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Timothy Pawl [33]Timothy J. Pawl [3]
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Tim Pawl
University of St. Thomas, Minnesota
  1.  31
    In Defense of Conciliar Christology: A Philosophical Essay.Timothy Pawl - 2016 - Oxford University Press UK.
    This work presents a historically informed, systematic exposition of the Christology of the first seven Ecumenical Councils of undivided Christendom, from the First Council of Nicaea in 325 AD to the Second Council of Nicaea in 787 AD. Assuming the truth of Conciliar Christology for the sake of argument, Timothy Pawl considers whether there are good philosophical arguments that show a contradiction or incoherence in that doctrine. He presents the definitions of important terms in the debate and a helpful metaphysics (...)
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  2. Incompatibilism, Sin, and Free Will in Heaven.Kevin Timpe & Timothy Pawl - 2009 - Faith and Philosophy 26 (4):396-417.
    The traditional view of heaven holds that the redeemed in heaven both have free will and are no longer capable of sinning. A number of philosophers have argued that the traditional view is problematic. How can someone be free and yet incapable of sinning? If the redeemed are kept from sinning, their wills must be reined in. And if their wills are reined in, it doesn’t seem right to say that they are free. Following James Sennett, we call this objection (...)
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  3. Conciliar Christology and the Consistency of Divine Immutability with a Mutable, Incarnate God.Timothy Pawl - 2018 - Nova et Vetera 16 (3):913-937.
    [paragraph 3 of the article] The goal of this article is to flesh out that initial understanding of incarnational immutability. The method I employ to attain this goal is to consider cases of predications from the texts of conciliar Christology. I show potential ontological truth conditions for those predications being true that do not require the truth conditions I propose for immutability to be unsatisfied. Put otherwise, I show ontological truth conditions for predications that imply Christ’s mutability and Incarnation that (...)
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  4. Heavenly Freedom: A Response to Cowan.Timothy Pawl & Kevin Timpe - 2013 - Faith and Philosophy 30 (2):188-197.
  5. A Solution to the Fundamental Philosophical Problem of Christology.Timothy Pawl - 2014 - Journal of Analytic Theology 2:61-85.
    I consider the fundamental philosophical problem for Christology: how can one and the same person, the Second Person of the Trinity, be both God and man. For being God implies having certain attributes, perhaps immutability, or impassibility, whereas being human implies having apparently inconsistent attributes. This problem is especially vexing for the proponent of Conciliar Christology – the Christology taught in the Ecumenical Councils – since those councils affirm that Christ is both mutable and immutable, both passible and impassible, etc. (...)
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  6. Conciliar Christology and the Problem of Incompatible Predications.Timothy Pawl - 2015 - Scientia et Fides 3 (2):85-106.
    In this article I canvas the options available to a proponent of the traditional doctrine of the incarnation against a charge of incoherence. In particular, I consider the charge of incoherence due to incompatible predications both being true of the same one person, the God-man Jesus Christ. For instance, one might think that any- thing divine has to have certain attributes – perhaps omnipotence, or impassibility. But, the charge continues, nothing human can be omnipotent or impassible. And so nothing can (...)
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  7. Temporary Intrinsics and Christological Predication.Timothy Pawl - 2016 - In Jon Kvanvig (ed.), Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion, VII. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 157-189.
    In this paper I show that the problem of temporary intrinsics and a fundamental philosophical problem concerning the doctrine of the incarnation are isomorphic. To do so, I present the problem of temporary intrinsics, along with five responses to the problem. I then present the fundamental problem for Christology, which I call the problem of natural intrinsics. I present six responses to that problem, all but the last analogous to a response to the problem of temporary intrinsics. My goal is (...)
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  8. Thomistic Multiple Incarnations.Timothy Pawl - 2014 - Heythrop Journal (6):359-370.
    In this article I present St. Thomas Aquinas’s views on the possibility of multiple incarnations. First I disambiguate four things one might mean when saying that multiple incarnations are possible. Then I provide and justify what I take to be Aquinas’s answers to these questions, showing the intricacies of his argumentation and concluding that he holds an extremely robust view of the possibility of multiple incarnations. According to Aquinas, I argue, there could be three simultaneously existing concrete rational natures, each (...)
