Results for 'Tobias Schaffner'

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Tobias Schaffner
Cambridge University
  1.  24
    The Eudaemonist Ethics of Hugo Grotius : Pre-Modern Moral Philosophy for the Twenty-First Century?Tobias Schaffner - 2016 - Jurisprudence 7 (3):478-522.
    The present article challenges the popular image of Hugo Grotius as the founder of modern moral philosophy. It establishes that he continued the dialectical search for the good life distinctive of pre-modern ethics. Key in correcting the image of Grotius as innovator—an image almost as old as his De Jure Belli ac Pacis of 1625—is the realisation that this treatise deals only of the requirements for just use of force set out in what Grotius calls ‘law in the strict sense’. (...)
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  2.  35
    Tobias Kasmann: Wertholismus. Zur Einheit des Moralischen Urteils: Münster: Mentis 2015, ISBN 9783957430359, 234 Pages, € 38.Tobias Gutmann - 2016 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (4):1075-1077.
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  3. Schaffner’s Model of Theory Reduction: Critique and Reconstruction.Rasmus Gr⊘Nfeldt Winther - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (2):119-142.
    Schaffner’s model of theory reduction has played an important role in philosophy of science and philosophy of biology. Here, the model is found to be problematic because of an internal tension. Indeed, standard antireductionist external criticisms concerning reduction functions and laws in biology do not provide a full picture of the limits of Schaffner’s model. However, despite the internal tension, his model usefully highlights the importance of regulative ideals associated with the search for derivational, and embedding, deductive relations (...)
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  4.  12
    A Fallacious Forced Choice: Cloninger and Stoyanov, Machamer, and Schaffner Are Compatible.Drozdstoj Stoyanov, Peter Machamer & Kenneth F. Schaffner - 2013 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 20 (3):281-284.
  5.  69
    Discovery and Explanation in Biology and Medicine.Kenneth F. Schaffner - 1993 - University of Chicago Press.
    Kenneth F. Schaffner compares the practice of biological and medical research and shows how traditional topics in philosophy of science--such as the nature of theories and of explanation--can illuminate the life sciences. While Schaffner pays some attention to the conceptual questions of evolutionary biology, his chief focus is on the examples that immunology, human genetics, neuroscience, and internal medicine provide for examinations of the way scientists develop, examine, test, and apply theories. Although traditional philosophy of science has regarded (...)
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  6.  9
    Recipient Design in Communicative Pointing.Tobias Winner, Luc Selen, Anke Murillo Oosterwijk, Lennart Verhagen, W. Pieter Medendorp, Iris Rooij & Ivan Toni - 2019 - Cognitive Science 43 (5):e12733.
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  7.  4
    Evolutionary Causation: Biological and Philosophical Reflections.Tobias Uller & Kevin N. Laland (eds.) - 2019 - MIT Press.
    A comprehensive treatment of the concept of causation in evolutionary biology that makes clear its central role in both historical and contemporary debates. Most scientific explanations are causal. This is certainly the case in evolutionary biology, which seeks to explain the diversity of life and the adaptive fit between organisms and their surroundings. The nature of causation in evolutionary biology, however, is contentious. How causation is understood shapes the structure of evolutionary theory, and historical and contemporary debates in evolutionary biology (...)
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  8. The Nomological Account of Ground.Tobias Wilsch - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (12):3293-3312.
    The article introduces and defends the Nomological Account of ground, a reductive account of the notion of metaphysical explanation in terms of the laws of metaphysics. The paper presents three desiderata that a theory of ground should meet: it should explain the modal force of ground, the generality of ground, and the interplay between ground and certain mereological notions. The bulk of the paper develops the Nomological Account and argues that it meets the three desiderata. The Nomological Account relies on (...)
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  9. The Deductive-Nomological Account of Metaphysical Explanation.Tobias Wilsch - 2016 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 94 (1):1-23.
    The paper explores a deductive-nomological account of metaphysical explanation: some truths metaphysically explain, or ground, another truth just in case the laws of metaphysics determine the latter truth on the basis of the former. I develop and motivate a specific conception of metaphysical laws, on which they are general rules that regulate the existence and features of derivative entities. I propose an analysis of the notion of ‘determination via the laws’, based on a restricted form of logical entailment. I argue (...)
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  10.  36
    Niche Construction and Conceptual Change in Evolutionary Biology.Tobias Uller & Heikki Helanterä - 2019 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 70 (2):351-375.
    The theoretical status of ‘niche construction’ in evolution is intensely debated. Here we substantiate the reasons for different interpretations. We consider two concepts of niche construction brought to bear on evolutionary theory; one that emphasizes how niche construction contributes to selection and another that emphasizes how it contributes to development and inheritance. We explain the rationale for claims that selective and developmental niche construction motivate conceptual change in evolutionary biology and the logic of those who reject these claims. Our analysis (...)
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  11.  48
    Number, the Language of Science.Tobias Dantzig - 1954 - New York: Free Press.
    A new edition of the classic introduction to mathematics, first published in 1930 and revised in the 1950s, explains the history and tenets of mathematics, ...
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  12. Approaches to Reduction.Kenneth F. Schaffner - 1967 - Philosophy of Science 34 (2):137-147.
    Four current accounts of theory reduction are presented, first informally and then formally: (1) an account of direct theory reduction that is based on the contributions of Nagel, Woodger, and Quine, (2) an indirect reduction paradigm due to Kemeny and Oppenheim, (3) an "isomorphic model" schema traceable to Suppes, and (4) a theory of reduction that is based on the work of Popper, Feyerabend, and Kuhn. Reference is made, in an attempt to choose between these schemas, to the explanation of (...)
