interventions. One commentator worries that genetic modifications chosen by adults for themselves will undermine moral agency, lead to less valuable experiences and fracture people's sense of self. These worries are not justified, however, since the (...)
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  40.  36
    Against withdrawing government and insurance subsidies for ARTs from fertile people, with special reference to lesbian and gay individuals.Timothy F. Murphy - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (5):388-390.
    One way to help ensure the future of human life on the planet is to reduce the total number of people alive, as a hedge against dangers to the environment. One commentator has proposed withdrawing government and insurance subsidies from all fertile people, to help reduce the number of births. Any proposal of this kind does not, however, offer a solution commensurate with current problems of resource use and carbon emissions. Closing off fertility medicine to some people – or even (...)
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  41.  22
    The Tortoise Transformation as a Prospect for Life Extension.Timothy F. Murphy - 2015 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (4):645-649.
    The value of extending the human lifespan remains a key philosophical debate in bioethics. In building a case against the extension of the species-typical human life, Nicolas Agar considers the prospect of transforming human beings near the end of their lives into Galapagos tortoises, which would then live on decades longer. A central question at stake in this transformation is the persistence of human consciousness as a condition of the value of the transformation. Agar entertains the idea that consciousness could (...)
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  42.  1
    Nietzsche as Educator.Timothy F. Murphy - 1984
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  43.  7
    Adoption first? The disposition of human embryos.Timothy F. Murphy - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (6):392-395.
    Anja Karnein has suggested that because of the importance of respect for persons, law and policy should require some human embryos created in vitro to be available for adoption for a period of time. If no one comes forward to adopt the embryos during that time, they may be destroyed or used in research. This adoption option would increase the number of embryos available for couples looking for help in having children, but that effect is less important—Karnein argues—than the observance (...)
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  44.  36
    Genetic generations: artificial gametes and the embryos produced with them.Timothy F. Murphy - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (11):739-740.
    Certain interventions now permit the derivation of mammalian gametes from stem cells cultivated from either somatic cells or embryos. These gametes can be used in an indefinite cycle of conception in vitro, gamete derivation, conception in vitro, and so on, producing genetic generations that live only in vitro. One commentator has described this prospect for human beings as eugenics, insofar as it would allow for the selection and development of certain traits in human beings. This commentary not only offers this (...)
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  45.  16
    Reproductive controls and sexual destiny.Timothy F. Murphy - 1990 - Bioethics 4 (2):121–142.
  46.  4
    Sperm Harvesting and Postmortem Fatherhood.Timothy F. Murphy - 1995 - Bioethics 9 (4):380-398.
    The motives and consequences of harvesting sperm from brain dead males for the purpose of effecting post mortem fatherhood are examined. I argue that sperm harvesting and post mortem fatherhood raise no harms of a magnitude that would justify forbidding the practice outright. Dead men are not obviously harmed by the practice; children need not be harmed by this kind of birth; and the practice enlarges rather than diminishes the reproductive choices of surviving partners. Certain ethical and legal issues nevertheless (...)
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  47.  14
    Sperm Harvesting and Postmortem Fatherhood.Timothy F. Murphy - 1995 - Bioethics 9 (4):380-398.
    The motives and consequences of harvesting sperm from brain dead males for the purpose of effecting post mortem fatherhood are examined. I argue that sperm harvesting and post mortem fatherhood raise no harms of a magnitude that would justify forbidding the practice outright. Dead men are not obviously harmed by the practice; children need not be harmed by this kind of birth; and the practice enlarges rather than diminishes the reproductive choices of surviving partners. Certain ethical and legal issues nevertheless (...)
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  48. Homosexuality and Nature: happiness and the law at stake.Timothy F. Murphy - 1987 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 4 (2):195-204.
    ABSTRACT In this essay the argument set forth by Michael Levin regarding the abnormality of homosexual behaviour is reviewed and criticized. Against his argument which holds that homosexual behaviour is abnormal because it constitutes an evolutionary aberration, I argue that Levin's and all similarly constructed arguments fail to show that evolutionary origins of sexual behaviour have any significant normative force. I contend that his notion of homosexuality is confused and that he fails to consider alternative methods of how homosexuality might (...)
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  49.  36
    Ethics, Sexual Orientation, and Choices about Children.Timothy F. Murphy - 2012 - The MIT Press.
    Should parents be able to select the sexual orientation of their children, if that were possible through prenatal interventions? _Ethics, Sexual Orientation, and Choices about Children_ reviews the history of this debate which started in the 1970s and has been invigorated by scientific reports about the origins of sexual orientation. This book describes the debate and offers an evaluation of key issues in parental rights, children's rights, and family welfare.
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  50.  57
    The ethics of impossible and possible changes to human nature.Timothy F. Murphy - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (4):191-197.
    Some commentators speak freely about genetics being poised to change human nature. Contrary to such rhetoric, Norman Daniels believes no such thing is plausible since ‘nature’ describes characteristic traits of human beings as a whole. Genetic interventions that do their work one individual at a time are unlikely to change the traits of human beings as a class. Even so, one can speculate about ways in which human beings as a whole could be genetically altered, and there is nothing about (...)
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