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  9.  8
    Being, Freedom, & Method: Themes From the Philosophy of Peter van Inwagen. [REVIEW]Timothy Pawl - 2017 - Review of Metaphysics 71 (3).
  10. Traditional Christian Theism and Truthmaker Maximalism.Timothy Pawl - 2012 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 4 (1):197-218.
    I argue that Traditional Christian Theism is inconsistent with Truthmaker Maximalism, the thesis that all truths have truthmakers. Though this original formulation requires extensive revision, the gist of the argument is as follows. Suppose for reductio Traditional Christian Theism and the sort of Truthmaker Theory that embraces Truthmaker Maximalism are both true. By Traditional Christian Theism, there is a world in which God, and only God, exists. There are no animals in such a world. Thus, it is true in such (...)
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  11.  36
    The Freedom of Christ and the Problem of Deliberation.Timothy Pawl - 2014 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 75 (3):233-247.
    Call the claim, common to many in the Christian intellectual tradition, that Christ, in virtue of his created human intellect, had certain, infallible exhaustive foreknowledge the Foreknowledge Thesis. Now consider what I will call the Conditional: If the Foreknowledge Thesis is true, then Christ’s created human will lacked an important sort of freedom that we mere humans have. Insofar as many, perhaps all, of the people who affirm the Foreknowledge Thesis also wish to affirm the robust freedom of Christ’s human (...)
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  12. Transubstantiation, Tropes, and Truthmakers.Timothy J. Pawl - 2012 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 86 (1):71-96.
    This article addresses a difficult case at the intersection of philosophical theology and truthmaker theory. I show that three views, together, lead to difficultiesin providing truthmakers for truths of contingent predication, such as that the bread is white. These three views are: the Catholic dogma of transubstantiation, astandard truthmaker theory, and a trope view of properties. I present and explain each of these three views, at each step noting their connections to the thought of St. Thomas Aquinas. After presenting the (...)
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  13.  84
    Beyond the Control of God? Six Views on the Problem of God and Abstract Objects, Ed. Paul M. Gould: New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2014, Pp. Ix + 209, $36.99. [REVIEW]Timothy Pawl - 2015 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 93 (3):627-628.
    This is a review of _Beyond the Control of God_.
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  14.  52
    Freedom and the Incarnation.Timothy Pawl & Kevin Timpe - 2016 - Philosophy Compass 11 (11):743-756.
    In this paper, we explore how free will should be understood within the Christian doctrine of the Incarnation, particularly on the assumption of traditional Christology. We focus on two issues: reconciling Christ's free will with the claim that Christ's human will was subjected to the divine will in the Incarnation; and reconciling the claims that Christ was fully human and free with the belief that Christ, since God, could not sin.
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  15.  95
    Change, Difference, and Orthodox Truthmaker Theory.Timothy Pawl - 2014 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 92 (3):539-550.
    Australasian Journal of Philosophy, Ahead of Print.
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  16.  56
    In Defense of Divine Truthmaker Simplicity.Timothy Pawl - 2019 - Res Philosophica 96 (1):63-75.
    In his recent article “Against Divine Truthmaker Simplicity,” Noël Saenz has provided two careful arguments for the falsity of a theory of divine simplicity which he dubs “Divine Truthmaker Simplicity.” In this brief response, I criticize his two arguments, arguing that neither is sound.
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  17.  21
    Complete Symposium on Jc Beall's Christ – A Contradiction: A Defense of Contradictory Christology.Jc Beall, Timothy Pawl, Thomas McCall, A. J. Cotnoir & Sara L. Uckelman - 2019 - Journal of Analytic Theology 7 (1):400-577.
    The fundamental problem of Christology is the apparent contradiction of Christ as recorded at Chalcedon. Christ is human and Christ is divine. Being divine entails being immutable. Being human entails being mutable. Were Christ two different persons there’d be no apparent contradiction. But Chalcedon rules as much out. Were Christ only partly human or only partly divine there’d be no apparent contradiction. But Chalcedon rules as much out. Were the very meaning of ‘mutable’ and/or ‘immutable’ other than what they are, (...)
