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Timothy Shanahan [20]Timothy Donald Shanahan [1]
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Timothy Shanahan
Loyola Marymount University
  1.  30
    The Evolution of Darwinism: Selection, Adaptation and Progress in Evolutionary Biology.Timothy Shanahan - 2004 - New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.
    No other scientific theory has had as tremendous an impact on our understanding of the world as Darwin's theory as outlined in his Origin of Species, yet from the very beginning the theory has been subject to controversy. The Evolution of Darwinism focuses on three issues of debate - the nature of selection, the nature and scope of adaptation, and the question of evolutionary progress. It traces the varying interpretations to which these issues were subjected from the beginning and the (...)
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  2.  40
    Why Don't Zebras Have Machine Guns Adaptation, Selection, and Constraints in Evolutionary Theory.Timothy Shanahan - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 39 (1):135-146.
    In an influential paper, Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Lewontin contrasted selection-driven adaptation with phylogenetic, architectural, and developmental constraints as distinct causes of phenotypic evolution. In subsequent publications Gould has elaborated this distinction into one between a narrow “Darwinian Fundamentalist” emphasis on “external functionalist” processes, and a more inclusive “pluralist” emphasis on “internal structuralist” principles. Although theoretical integration of functionalist and structuralist explanations is the ultimate aim, natural selection and internal constraints are treated as distinct causes of evolutionary change. This (...)
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  3. Evolution, Phenotypic Selection, and the Units of Selection.Timothy Shanahan - 1990 - Philosophy of Science 57 (2):210-225.
    In recent years philosophers have attempted to clarify the units of selection controversy in evolutionary biology by offering conceptual analyses of the term 'unit of selection'. A common feature of many of these analyses is an emphasis on the claim that units of selection are entities exhibiting heritable variation in fitness. In this paper I argue that the demand that units of selection be characterized in terms of heritability is unnecessary, as well as undesirable, on historical, theoretical, and philosophical grounds. (...)
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  4.  8
    Why Don’T Zebras Have Machine Guns? Adaptation, Selection, and Constraints in Evolutionary Theory.Timothy Shanahan - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 39 (1):135-146.
  5. Beatty on Chance and Natural Selection.Timothy Shanahan - 1989 - Philosophy of Science 56 (3):484-489.
    In his (1984) John Beatty correctly identifies the issue of the role of chance in evolution as one of the liveliest disputes in evolutionary biology. He argues, on the basis of a carefully articulated example, that "Even on a proper construal of 'natural selection', it is difficult to distinguish between the 'improbable results of natural selection' and evolution by random drift". His other remarks indicate that he is thinking of conceptual as well as practical indistinguishability. In this discussion I take (...)
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  6.  13
    Chance as an Explanatory Factor in Evolutionary Biology.Timothy Shanahan - 1991 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 13 (2):249 - 268.
    Darwinian evolutionary biology has often been criticized for appealing to the notion of 'chance' in its explanations. According to some critics, such appeals exhibit the explanatory poverty of evolutionary theory. In response, defenders of Darwinism sometimes downplay the importance of 'chance' in evolution. I believe that both of these approaches are mistaken. The main thesis of this paper is that the term 'chance' encompasses a number of distinct concepts, and that at least some of these concepts serve essential explanatory functions (...)
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  7.  54
    Kant, Naturphilosophie, and Oersted's Discovery of Electromagnetism: A Reassessment.Timothy Shanahan - 1989 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 20 (3):287-305.
    THE DANISH chemist and physicist Hans Christian Oersted (1777-I 851) is recognized by historians of science primarily as the discoverer of electromagnetism. His experiments in 1820 demonstrated a definite lawlike relationship between electrical and magnetic phenomena. The quite general question of whether there is in science such a thing as a “logic of discovery” can in this case be given a more precise formulation. Why was Oersted, rather than another of the many scientists interested in electricity and magnetism in the (...)
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  8.  52
    God and Nature in the Thought of Robert Boyle.Timothy Shanahan - 1988 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 26 (4):547-569.
    THERE IS WIDESPREAD AGREEMENT among historians that the writings of Robert Boyle (1697-1691) constitute a valuable archive for understanding the concerns of seventeenth-century British natural philosophers. His writings have often been seen as representing, in one fashion or another, all of the leading intellectual currents of his day. ~ There is somewhat less consensus, however, on the proper historiographic method for interpreting these writings, as well as on the specific details of the beliefs expressed in them. Studies seeking to explicate (...)
