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Timothy H. Pickavance [29]Timothy Pickavance [14]
  1.  15
    Metaphysics: The Fundamentals.Robert C. Koons & Timothy Pickavance - 2014 - Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. Edited by Timothy H. Pickavance.
    The book covers a broad range of key topics, including theories of properties and particulars, the notion of truth-makers, powers and possibilities, material composition, and a variety of issues related to time and causation.
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  2.  25
    The atlas of reality: a comprehensive guide to metaphysics.Robert C. Koons & Timothy Pickavance - 2017 - Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. Edited by Timothy H. Pickavance.
    The Atlas of Reality: A Comprehensive Guide to Metaphysics presents an extensive examination of the key topics, concepts, and guiding principles of metaphysics. Represents the most comprehensive guide to metaphysics available today Offers authoritative coverage of the full range of topics that comprise the field of metaphysics in an accessible manner while considering competing views Explores key concepts such as space, time, powers, universals, and composition with clarity and depth Articulates coherent packages of metaphysical theses that include neo-Aristotelian, Quinean, Armstrongian, (...)
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  3.  32
    Metaphysics: The Fundamentals.Robert C. Koons & Timothy Pickavance - 2014 - Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. Edited by Timothy H. Pickavance.
    The book covers a broad range of key topics, including theories of properties and particulars, the notion of truth-makers, powers and possibilities, material composition, and a variety of issues related to time and causation.
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  4. Bare Particulars and Exemplifcation.Timothy Pickavance - 2014 - American Philosophical Quarterly 51 (2):95-108.
    Bare particulars tend to get a bad rap. But often, the arguments lodged against bare particulars seem to miss important aspects of the theoretical context of bare particulars. In particular, these arguments fail to situate bare particulars within a constituent ontology with substrates, and thus fail to appreciate an important consequence of that context: the need for two types of exemplification. In this paper, I do three things. First, I motivate and describe the need, given bare particulars, for two types (...)
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  5. Affective Reason.Jason McMartin & Timothy Pickavance - forthcoming - Episteme.
    This paper contributes to the recent explosion of literature on the epistemological role of emotions and other affective states by defending two claims. First, affective states might do more than position us to receive evidence or function as evidence. Affective states might be thought toappraiseevidence, in the sense that affective states influence what doxastic state is rational for someone given a body of evidence. The second claim is that affective evidentialism, the view that affective states function rationally in this way, (...)
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  6. Bare particulars and individuation reply to Mertz.J. P. Moreland & Timothy Pickavance - 2003 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 81 (1):1 – 13.
    Not long ago, one of us has clarified and defended a bare particular theory of individuation. More recently, D. W. Mertz has raised a set of objections against this account and other accounts of bare particulars and proffered an alternative theory of individuation. He claims to have shown that 'the concept of bare particulars, and consequently substratum ontology that requires it, is untenable.' We disagree with this claim and believe there are adequate responses to the three arguments Mertz raises against (...)
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  7. Evidence against pragmatic encroachment.Daniel Eaton & Timothy Pickavance - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (12):3135-3143.
    We argue that a certain version of pragmatic encroachment, according to which one knows that p only if one’s epistemic position with respect to p is practically adequate, has a problematic consequence: one can lose knowledge that p by getting evidence for p, and conversely, one can gain knowledge that p by getting evidence against p. We first describe this version of pragmatic encroachment, and then we defend that it has the problematic consequence. Finally, we deal with a worry that (...)
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  8. In defence of 'partially clad' bare particulars.Timothy Pickavance - 2009 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 87 (1):155 – 158.
    In a recent article in this journal, Richard Brian Davis argues that 'bare particulars [as defended by J. P. Moreland] face several serious shortcomings'[2003: 547]. I argue that Davis's two principal criticisms fall flat.
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  9.  9
    Metaphysics: the fundamentals.Timothy Pickavance - 2015 - Malden, MA: Wiley, Blackwell. Edited by Timothy H. Pickavance.
    The book covers a broad range of key topics, including theories of properties and particulars, the notion of truth-makers, powers and possibilities, material composition, and a variety of issues related to time and causation.