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  18.  44
    The Freedom of Christ and Explanatory Priority.Timothy Pawl - 2014 - Religious Studies 50 (2):157-173.
    Call the claim, common to many in the Christian intellectual tradition, that Christ, in virtue of his created human intellect, had certain, infallible, exhaustive foreknowledge the Foreknowledge Thesis. Now consider what I will call the Conditional: if the Foreknowledge Thesis is true, then Christ's created human will was not free. In so far as many, perhaps all, of the people who affirm the Foreknowledge Thesis also wish to affirm the freedom of Christ's human will, the truth of the Conditional would (...)
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  19.  16
    Paradise and Growing in Virtue.Kevin Timpe & Timothy Pawl - 2017 - In T. Ryan Byerly & Eric Silverman (eds.), Paradise Understood: New Philosophical Essays about Heaven. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 97-109.
    The present volume is devoted to philosophical reflection on the nature of paradise. Our contribution to this larger project is an extension of previous work that we’ve done on the nature of human agency and virtue in heaven. Here, we’d like to focus on three things. First, we will discuss in greater detail what it is we mean by “growth in virtue.” Second, we will answer a number of objections to that understanding of growth in virtue. Third, we will show (...)
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  20.  54
    Brian Hebblethwaite's Arguments Against Multiple Incarnations.Timothy Pawl - 2016 - Religious Studies 52 (1):117-130.
    In this article I present two arguments from Brian Hebblethwaite for the conclusion that multiple incarnations are impossible, as well as the analyses of those arguments provided by three other thinkers: Oliver Crisp, Peter Kevern, and Robin Le Poidevin. I argue that both of Hebblethwaite's arguments are unsound.
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  21. God Without Parts: Divine Simplicity and the Metaphysics of God’s Absoluteness, by James E. Dolezal. [REVIEW]Timothy J. Pawl - 2013 - Faith and Philosophy 30 (4):480-486.
    This is a review of _God Without Parts: Divine Simplicity and the Metaphysics of God's Absoluteness_, by James E. Dolezal.
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  22.  38
    Truthmaking and Christian Theology.Timothy Pawl - 2015 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 89:181-194.
    This paper analyzes Catholic philosophy by investigating the parameters that Catholic dogmatic claims set for theories of truthmaking. First I argue that two well-known truthmaker views—the view that properties alone are the truthmakers for contingent predications, and the view that all truths need truthmakers—are precluded by Catholic dogma. In particular, the doctrine of transubstantiation precludes the first, and the doctrines of divine causality and divine freedom together preclude the second. Next, I argue that the doctrine of the Incarnation, together with (...)
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  23.  93
    The Five Ways.Timothy Pawl - 2011 - In Brian Davies & Eleonore Stump (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Aquinas. Oxford University Press. pp. 115-131.
    I present and evaluate the 5 Ways of St. Thomas Aquinas. I discuss the contentious premises and inferences of the arguments.
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  24.  12
    Explosive Theology: A Reply to Jc Beall’s “Christ – A Contradiction”.Timothy Pawl - 2019 - Journal of Analytic Theology 7 (1):440-451.
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  25. Aquinas on Blameworthiness and the Virtue of Faith.Timothy Pawl - 2005 - Journal of Postgraduates in Wuhan University 21 (4):21-26.
    Many Christians seem to have difficulty in their worldview insofar as they affirm: (1) If a person cannot do something, then that person is not blameworthy for not doing that action, (2) No one has it within his or her power to acquire faith, and (3) Some individuals who do not have the virtue of faith are nevertheless blameworthy for not having faith. These propositions together appear to entail a contradiction. In this paper I show how the Christian philosopher, St. (...)
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  26. Divine Immutability.Timothy Pawl - 2009 - The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Divine immutability, the claim that God is immutable, is a central part of traditional Christianity, though it has come under sustained attack in the last two hundred years. This article first catalogues the historical precedent for and against this claim, then discusses different answers to the question, “What is it to be immutable?” Two definitions of divine immutability receive careful attention. The first is that for God to be immutable is for God to have a constant character and to be (...)
