20 found
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  1.  15
    Form and Meaning in Music: Revisiting the Affective Character of the Major and Minor Modes.Timothy Justus, Laura Gabriel & Adela Pfaff - 2018 - Auditory Perception and Cognition 1 (3–4):229–247.
    Musical systems develop associations over time between aspects of musical form and concepts from outside of the music. Experienced listeners internalize these connotations, such that the formal elements bring to mind their extra-musical meanings. An example of musical form-meaning mapping is the association that Western listeners have between the major and minor modes and happiness and sadness, respectively. We revisit the emotional semantics of musical mode in a study of 44 American participants (musicians and non-musicians) who each evaluated the relatedness (...)
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  2.  7
    Fundamental Issues in the Evolutionary Psychology of Music: Assessing Innateness and Domain-Specificity.Timothy Justus & Jeffrey Hutsler - 2005 - Music Perception 23 (1):1–27.
    Evolutionary psychology often does not sufficiently document the innate constraint and domain specificity required for strong adaptationist argument. We develop these criteria within the domain of music. First, we advocate combining computational, developmental, cross-cultural, and neuroscience research to address the ways in which a domain is innately constrained. Candidate constraints in music include the importance of the octave and other simple pitch ratios, the categorization of the octave into tones, the importance of melodic contour, tonal hierarchies, and principles of grouping (...)
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  3.  6
    Modularity in Musical Processing: The Automaticity of Harmonic Priming.Timothy Justus & Jamshed Bharucha - 2001 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 27 (4):1000-1011.
    Three experiments investigated the modularity of harmonic expectations that are based on cultural schemata despite the availability of more predictive veridical information. Participants were presented with prime–target chord pairs and made an intonation judgment about each target. Schematic expectation was manipulated by the combination of prime and target, with some transitions being schematically more probable than others. Veridical information in the form of prime–target previews, local transition probabilities, or valid versus invalid previews was also provided. Processing was facilitated when a (...)
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  4.  17
    Auditory Attention to Frequency and Time: An Analogy to Visual Local–Global Stimuli.Timothy Justus & Alexandra List - 2005 - Cognition 98 (1):31-51.
    Two priming experiments demonstrated exogenous attentional persistence to the fundamental auditory dimensions of frequency (Experiment 1) and time (Experiment 2). In a divided-attention task, participants responded to an independent dimension, the identification of three-tone sequence patterns, for both prime and probe stimuli. The stimuli were specifically designed to parallel the local–global hierarchical letter stimuli of [Navon D. (1977). Forest before trees: The precedence of global features in visual perception. Cognitive Psychology, 9, 353–383] and the task was designed to parallel subsequent (...)
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  5. Music Perception and Cognition.Timothy Justus & Jamshed Bharucha - 2002 - In S. Yantis & H. Pashler (eds.), Stevens’ Handbook of Experimental Psychology, Volume 1: Sensation and Perception (Third Edition). New York: Wiley. pp. 453–492.
    This chapter reviews the field of music perception and cognition, which is the area of cognitive psychology devoted to determining the mental mechanisms underlying our appreciation of music. The chapter begins with the study of pitch, including the constructive nature of pitch perception and the cognitive structures reflecting its simultaneous and sequential organization in Western tonal‐harmonic music. This is followed by reviews of temporal organization in music, and of musical performance and ability. Next, literature concerning the cognitive neuroscience of music (...)
     
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  6.  93
    Musical Jabberwocky?Timothy Justus - 2002 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (3):144-145.
    In this book review essay, Timothy Justus discusses Virtual Music: Computer Synthesis of Musical Style (2001) by David Cope. The review begins by drawing a parallel between the Turing Test and evaluating the compositions of Cope’s Experiments in Musical Intelligence (EMI) before providing an overview of how this computer programme works and the commentaries included in the book (by Douglas Hofstadter, Eleanor Selfridge-Field, Bernard Greenberg, Steve Larson, Jonathan Berger, and Daniel Dennett). The essay then raises questions of absolute music versus (...)
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  7.  13
    Toward a Naturalized Aesthetics of Film Music: An Interdisciplinary Exploration of Intramusical and Extramusical Meaning.Timothy Justus - 2019 - Projections 13 (3):1–22.
