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Profile: Tobias Hoffmann (Catholic University of America)
  1.  16
    Aquinas on Free Will and Intellectual Determinism.Tobias Hoffmann & Cyrille Michon - 2017 - Philosophers' Imprint 17 (10).
    From the early reception of Thomas Aquinas up to the present, many have interpreted his theory of liberum arbitrium to imply intellectual determinism: we do not control our choices, because we do not control the practical judgments that cause our choices. In this paper we argue instead that he rejects determinism in general and intellectual determinism in particular, which would effectively destroy liberum arbitrium as he conceives of it. We clarify that for Aquinas moral responsibility presupposes liberum arbitrium and thus (...)
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  2.  18
    Weakness of Will From Plato to the Present.Tobias Hoffmann (ed.) - 2008 - Catholic University of America Press.
    This volume contains thirteen original essays on weakness of will by scholars of contemporary philosophy and the history of philosophy. It covers the major periods of Western philosophy.
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  3.  24
    A Companion to Angels in Medieval Philosophy.Tobias Hoffmann (ed.) - 2012 - Brill.
    This book studies medieval theories of angelology insofar as they made groundbreaking contributions to medieval philosophy. -/- The discussion of angels, made famous by the humanist caricature of ‘how many angels can dance on the head of a pin’, was nevertheless a crucial one in medieval philosophical debates. All scholastic masters pronounced themselves on angelology, if only in their Sentence commentaries. The questions concerning angelic cognition, speech, free decision, movement, etc. were springboards for profound philosophical discussions that have to do (...)
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  4. Conscience and Synderesis.Tobias Hoffmann - 2011 - In Brian Davies & Eleonore Stump (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Aquinas. Oxford University Press.
    This article gives a basic account of Aquinas’s theory of “synderesis” and conscience. Aquinas understands synderesis as an infallible moral awareness and conscience as the fallible judgment that applies a general moral conviction to a concrete case. The article also compares Aquinas’s and his contemporaries’ theories of whether erring conscience is morally binding, that is, whether to act in accord with erring conscience or against erring conscience is sinful.
     
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  5. Duns Scotus on the Origin of the Possibles in the Divine Intellect.Tobias Hoffmann - 2009 - In Stephen F. Brown, Thomas Dewender & Theo Kobusch (eds.), Philosophical Debates at Paris in the Early Fourteenth Century. Brill.
    Would there be possibles if God did not exist? The interpretative impasse on this point has been mainly due to the failure to recognize an ambiguity in Scotus’s terminology. “Possibilia” are (1) the eidetic natures of things or (2) the possibility for a creature to exist. In this paper I argue that Scotus denies that God is responsible for giving things the possibility of existence. In this sense, possibles do not depend on God. Yet I also argue that according to (...)
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  6.  25
    Peter Auriol on Free Choice and Free Judgment.Tobias Hoffmann - 2015 - Vivarium 53 (1):65-89.
    Some medieval authors defend free choice by arguing that, even though human choices are indeed caused by the practical judgment about what is best to do here and now, one is nevertheless able to freely influence that practical judgment’s formation. This paper examines Peter Auriol’s account of free choice, which is a quite elaborate version of this approach and which brings its theoretical problems into focus. I will argue in favor of Auriol’s basic theory, but I will also propose an (...)
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  7. Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas on Magnanimity.Tobias Hoffmann - 2008 - In István Pieter Bejczy (ed.), Virtue Ethics in the Middle Ages: Commentaries on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, 1200 -1500. Brill.
    Certain traits of the magnanimous man of the Nicomachean Ethics seem incompatible with gratitude and humility. Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas are the first commentators of the Latin West who had access to the integral portrayal of magnanimity in the Nicomachean Ethics. Surprisingly, they welcomed the Aristotelian ideal of magnanimity without reservations. The paper summarizes Aristotle’s account of magnanimity, discusses briefly the transformation of this notion in Stoicism and early scholasticism, and analyzes Albert’s and Thomas’s interpretation of Aristotle. Thomas (...)
     