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  10.  12
    Universals.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 123–146.
    There is substantial controversy about the nature of both particulars and properties. Some philosophers think that the categories of particular and property are fundamental, that at least some of the things in both are in no way derived from or dependent on things in another category. These philosophers are Realists about both particulars and properties. Nominalists think of particulars as fundamental and of properties as non‐fundamental, with the latter being derived from the former. This chapter explores why someone might go (...)
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  11. Wagering on Pragmatic Encroachment.Daniel Eaton & Timothy Pickavance - 2017 - Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion 8:96-117.
    Lately, there has been an explosion of literature exploring the the relationship between one’s practical situation and one’s knowledge. Some involved in this discussion have suggested that facts about a person’s practical situation might affect whether or not a person knows in that situation, holding fixed all the things standardly associated with knowledge (like evidence, the reliability of one’s cognitive faculties, and so on). According to these “pragmatic encroachment” views, then, one’s practical situation encroaches on one’s knowledge. Though we won’t (...)
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  12.  13
    The Non‐Existent and the Vaguely Existing.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 253–280.
    This chapter focuses on two clusters of questions concerning existence. The first cluster concerns the scope of existence, examining how wide the domain of existing things is and whether it encompass absolutely everything. The second cluster concerns vagueness and indeterminacy, explaining whether vague things and vague categories of things are there or all vagueness is a matter of referring indifferently to a large number of absolutely precise things and showing the ultimate source of vagueness. There are two theories of vagueness, (...)
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  13.  18
    Laws of Nature.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 94–105.
    Fred Dretske, David M. Armstrong, and Michael Tooley have all proposed that the truths about the laws of nature are metaphysically fundamental, consisting in a primitive, unanalyzable relation of 'necessitation' holding between two or more properties or universals. According to Strong Nomism, the laws of nature determine which counterfactual conditionals are true, and they also determine which powers and tendencies particular things have. This chapter treats Nomism as committed to the Dretske‐Armstrong‐Tooley (DAT) theory. Nomism provides a metaphysical explanation of the (...)
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  14.  18
    Solipsism, Idealism, and the Problem of Perception.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 281–313.
    One might think that the best metaphysical theory of the world includes the existence of other minds and of the physical world, while denying that we can know or be certain that this theory is true. This chapter considers Solipsism as a theory about reality. It examines the Veil of Perception, and then considers a series of direct arguments against the Solipsistic Veil, Phenomenalism, and Solipsism itself. The chapter looks at two obviously inadequate arguments for the Veil, namely, Berkeley's inconceivability (...)
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  15.  15
    Particulars and the Problem of Individuation.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 171–200.
    This chapter focuses on question of the relation of properties to particulars. It considers three theories of facts: as tropes, as states of affairs, and as nexuses between particulars and universals, noting that in each case, facts turn out to be particulars of a kind. The chapter investigates the question of substances, considering two accounts about the relationship between substances and properties, namely, Relational and Constituent Ontology. Substances would have a surprising degree of metaphysical complexity. According to Constituent Ontology, properties (...)
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  16.  14
    Abstractionism: Worlds as Representations.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 332–351.
    This chapter covers number of Abstractionist views of modality. It considers three ways that Abstractionists might account for how possible worlds represent possibilities, rather than in terms of the categorial nature of worlds. First, there is Magical Abstractionism, according to which that question has no informative answer. Second, there is Linguistic Abstractionism, according to which possible worlds represent in the way that languages do. And finally, there is Pictorial Abstractionism, according to which possible worlds represent in the way that pictures (...)
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  17.  14
    Conditionals.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 75–93.
    One popular approach to the metaphysics of dispositional properties takes them to involve ascribing a conditional property, a property corresponding to a conditional statement. This chapter looks at some recent work on the semantics and logic of conditionals, followed by a consideration of Hypotheticalism, Nomism, Neo‐Humeism, and Powerism. It examines directly the question whether Hypotheticalism or Anti‐Hypotheticalism (categoricalism) is correct, and shows how to evaluate counterfactual conditionals. The evaluation of conditionals seems to turn on two sorts of facts about the (...)