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  27.  90
    The Possibility Principle and the Truthmakers for Modal Truths.Timothy Pawl - 2010 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 88 (3):417-428.
    A necessary part of David Armstrong's account of truthmakers for modal truths is his Possibility principle: any truthmaker for a contingent truth is also a truthmaker for the possibility of the complement of that contingent truth (if T makes _p_ true and _p_ is contingent, then T makes ⋄∼_p_ true). I criticize Armstrong's Possibility principle for two reasons. First, his argument for the Possibility principle both relies on an unwarranted generalization and vitiates his desire for relevant truthmakers. His argument undercuts (...)
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  28.  54
    Christologically Inspired, Empirically Motivated Hylomorphism.Timothy Pawl & Mark K. Spencer - 2016 - Res Philosophica 93 (1):137-160.
    In this paper we present the standard Thomistic view concerning substances and their parts. We then note some objections to that view. Afterwards, we present Aquinas’s Christology, then draw an analogy between the relation that holds between the Second Person and the assumed human nature, on the one hand, and the relation that holds between a substance whole and its substance parts, on the other. We then show how the analogy, which St. Thomas himself drew at points, is useful for (...)
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  29.  53
    Aquinas’s Ontology of the Material World: Change, Hylomorphism, and Material Objects. By Jeffrey E. Brower. [REVIEW]Timothy Pawl - 2015 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 89 (4):723-727.
    I review Jeffrey Brower's book, "Aquinas's Ontology of the Material World".
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  30.  19
    Review of Mark Ian Thomas Robson, Ontology and Providence in Creation: Taking Ex Nihilo Seriously[REVIEW]Timothy Pawl - 2009 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2009 (7).
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  31.  59
    Aquinas' Five Ways.Timothy J. Pawl - 2011 - In Michael Bruce & Steven Barbone (eds.), Just the Arguments: 100 of the Most Important Arguments in Western Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 7--17.
    In this article I present Aquinas's 5 ways in their logical structure and provide some discussion of the contentious premises or inferences.
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  32.  8
    A Reply to “The Antinomy of Future Contingent Events”.Timothy Pawl - 2018 - Roczniki Filozoficzne 66 (4):149-157.
    In this brief reply I discuss Fr. Marcin Tkaczyk’s excellent article, “The Antinomy of Future Contingent Events.” I first raise some concerns about his understanding of representation. I then raise three concerns about his preferred solution to the antinomy: first, that a part of his theory of representation itself motivates a rejection of proposition 1 of the antinomy; second, that one needn’t employ retroactive causal connections to weaken 1 as he does; and third, that it is difficult to make sense (...)
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  33.  35
    Stone's Evidential Atheism: A Critique.Timothy Pawl - 2013 - Faith and Philosophy 30 (3):317-329.
    In a pair of recent articles, Jim Stone presents a new version of the Evidential Argument from Evil. I provide two arguments against Stone’s Evidential Problem of Evil, one from the dialectical standpoint of a theist, the second from a dialectical standpoint that is neutral between theism and atheism. In neither case, I argue, should an interlocutor accept all the premises of the argument.
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  34.  5
    Thomistic Multiple Incarnations.Timothy Pawl - 2016 - Heythrop Journal 57 (2):359-370.
    In this article I present St. Thomas Aquinas’s views on the possibility of multiple incarnations. First I disambiguate four things one might mean when saying that multiple incarnations are possible. Then I provide and justify what I take to be Aquinas’s answers to these questions, showing the intricacies of his argumentation and concluding that he holds an extremely robust view of the possibility of multiple incarnations. According to Aquinas, I argue, there could be three simultaneously existing concrete rational natures, each (...)
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  35.  10
    In Defense of Extended Conciliar Christology: A Philosophical Essay.Timothy Pawl - 2019 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    This study considers the philosophical arguments against that Extended Conciliar Christology and argues that none of them succeed in showing the doctrine to be false, or incoherent, or inconsistent.
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  36. Temporary Intrinsics and Christological Predication.Timothy Pawl - 2016 - Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion 7:157-189.
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