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  8. Intellectualism and Voluntarism.Tobias Hoffmann - 2010 - In Robert Pasnau (ed.), Cambridge Companion for Medieval Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    This chapter reviews major accounts of free decision of the second half of the thirteenth century, from St. Bonaventure to Duns Scotus. A clear divide between intellectualists and voluntarists is observable beginning in the early 1270s, when the question of whether free decision is founded upon reason or will becomes central. Intellectualists stress the causality of the object apprehended as good at the expense of the will’s self-determination, whereas the reverse emphasis can be observed among voluntarists.
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  9.  79
    Aquinas and Intellectual Determinism: The Test Case of Angelic Sin.Tobias Hoffmann - 2007 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 89 (2):122-156.
    This paper intends to show that Aquinas gives a non-deterministic account of free decision. Angelic sin is the eminent test case: ex hypothesi, angels are supremely intelligent and not subject to ignorance, passions, or negatively disposing habits. Nothing predetermines their choice; rather it ultimately depends on their freedom alone. All angels acted based upon reasons, but why certain angels acted for an inadequate reason whereas others for an adequate reason cannot be fully explained. Thomas's action theory allows him to explain (...)
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  10. Voluntariness, Choice, and Will in the Ethics Commentaries of Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas.Tobias Hoffmann - 2006 - Documenti E Studi Sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale 17:71-92.
    The article studies the reception of Aristotle’s treatments of voluntariness and decision (EN 3.1–5) in the first three Latin commentaries (two by Albert the Great, one by Thomas Aquinas) that are based on the integral text of the Nicomachean Ethics. In particular, my goal is to examine how Albert’s and Thomas’s non-Aristotelian concepts of the will as a faculty distinct from reason influences their explanations of the Aristotelian account. It is argued that the Dominican commentators emphasize the idea of freedom (...)
     
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  11.  25
    The Pleasure of Life and the Desire for Non-Existence: Some Medieval Theories.Tobias Hoffmann - 2013 - Res Philosophica 90 (3):323-346.
    Are there subjective or objective conditions under which human life is not worth living? Or does human life itself contain the conditions that make it worth living? To find answers to these questions, this paper explores Bonaventure, Thomas Aquinas, Richard of Mediavilla, and John Duns Scotus, who discuss whether the damned in hell can, should, and do prefer non-existence over their existence in pain and moral evil. In light of Aristotle’s teaching that there is a certain pleasure inherent to life (...)
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  12. Individuation bei Duns Scotus und bei dem jungen Leibniz.Tobias Hoffmann - 1998 - Medioevo 24:31-87.
    Leibniz’s first essay, his dissertation on the principle of individuality, is mainly dedicated to a critique of Duns Scotus’s explanation of individuation. Leibniz’s critique of Scotus and the historical antecedents of the German philosopher’s position have not been studied before. The paper examines Scotus’s and Leibniz’s views on individuation and sheds some light on the doctrinal genealogy that leads up to Leibniz’s position. I argue that Leibniz’s view and his critique of Scotus depend upon William of Ockham and Francis Suárez. (...)
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  13. The Distinction Between Nature and Will in Duns Scotus.Tobias Hoffmann - 1999 - Archives d'Histoire Doctrinale et Littéraire du Moyen Âge 66:189-224.
    In the thought of Duns Scotus, the distinction of active potencies into will and nature takes on a fundamental systematic significance. It distinguishes free and self-determining causality from natural and necessary causality. The purpose of this article is to show to what extent this distinction underlies large parts of Duns Scotus’ moral psychology, ethics, metaphysics and Trinitarian theology.
     