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  18.  14
    Grounding, Ontological Dependence, and Fundamentality.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 47–73.
    An appeal to ontological parsimony or economy plays an important, perhaps indispensable, role in evaluating metaphysical theories. This chapter focuses primarily on the first conception of grounding, grounding as metaphysical explanation. It briefly discusses the relation of ontological dependency and its connections with grounding as explanation. Debates about grounding are a recurring theme in the history of Western philosophy. Much of Aristotle's metaphysical method also presupposes the existence of a grounding relation. The chapter investigates both conceptual and ontological grounding and (...)
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  19.  14
    Material Composition: The Special Question.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 479–513.
    This chapter examines the problem of unity and considers how it is possible for one thing to exist in and through a plurality of parts or phases. It begins with a general discussion of the existence of composite things. The chapter considers the view that composite entities are always an 'ontological free lunch', things that can be freely posited without incurring any cost in relation to ontological economy or Ockham's Razor. It looks at the issue of causal redundancy, a consideration (...)
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  20.  14
    Possibility, Necessity, and Actuality: Concretism.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 315–331.
    This chapter considers various views about the precise nature of possible worlds, but each view is compatible with this initial characterization. It considers modality, particularly focusing on metaphysical possibility, necessity, and impossibility, that broadest kind of modality. The chapter offers an example of why one might care about this issue, an example of why the study of modality matters to philosophy more generally. It is plausible that modality is importantly connected to understanding. The chapter focuses on two contrasting views about (...)
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  21.  13
    Change and Persistence.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 531–554.
    This chapter examines questions having to do with whether and how things persist through change and how things do so If they do persist. Next, assuming that intrinsic change does take place, the chapter examines two principal views about how things persist through change of intrinsic properties, Substratism and Replacementism. It focuses on the specific but very important case of motion, or change of location. There are three major theories: Intrinsic Motion; Bertrand Russell's At/At Theory, and an Aristotelian theory (Motion (...)
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  22.  13
    De Re Modality and Modal Knowledge.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 352–370.
    This chapter focuses mainly on how possible worlds relate to the truth and falsity of modal claims (or propositions), and therefore to whether claims are necessarily true, necessarily false, possibly true, possibly false, and so on. This issue is that of modality de dicto, modality concerning propositions. But there is another type of modality, namely modality de re. This has to do with the modal status of relations between things and their properties, with whether things possess properties necessarily, contingently or (...)
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  23.  13
    Powers and Properties.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 106–122.
    Laws of nature are merely expressions of the powers possessed by various kinds of things, and counterfactual conditionals are grounded in the powers and tendencies of the entities involved in the counterfactual supposition together with their counterfactual surroundings. There are two versions of Strong Powerism. One takes the truthmakers for causal laws to be universals (a 'Realist' version). The second takes the truthmakers for causal laws to be the particulars that fall under the laws (a 'Nominalist' version). This chapter focuses (...)
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  24.  13
    Truthmakers.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 13–46.
    The first way that a discussion of truth gets one going in metaphysics is via its connection to propositions. Philosophers have taken a number of views about the true nature of propositions. The early part of the twentieth century saw a strong reaction against holism, led prominently by Bertrand Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein. This chapter considers why we should believe in Classical Truthmaker Theory in the first place, as well as a fundamental challenge to the very foundation of truthmaker theory: (...)
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  25.  12
    Composition: The General Question.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 514–530.
    This chapter takes up issues to do with Peter van Inwagen's (1990a) general composition question: what is it for one thing to be a part of another? The chapter begins with some background to do with formal mereology, the study of parts and wholes. In discussing the metaphysics of parts and wholes, it is helpful to have some specialized vocabulary, as well as a well thought‐out mathematical model of a very broad, inclusive theory. The theory of mereology, proposed by the (...)
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  26.  11
    Nihilism and Monism.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 227–252.
    This chapter considers the possibility of Nihilism, that nothing exists, and its alternative, Aliquidism, that something exists. This will lead us into an investigation of the point of positing existing things. The chapter looks at the debate between Monists, who believe in only one thing, and Pluralists, who believe in many. It also considers both radical and more moderate forms of both Nihilism and Monism, including, for example, Priority Monism. The chapter examines four arguments for Monism: those of Parmenides, Spinoza, (...)