    In this article, I first address the question of how musical forms come to represent meaning—that is, the semantics of music—and illustrate an important conceptual distinction articulated by Leonard Meyer in Emotion and Meaning in Music between absolute or intramusical meaning and referential or extramusical meaning through a critical analysis of two recent films. Second, building examples of scholarship around a single piece of music frequently used in film—Samuel Barber's Adagio for Strings—I follow the example set by Murray Smith in (...)
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  8.  62
    Developing a Distributed Language Network.Timothy Justus - 2001 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (10):451-452.
    In this book review essay, Timothy Justus discusses Human Language and Our Reptilian Brain: The Subcortical Bases of Speech, Syntax, and Thought (2000) by Philip Lieberman. While the review agrees that a variety of cortical and subcortical regions (such as the basal ganglia) contribute to language, it also suggests that the book has confounded questions of brain localization with developmental constraint, domain specificity, and evolutionary adaptation, drawing upon works by Chomsky (1975), Fodor (1983), Pinker (1994), Bloom (2000), and Calvin and (...)
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  9.  11
    Remembering Melodies From Another Culture: Turkish and American Listeners Demonstrate Implicit Knowledge of Musical Scales.Timothy Justus, Charles Yates, Nart Bedin Atalay, Nazike Mert & Meagan Curtis - 2019 - Analytical Approaches to World Music 7 (1).
    Beyond the major-minor tonality that characterizes classical and contemporary Western musical genres, Turkish classical and folk music offer experimental psychologists a rich modal system in which cognition, development, and enculturation can be studied. Here, we present a cross-cultural experiment concerning implicit knowledge of musical scales. Five groups of participants—American musicians and nonmusicians, Turkish musicians and nonmusicians, and Turkish classical and folk music listeners—were asked to listen to brief melodies composed using the member tones of either the major scale or the (...)
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  10.  9
    The Cerebellum and English Grammatical Morphology.Timothy Justus - 2004 - Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 16 (7):1115–1130.
    Three neuropsychological experiments on a group of 16 cerebellar patients and 16 age- and education-matched controls investigated the effects of damage to the cerebellum on English grammatical morphology across production, comprehension, and grammaticality judgment tasks. In Experiment 1, participants described a series of pictures previously used in studies of cortical aphasic patients. The cerebellar patients did not differ significantly from the controls in the total number of words produced or in the proportion of closed-class words. They did differ to a (...)
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  11.  9
    The Role of Broca's Area in Regular Past-Tense Morphology.Timothy Justus, Jary Larsen, Jennifer Yang, Paul de Mornay Davies, Nina Dronkers & Diane Swick - 2011 - Neuropsychologia 49 (1):1–18.
    It has been suggested that damage to anterior regions of the left hemisphere results in a dissociation in the perception and lexical activation of past-tense forms. Specifically, in a lexical-decision task in which past-tense primes immediately precede present-tense targets, such patients demonstrate significant priming for irregular verbs (spoke–speak), but, unlike control participants, fail to do so for regular verbs (looked–look). Here, this behavioral dissociation was first confirmed in a group of eleven patients with damage to the pars opercularis (BA 44) (...)
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  12.  41
    Blueprints, Swiss Army Knives, and Other Metaphors.Timothy Justus - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (5):201-203.
    In this book review essay, Timothy Justus discusses The Birth of the Mind: How a Tiny Number of Genes Creates the Complexities of Human Thought (2004) by Gary Marcus. The review opens by contrasting the common architectural-blueprint metaphor for the genome with an alternative: the if-then statements of a computer program. The former leads to a seeming “gene shortage” problem while the latter are better suited to representing the cascades of genetic expression that give rise to exponential genotype-phenotype relationships. The (...)
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  13.  8
    Effects of Musical Training and Culture on Meter Perception.Charles Yates, Timothy Justus, Nart Bedin Atalay, Nazike Mert & Sandra Trehub - 2017 - Psychology of Music 45 (2):231–245.
    Western music is characterized primarily by simple meters, but a number of other musical cultures, including Turkish, have both simple and complex meters. In Experiment 1, Turkish and American adults with and without musical training were asked to detect metrical changes in Turkish music with simple and complex meter. Musicians performed significantly better than nonmusicians, and performance was significantly better on simple meter than on complex meter, but Turkish listeners performed no differently than American listeners. In Experiment 2, members of (...)
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  14.  8
    Reduced Phonological Similarity Effects in Patients with Damage to the Cerebellum.Timothy Justus, Susan Ravizza, Julie Fiez & Richard Ivry - 2005 - Brain and Language 95 (2):304–318.