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  14.  17
    Freedom Beyond Practical Reason: Duns Scotus on Will-Dependent Relations.Tobias Hoffmann - 2013 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 21 (6):1071-1090.
    Most acts of the will have a complex structure, i.e. wanting A in relation to B . Duns Scotus makes the innovative claim that the will itself is responsible for the order of this complex structure. It does this by causing its own will-dependent relations, which he construes as a kind of mind-dependent relations . By means of these relations, the will can arrange the terms of its will-acts independently of any arrangement proposed by the intellect. This not only allows (...)
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  15.  1
    Erster Oder Gleicher? Über Die Rolle des Stifters Im Orden Vom Goldenen Vlies Und Im Halbmondorden. Ein Vergleich.Tobias Hoffmann - 2016 - Frühmittelalterliche Studien 50 (1).
    Name der Zeitschrift: Frühmittelalterliche Studien Jahrgang: 50 Heft: 1 Seiten: 393-414.
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  16.  26
    Review of The Theological Quodlibeta in the Middle Ages, 2 Vols., Edited by Christopher Schabel. [REVIEW]Tobias Hoffmann - 2009 - Vivarium 47 (1):128-135.
  17.  13
    Connaissance Et Vérité Chez Maître Eckhart: Seul le Juste Connaît la Justice. [REVIEW]Tobias Hoffmann - 2007 - Review of Metaphysics 61 (2):407-409.
  18.  2
    Review Article.Tobias Hoffmann - 2009 - Vivarium 47 (1):128-135.
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  19.  22
    Aquinas on the Moral Progress of the Weak Willed.Tobias Hoffmann - 2006 - In Tobias Hoffmann, Jörn Müller & Matthias Perkams (eds.), The Problem of Weakness of Will in Medieval Philosophy. Peeters.
    The paper investigates Aquinas’s explanation of how the incontinent can make moral progress. The incontinent cannot be healed by moral instruction, because they already know what is best, but fail to act accordingly. Their moral knowledge has to be interiorized. Thus by attaining prudence and the moral virtues, moral knowledge becomes practically effective knowledge. Yet these virtues are no remedy for the incontinent, who are still struggling to attain them. By reason and will they can resist individual acts of incontinence, (...)
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  20. Moral Action as Human Action: End and Object in Aquinas in Comparison with Abelard, Lombard, Albert, and Scotus.Tobias Hoffmann - 2003 - The Thomist 67 (1):73–94.
    This article examines different medieval explanations of the causes of moral goodness, principally the end of the agent and the object of the action. Special attention is given to Thomas Aquinas, who considers the end (that which is willed) to be not only the origin of moral goodness, but also its main criterion. Peter Abelard, whose ethics I argue to be non-subjectivist, had developed a similar theory, though the vocabulary he uses is not very refined. By contrast, for Albert and (...)
     
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  21.  17
    Walter Chatton on the Connection of the Virtues.Tobias Hoffmann - 2008 - Quaestio 8 (1):57–82.
    This article studies Walter Chatton 's account of the connection of the virtues and its relation to the teaching of Henry of Ghent and John Duns Scotus. Chatton 's position with regard to the connection of temperance, fortitude, and justice is influenced by Henry and yet importantly different from him. Chatton 's teaching on the connection between prudence and the moral virtues closely follows Scotus's view. Both Franciscans frame this problem in terms of the connection between intellect and will. They (...)
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  22.  11
    Henry of Ghent's Voluntarist Account of Weakness of Will.Tobias Hoffmann - 2008 - In Weakness of Will from Plato to the Present. Catholic University of America Press.
    According to Henry of Ghent, akrasia (incontinence or weakness of will) does not presuppose, but rather produces a cognitive defect. By tracing akratic actions and other evil actions to a corruption in the will rather than to a cognitive defect, Henry wants to safeguard their freedom. Though the will is able to reject what the intellect judges as best here and now, strength and freedom of the will increase to the degree that one adheres more firmly to the good. What (...)
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  23.  1
    American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 518.Tobias Hoffmann & Jasper Hopkins - 2002 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 76 (3).
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  24. Aquinas and the Nicomachean Ethics.Tobias Hoffmann, Jörn Müller & Matthias Perkams (eds.) - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics is the text which had the single greatest influence on Aquinas's ethical writings, and the historical and philosophical value of Aquinas's appropriation of this text provokes lively debate. In this volume of new essays, thirteen distinguished scholars explore how Aquinas receives, expands on and transforms Aristotle's insights about the attainability of happiness, the scope of moral virtue, the foundation of morality and the nature of pleasure. They examine Aquinas's commentary on the Ethics and his theological writings, above (...)
     