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  27.  10
    Discrete and Continuous Causation.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 613–623.
    Causal connectionists need to provide an account of causal linkage and of causal direction. This chapter distinguishes between two kinds of causal connection, namely, discrete and continuous. Causal connectionists have a number of options for explaining the linkage between causes and effects in the case of discrete causation. The chapter provides some popular options. If some causation is discrete, and the exercise of causal powers provides a direction to discrete causation, then the causal direction of processes can be derived from (...)
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  28.  10
    Reductive Nominalism and Trope Theory.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 147–170.
    There are a number of different versions of Reductive Nominalism, versions distinguished by the way in which each accounts for facts about having and sharing properties. This chapter discusses three broad varieties of Reductive Nominalism: Predicate Nominalism, Class Nominalism, and Resemblance Nominalism. Class Nominalism identifies properties with classes or sets. Resemblance Nominalists come in two sub‐varieties, depending on whether they take the resemblance relation to hold between particular properties (called 'tropes') or particular things that have properties (ordinary particulars). Trope Theory (...)
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  29.  10
    The Existence and Scope of Causation.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 575–590.
    The nature of causation has been one of the central questions of metaphysics since ancient times. This chapter looks at the arguments for Causal Anti‐Realism. Causation requires necessary connections between separate existences. David Hume argued that the ordinary conception of causation involves the separateness of the cause and effect. Hume had a further, closely related argument against the reality of causation. Authors' idea of causation is merely a confusion of several distinct concepts, namely, the concepts of regular succession and contiguity (...)
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  30.  14
    Hidden Mickeys and the Hiddenness of God.Robert K. Garcia & Timothy Pickavance - 2019-10-03 - In Richard B. Davis (ed.), Disney and Philosophy. Wiley. pp. 35–44.
    This chapter shows that reflecting on Hidden Mickeys can take people at least part of the way to a solution to the problem of divine hiddenness. Here is the basic idea: it is often ambiguous whether some constellation of shapes is a Hidden Mickey, and similarly, it is often ambiguous whether some experience is an experience of God's presence and love. In order to develop this idea, the chapter steps away from Hidden Mickeys in order to develop the problem of (...)
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  31.  7
    Arguments for Anti‐Tensism.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 458–478.
    This chapter looks at six arguments against Tensism. They are, equivalently, arguments for Anti‐Tensism. The arguments are of three basic kinds: those that argue that Tensism is incoherent or mysterious, those that argue that it is in irresolvable conflict with modern science, and those that fault Tensism for its unexplainable or brute necessities. The chapter considers the objection that Tensism cannot sensibly account for the rate of the flow of time. It shows in which a variety of objections based on (...)
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  32.  6
    Causation: A Relation between Things or Truths?Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 591–612.
    This chapter explores whether causation is a relation between things, like being next to or being taller than, or it is something else entirely. It considers two ways of thinking about causation. The chapter considers it as a real relation, the relation of causal connection, between things or events, or as a logical relation, the relation of causal explanation, among truths. For metaphysicians, the crucial question is whether causal connection or causal explanation is more fundamental. There are two major objections (...)
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  33.  6
    Conclusion: The Four Packages.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 624–632.
    This chapter discusses four packages, including Ludovician, Aristotelian, Fortibracchian, and Quietist. There are two quite coherent packages of answers to the some issues: a neo‐Humeist or Ludovician package, and a neo‐Aristotelian package. Ludovicians put little weight on common sense beliefs, especially when they are embedded in ethical and legal practices, and they do not rely heavily on the "manifest image of the world". Aristotelians rely more heavily on the semantic intuition about what could possibly be the truthmakers for familiar kinds (...)
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  34.  7
    Is Space Merely Relational?Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 371–389.
