16 found
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  1. Causal superseding.Jonathan F. Kominsky, Jonathan Phillips, Tobias Gerstenberg, David Lagnado & Joshua Knobe - 2015 - Cognition 137 (C):196-209.
    When agents violate norms, they are typically judged to be more of a cause of resulting outcomes. In this paper, we suggest that norm violations also affect the causality attributed to other agents, a phenomenon we refer to as "causal superseding." We propose and test a counterfactual reasoning model of this phenomenon in four experiments. Experiments 1 and 2 provide an initial demonstration of the causal superseding effect and distinguish it from previously studied effects. Experiment 3 shows that this causal (...)
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  2.  29
    A counterfactual simulation model of causal judgments for physical events.Tobias Gerstenberg, Noah D. Goodman, David A. Lagnado & Joshua B. Tenenbaum - 2021 - Psychological Review 128 (5):936-975.
  3.  38
    Causal Responsibility and Counterfactuals.David A. Lagnado, Tobias Gerstenberg & Ro'I. Zultan - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (6):1036-1073.
    How do people attribute responsibility in situations where the contributions of multiple agents combine to produce a joint outcome? The prevalence of over-determination in such cases makes this a difficult problem for counterfactual theories of causal responsibility. In this article, we explore a general framework for assigning responsibility in multiple agent contexts. We draw on the structural model account of actual causation (e.g., Halpern & Pearl, 2005) and its extension to responsibility judgments (Chockler & Halpern, 2004). We review the main (...)
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  4. You are what you’re for: Essentialist categorization in large language models.Siying Zhang, Selena She, Tobias Gerstenberg & David Rose - forthcoming - Proceedings of the 45Th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.
    How do essentialist beliefs about categories arise? We hypothesize that such beliefs are transmitted via language. We subject large language models (LLMs) to vignettes from the literature on essentialist categorization and find that they align well with people when the studies manipulated teleological information -- information about what something is for. We examine whether in a classic test of essentialist categorization -- the transformation task -- LLMs prioritize teleological properties over information about what something looks like, or is made of. (...)
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  5.  77
    Causal Responsibility and Robust Causation.Guy Grinfeld, David Lagnado, Tobias Gerstenberg, James F. Woodward & Marius Usher - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11:1069.
    How do people judge the degree of causal responsibility that an agent has for the outcomes of her actions? We show that a relatively unexplored factor -- the robustness of the causal chain linking the agent’s action and the outcome -- influences judgments of causal responsibility of the agent. In three experiments, we vary robustness by manipulating the number of background circumstances under which the action causes the effect, and find that causal responsibility judgments increase with robustness. In the first (...)
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  6.  37
    Lucky or clever? From expectations to responsibility judgments.Tobias Gerstenberg, Tomer D. Ullman, Jonas Nagel, Max Kleiman-Weiner, David A. Lagnado & Joshua B. Tenenbaum - 2018 - Cognition 177 (C):122-141.
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  7.  34
    Moral dynamics: Grounding moral judgment in intuitive physics and intuitive psychology.Felix A. Sosa, Tomer Ullman, Joshua B. Tenenbaum, Samuel J. Gershman & Tobias Gerstenberg - 2021 - Cognition 217 (C):104890.
  8.  47
    Spreading the blame: The allocation of responsibility amongst multiple agents.Tobias Gerstenberg & David A. Lagnado - 2010 - Cognition 115 (1):166-171.
  9.  54
    Finding fault: causality and counterfactuals in group attributions.Ro’I. Zultan, Tobias Gerstenberg & David A. Lagnado - 2012 - Cognition 125 (3):429-440.
  10.  20
    A counterfactual simulation model of causation by omission.Tobias Gerstenberg & Simon Stephan - 2021 - Cognition 216 (C):104842.
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  11.  19
    What’s fair? How children assign reward to members of teams with differing causal structures.Karla Koskuba, Tobias Gerstenberg, Hannah Gordon, David Lagnado & Anne Schlottmann - 2018 - Cognition 177 (C):234-248.
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  12.  28
    Moral Values Reveal the Causality Implicit in Verb Meaning.Laura Niemi, Joshua Hartshorne, Tobias Gerstenberg, Matthew Stanley & Liane Young - 2020 - Cognitive Science 44 (6):e12838.
    Prior work has found that moral values that build and bind groups—that is, the binding values of ingroup loyalty, respect for authority, and preservation of purity—are linked to blaming people who have been harmed. The present research investigated whether people's endorsement of binding values predicts their assignment of the causal locus of harmful events to the victims of the events. We used an implicit causality task from psycholinguistics in which participants read a sentence in the form “SUBJECT verbed OBJECT because…” (...)
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  13.  10
    Making a positive difference: Criticality in groups.Tobias Gerstenberg, David A. Lagnado & Ro’I. Zultan - 2023 - Cognition 238 (C):105499.
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  14. Teleology and generics.David Rose, Siying Zhang, Qi Han & Tobias Gerstenberg - forthcoming - Proceedings of the 45Th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.
    Generic statements, such as "Bees are striped" are thought to be a central vehicle by which essentialist beliefs are transmitted. But work on generics and essentialism almost never focuses on the type of properties mentioned in generic statements. We test the hypothesis that teleological properties, what something is for, affect categorization judgments more strongly than behavioral, biological, or social properties. In Experiment 1, participants categorized properties as being either behavioral, biological, social, or teleological. In Experiment 2, we used the top (...)
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  15.  15
    If not me, then who? Responsibility and replacement.Sarah A. Wu & Tobias Gerstenberg - 2024 - Cognition 242 (C):105646.
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  16.  1
    Children use disagreement to infer what happened.Jamie Amemiya, Gail D. Heyman & Tobias Gerstenberg - 2024 - Cognition 250 (C):105836.
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