    Ten cerebellar patients were compared to 10 control subjects on a verbal working memory task in which the phonological similarity of the words to be remembered and their modality of presentation were manipulated. Cerebellar patients demonstrated a reduction of the phonological similarity effect relative to controls. Further, this reduction did not depend systematically upon the presentation modality. These results first document that qualitative differences in verbal working memory may be observed following cerebellar damage, indicating altered cognitive processing, even though behavioral (...)
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  15.  7
    Music and the Continuous Nature of the Mind.Timothy Justus - 2014 - Music Perception 31 (4):387–391.
    In this essay, Timothy Justus reviews the book Brain and Music (2012) by Stefan Koelsch, first providing a sketch of the book’s contents, including examples of Koelsch’s empirical work from four core areas (1) musical syntax, (2) musical semantics, (3) music and action, and (4) music and emotion. Justus then proceeds to discuss the continuous nature of cognitive domains and the continuous nature of mental activity.
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  16.  7
    Relative Priming of Temporal Local-Global Levels in Auditory Hierarchical Stimuli.Alexandra List & Timothy Justus - 2010 - Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics 72 (1):193–208.
    Priming is a useful tool for ascertaining the circumstances under which previous experiences influence behavior. Previously, using hierarchical stimuli, we demonstrated (Justus & List, 2005) that selectively attending to one temporal scale of an auditory stimulus improved subsequent attention to a repeated (vs. changed) temporal scale; that is, we demonstrated intertrial auditory temporal level priming. Here, we have extended those results to address whether level priming relied on absolute or relative temporal information. Both relative and absolute temporal information are important (...)
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  17.  6
    The Cognitive Neuropsychology of the Cerebellum.Timothy Justus & Richard Ivry - 2001 - International Review of Psychiatry 13 (4):276–282.
    We review evidence from neuropsychological studies of patients with damage to the cerebellum that suggests cerebellar involvement in four general categories of cognition: (1) speech and language; (2) temporal processing; (3) implicit learning and memory; (4) visuospatial processing and attention. A relatively strong case can be made for cerebellar contributions to language (including speech perception, lexical retrieval, and working memory) and to temporal processing. However, the evidence concerning cerebellar involvement in non-motor implicit learning and visuospatial processing is more equivocal. We (...)
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  18.  5
    Auditory Priming of Frequency and Temporal Information: Effects of Lateralised Presentation.Alexandra List & Timothy Justus - 2007 - Laterality 12 (6):507–535.
    Asymmetric distribution of function between the cerebral hemispheres has been widely investigated in the auditory modality. The current approach borrows heavily from visual local–global research in an attempt to determine whether, as in vision, local–global auditory processing is lateralised. In vision, lateralised local–global processing likely relies on spatial frequency information. Drawing analogies between visual spatial frequency and auditory dimensions, two sets of auditory stimuli were developed. In the high–low stimulus set we manipulate frequency information, and in the fast–slow stimulus set (...)
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  19.  5
    An Event-Related Potential Study of Cross-Modal Morphological and Phonological Priming.Timothy Justus, Jennifer Yang, Jary Larsen, Paul de Mornay Davies & Diane Swick - 2009 - Journal of Neurolinguistics 22 (6):584–604.
    The current work investigated whether differences in phonological overlap between the past- and present-tense forms of regular and irregular verbs can account for the graded neurophysiological effects of verb regularity observed in past-tense priming designs. Event-related potentials were recorded from 16 healthy participants who performed a lexical-decision task in which past-tense primes immediately preceded present-tense targets. To minimize intra-modal phonological priming effects, cross-modal presentation between auditory primes and visual targets was employed, and results were compared to a companion intra-modal auditory (...)
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  20.  4
    Interpreting Dissociations Between Regular and Irregular Past-Tense Morphology.Timothy Justus, Jary Larsen, Paul de Mornay Davies & Diane Swick - 2008 - Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience 8 (2):178–194.
    Neuropsychological dissociations between regular and irregular English past-tense morphology have been reported using a lexical decision task in which past-tense primes immediately precede present-tense targets. We present N400 event-related potential data from healthy participants using the same design. Both regular and irregular past-tense forms primed corresponding present-tense forms, but with a longer duration for irregular verbs. Phonological control conditions suggested that differences in formal overlap between prime and target contribute to, but do not account for, this difference, suggesting a link (...)
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