    This chapter considers three substantivalist theories, namely, the theory of spatial qualities, spatial monism, and body‐space dualism, and two relationist theories, namely, Aristotelian relationism and modern relationism. Spatial Substantivalism comes in two forms, depending on whether places are properties or not. Assuming that places are properties amounts to the theory of spatial qualities; the alternative version of substantivalism is spatial particularism. Spatial particularism in turn comes in two forms, body‐space dualism and spatial monism. Spatial relationists also come in two forms, (...)
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  35.  8
    Introduction.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 1–12.
    This introduction provides an overview of the key concepts discussed in the following chapters of this book. The book begins with a short history of metaphysics, and discusses some reasons why metaphysics matters. The practice of metaphysics is controversial within philosophy itself. This controversy stems from two primary sources: skepticism and pragmatism. The book introduces the two notions of truthmaking and of grounding, ideas that lie at the heart of a significant number of metaphysical projects. It develops an account of (...)
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  36.  8
    Relations, Structures, and Quantities.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 201–225.
    This chapter examines four special problems involving properties whether universals or tropes. It looks at various accounts of relational facts, facts that involve properties relating two or more particulars. The chapter examines an important special case of relational facts: those that involve nonsymmetric or ordering relations. It focuses on structural properties, those relational properties that enable many things to form a single structure, like a group or a team. Finally, it considers the problem of measurable quantities. Monadism is the view (...)
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  37.  9
    Structure of Space: Points vs. Regions.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 390–414.
    This chapter examines whether space and extended bodies are ultimately composed of points (and point‐masses) or spatial regions (and voluminous bodies). It focuses on three positions: Pointillism, according to which only points and point‐sized bodies are fundamental; Voluminism, according to which the only fundamental things are regions and voluminous bodies; and Volume‐Boundary Dualism, according to which both points and regions really exist and are equally fundamental. The first prima facie problem for Voluminism concerns continuous variation. The chapter looks at the (...)
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  38.  8
    The Persistence of Composite Things.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 555–574.
    Substratism and Replacementism are the two major contending accounts of intrinsic change. This chapter discusses the interaction between composition and persistence, as the persistence of composite objects provides a critical test case for evaluating these two accounts. The chapter covers important puzzles and paradoxes for those who believe that mereological inconstancy and mereological coincidence are possible. There are actually two somewhat different conceptions of coincidence. One involves the sharing of a time‐slice or instantaneous temporal part. This is Temporal Coincidence. A (...)
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  39.  9
    Time's Passage.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 430–457.
    This chapter examines arguments in favor of Tensism. These arguments fall into two main categories. First, there are those arguments, like the Thank Goodness argument, our experience of the flow of time, and the reality of intrinsic change, that appeal to how time appears to us in our ordinary, everyday experience. Metaphysicians must take such data seriously if they are not to embrace a global skepticism about the world of appearances. Second, there are arguments that presuppose a particular conception of (...)
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  40.  6
    The Structure of Time.Timothy H. Pickavance & Robert C. Koons - 2017 - In The Atlas of Reality. Wiley. pp. 415–429.
    This chapter examines some issues concerning the structure of time. It considers arguments for and against Temporal Finitism. Temporal Discretism is a kind of Finitism: any finitely extended interval is made up of only finitely many indivisible units of time. In the chapter, the authors assume for the sake of argument that Intervalism is true, that is, that some temporally extended intervals and processes are among the world's fundamental entities. The main argument for Intervalism is that it follows from the (...)
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  41.  7
    Knowledge for the love of God: why your heart needs your mind.Timothy Pickavance - 2022 - Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
    An exploration of the crucial role of the intellect in Christian belief and the life of faith.
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  42.  72
    Skeptics Can Win (But Almost Never Will).Timothy Pickavance - 2011 - Philosophical Papers 40 (3):371-394.
    Abstract I defend the radical claim that there are only two solutions to what Chisholm calls ?The Problem of the Criterion?: methodological skepticism and a view which I would like to call ?particularism?, if the label were not already taken. Finally, I consider how this result bears on a recent critique of skepticism offered by Thomas Kelly (2005), and argue that it fails.
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  43.  21
    The Farewell to Leibnizian Essences Matured.Timothy Pickavance - 2004 - Philosophia Christi 6 (1):95-110.