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  9.  91
    Philosophy 9/11: Thinking About the War on Terrorism.Timothy Shanahan (ed.) - 2005 - Open Court.
    Fifteen philosophers turn their thoughts to international terrorism and the war that it has spawned, lending their expertise in law, ethics, politics, feminism, ...
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  10.  22
    Pluralism, Antirealism, and the Units of Selection.Timothy Shanahan - 1997 - Acta Biotheoretica 45 (2):117-126.
    In an important article, Kim Sterelny and Philip Kitcher challenge the common assumption that for any biological phenomenon requiring a selectionist explanation, it is possible to identify a uniquely correct account of the relevant selection process. They argue that selection events can be modeled in any of a number of different, equally correct ways. They call their view ' Pluralism,' and explicitly connect it with various antirealist positions in the philosophy of science. I critically evaluate Sterelny and Kitcher's Pluralism along (...)
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  11.  45
    Kitcher's Compromise: A Critical Examination of the Compromise Model of Scientific Closure, and its Implications for the Relationship Between History and Philosophy of Science.Timothy Shanahan - 1997 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 28 (2):319-338.
    In The Advancement of Science (1993) Philip Kitcher develops what he calls the 'Compromise Model' of the closure of scientific debates. The model is designed to acknowledge significant elements from 'Rationalist' and 'Antirationalist' accounts of science, without succumbing to the one-sidedness of either. As part of an ambitious naturalistic account of scientific progress, Kitcher's model succeeds to the extent that transitions in the history of science satisfy its several conditions. I critically evaluate the Compromise Model by identifying its crucial assumptions (...)
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  12.  22
    The First Moment of Scientific Inquiry: C. S. Peirce on the Logic of Abduction.Timothy Shanahan - 1986 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 22 (4):449 - 466.
  13.  3
    Kant, "Naturphilosophi", and Oersted's Discovery of Electromagnetism: A Reassessment.Timothy Shanahan - 1989 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 20 (3):287.
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  14.  46
    Methodological and Contextual Factors in the Dawkins/Gould Dispute Over Evolutionary Progress.Timothy Shanahan - 2001 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 32 (1):127-151.
    Biologists Richard Dawkins and Stephen Jay Gould have recently extended their decades-old disagreements about evolution to the issue of the nature and reality of evolutionary progress. According to Gould, 'progress' is a noxious notion that deserves to be expunged from evolutionary biology. In Dawkins' view, on the other hand, progress is one of the most important, pervasive and inevitable aspects of evolution. Simple appeals to 'the evidence' are clearly insufficient to resolve this disagreement, since it is precisely the interpretation of (...)
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  15.  24
    Phylogenetic Inertia and Darwin's Higher Law.Timothy Shanahan - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 42 (1):60-68.
    The concept of ‘phylogenetic inertia’ is routinely deployed in evolutionary biology as an alternative to natural selection for explaining the persistence of characteristics that appear sub-optimal from an adaptationist perspective. However, in many of these contexts the precise meaning of ‘phylogenetic inertia’ and its relationship to selection are far from clear. After tracing the history of the concept of ‘inertia’ in evolutionary biology, I argue that treating phylogenetic inertia and natural selection as alternative explanations is mistaken because phylogenetic inertia is, (...)
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  16.  3
    Francisco J. Ayala and Robert Arp : Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Biology. [REVIEW]Timothy Shanahan - 2010 - Science & Education 19 (10):1029-1034.
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  17.  16
    Diversity and Complexity Are Easy. [REVIEW]Timothy Shanahan - 2011 - Metascience 20 (2):355-358.
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  18.  4
    Phylogenetic Inertia and Darwin’s Higher Law.Timothy Shanahan - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 42 (1):60-68.
    The concept of ‘phylogenetic inertia’ is routinely deployed in evolutionary biology as an alternative to natural selection for explaining the persistence of characteristics that appear sub-optimal from an adaptationist perspective. However, in many of these contexts the precise meaning of ‘phylogenetic inertia’ and its relationship to selection are far from clear. After tracing the history of the concept of ‘inertia’ in evolutionary biology, I argue that treating phylogenetic inertia and natural selection as alternative explanations is mistaken because phylogenetic inertia is, (...)
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  19. Blade Runner 2049.Timothy Shanahan & Paul Smart (eds.) - forthcoming
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  20. Introduction.Timothy Shanahan - 2005 - In Philosophy 9/11: Thinking About the War on Terrorism. Open Court.
     
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