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  25. Duns Scotus’s Action Theory in the Context of His Angelology.Tobias Hoffmann - 2010 - In Ludger Honnefelder (ed.), Johannes Duns Scotus 1308–2008: Die philosophischen Perspektiven seines Werkes / Investigations into his Philosophy. Proceedings of “The Quadruple Congress” on John Duns Scotus, part 3. Franciscan Institute Publications; Aschendorff.
    Angelology gives Duns Scotus the occasion to test his action theory or to expand on it to accommodate the special case of angelic sin: freedom and determinism; synchronic continency; the will as a “comparative power” (assuming quasi-cognitive functions); the distinction between the two affections of the will (commodi and iustitiae).
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  26.  8
    Duns Scotus Bibliography From 1950 to the Present, 9th Edition, 2016.Tobias Hoffmann - 2016
    This bibliography contains primary and secondary literature on Duns Scotus and Scotism.
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  27. Henry of Ghent's Influence on John Duns Scotus's Metaphysics.Tobias Hoffmann - 2011 - In Gordon A. Wilson (ed.), The Brill Companion to Henry of Ghent. Brill.
    This chapter emphasizes Duns Scotus’s indebtedness to Henry of Ghent with respect to the major themes of his metaphysics: his univocal notion of being, his view of being qua being as the subject of metaphysics, his metaphysical proof of God's existence, and his notion of being as a quidditative rather than existential notion.
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  28. Ideen der Individuen und intentio naturae. Duns Scotus im Dialog mit Thomas von Aquin und Heinrich von Gent.Tobias Hoffmann - 1999 - Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie Und Theologie 46 (1/2):138-152.
    Duns Scotus vigorously defends an idea foreign to Greek philosophers, namely that the individual has a higher ontological dignity than the species. He develops this view in two contexts: the problem of the principle of individuation and the discussion of divine ideas of individuals. This article focuses on the latter, in which Scotus critiques Aquinas, whom he mistakenly interprets as denying that there are divine ideas of individuals, as well as Henry of Ghent, who repeatedly rejects this hypothesis. In connection (...)
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  29. Review of Matthias Laarmann, Deus, primum cognitum. Die Lehre von Gott als dem Ersterkannten des menschlichen Intellekts bei Heinrich von Gent. [REVIEW]Tobias Hoffmann - 2001 - Philosophisches Jahrbuch 108 (1):175-176.
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  30. Review of Être et représentation. Une généalogie de la métaphysique moderne à l’époque de Duns Scot (XIIIe–XIVe siècle).Tobias Hoffmann - 2001 - Philosophisches Jahrbuch 108 (2):345-349.
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  31. Review. [REVIEW]Tobias Hoffmann - 2007 - The Thomist 71:650-653.
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  32. REVIEWS-Martin Rhonheimer, The Perspective of the Acting Person: Essays in the Renewal of Thomistic Moral Philosophy.Tobias Hoffmann - 2009 - The Thomist 73 (4):661.
     
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  33. The Distinction Between Nature and Will in Duns Scotus.Tobias Hoffmann - 1999 - Archives D’Histoire Doctrinale Et Littéraire du Moyen Âge 66:189-224.
    The distinction of active potencies into will and nature is one of the most characteristic traits of Duns Scotus’s thought. Scotus distinguishes free and self-determining causality from natural and necessary causality. In this article I show how this distinction underlies large parts of his moral psychology, ethics, metaphysics, and Trinitarian theology.
     
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  34. The Intellectual Virtues.Tobias Hoffmann - 2011 - In Brian Davies & Eleonore Stump (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Aquinas. Oxford University Press.
    The article presents Aquinas’s general conception of intellectual virtue and considers his account of the individual intellectual virtues, with a special focus on prudence.
     
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  35.  8
    The Problem of Weakness of Will in Medieval Philosophy.Tobias Hoffmann, Jörn Müller & Matthias Perkams (eds.) - 2006 - Peeters.
    This volume contains fourteen papers on Aristotelian and non-Aristotelian medieval accounts of weakness of will, many of which have not yet been the object of scholarly writing. The papers give insight into a variety of accounts of practical rationality that were directly or indirectly influential on modern thinkers. The temporal framework of the volume exceeds the Middle Ages on both ends by including Aristotle and authors from the Renaissance and the Reformation.
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