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  13.  10
    Expectations Affect Physical Causation Judgments.Tobias Gerstenberg & Thomas Icard - forthcoming - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.
  14.  17
    Free Will and the Rebel Angels in Medieval Philosophy.Tobias Hoffmann - 2021 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this book Tobias Hoffmann studies the medieval free will debate during its liveliest period, from the 1220s to the 1320s, and clarifies its background in Aristotle, Augustine, and earlier medieval thinkers. Among the wide range of authors he examines are not only well-known thinkers such as Thomas Aquinas, Duns Scotus, and William of Ockham, but also a number of authors who were just as important in their time and deserve to be rediscovered today. To shed further light on (...)
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  15.  11
    Behaving: What's Genetic, What's Not, and Why Should We Care?Kenneth F. Schaffner - 2016 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Behaving presents an overview of the recent history and methodology of behavioral genetics and psychiatric genetics, informed by a philosophical perspective. Kenneth F. Schaffner addresses a wide range of issues, including genetic reductionism and determinism, "free will," and quantitative and molecular genetics. The latter covers newer genome-wide association studies that have produced a paradigm shift in the subject, and generated the problem of "missing heritability." Schaffner also presents cases involving pro and con arguments for genetic testing for IQ (...)
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  16. The Governance of Laws of Nature: Guidance and Production.Tobias Wilsch - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 178 (3):909-933.
    Realists about laws of nature and their Humean opponents disagree on whether laws ‘govern’. An independent commitment to the ‘governing conception’ of laws pushes many towards the realist camp. Despite its significance, however, no satisfactory account of governance has been offered. The goal of this article is to develop such an account. I base my account on two claims. First, we should distinguish two notions of governance, ‘guidance’ and ‘production’, and secondly, explanatory phenomena other than laws are also candidates for (...)
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  17.  33
    A Paradox Perspective on Corporate Sustainability: Descriptive, Instrumental, and Normative Aspects.Tobias Hahn, Frank Figge, Jonatan Pinkse & Lutz Preuss - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 148 (2):235-248.
    The last decade has witnessed the emergence of a paradox perspective on corporate sustainability. By explicitly acknowledging tensions between different desirable, yet interdependent and conflicting sustainability objectives, a paradox perspective enables decision makers to achieve competing sustainability objectives simultaneously and creates leeway for superior business contributions to sustainable development. In stark contrast to the business case logic, a paradox perspective does not establish emphasize business considerations over concerns for environmental protection and social well-being at the societal level. In order to (...)
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  18.  40
    Tensions in Corporate Sustainability: Towards an Integrative Framework.Tobias Hahn, Jonatan Pinkse, Lutz Preuss & Frank Figge - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 127 (2):297-316.
    This paper proposes a systematic framework for the analysis of tensions in corporate sustainability. The framework is based on the emerging integrative view on corporate sustainability, which stresses the need for a simultaneous integration of economic, environmental and social dimensions without, a priori, emphasising one over any other. The integrative view presupposes that firms need to accept tensions in corporate sustainability and pursue different sustainability aspects simultaneously even if they seem to contradict each other. The framework proposed in this paper (...)
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  19.  16
    The Notion of Free Will and its Ethical Relevance for Decision-Making Capacity.Tobias Zürcher, Bernice Elger & Manuel Trachsel - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):31.
    Obtaining informed consent from patients is a moral and legal duty and, thus, a key legitimation for medical treatment. The pivotal prerequisite for valid informed consent is decision-making capacity of the patient. Related to the question of whether and when consent should be morally and legally valid, there has been a long-lasting philosophical debate about freedom of will and the connection of freedom and responsibility. The scholarly discussion on decision-making capacity and its clinical evaluation does not sufficiently take into account (...)
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  20. Water is and is Not H 2 O.Kevin P. Tobia, George E. Newman & Joshua Knobe - 2020 - Mind and Language 35 (2):183-208.
    The Twin Earth thought experiment invites us to consider a liquid that has all of the superficial properties associated with water (clear, potable, etc.) but has entirely different deeper causal properties (composed of “XYZ” rather than of H2O). Although this thought experiment was originally introduced to illuminate questions in the theory of reference, it has also played a crucial role in empirically informed debates within the philosophy of psychology about people’s ordinary natural kind concepts. Those debates have sought to accommodate (...)
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  21. Discovery and Explanation in Biology and Medicine.Kenneth F. Schaffner - 1995 - Journal of the History of Biology 28 (1):172-174.
     
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  22.  18
    Cat Wars: The Devastating Consequences of a Dangerous Book.Joan E. Schaffner - 2018 - Journal of Animal Ethics 8 (2):236-248.
    Cat Wars is a dangerous book that declares war on all free-roaming cats. Filled with hyperbole and exaggerated statistics, the book argues that cats are a danger to humans, birds, and other free-living animals and should be eradicated from the landscape—a devastating, expensive, inhumane, and useless result. This review exposes the flaws in the authors’ analysis and ethical approach and redirects the dialogue toward an ethic that protects all animals. Compassionate conservationism promotes the use of nonlethal management strategies to protect (...)
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  23.  12
    Challenging Algorithmic Profiling: The Limits of Data Protection and Anti-Discrimination in Responding to Emergent Discrimination.Tobias Matzner & Monique Mann - 2019 - Big Data and Society 6 (2).
    The potential for biases being built into algorithms has been known for some time, yet literature has only recently demonstrated the ways algorithmic profiling can result in social sorting and harm marginalised groups. We contend that with increased algorithmic complexity, biases will become more sophisticated and difficult to identify, control for, or contest. Our argument has four steps: first, we show how harnessing algorithms means that data gathered at a particular place and time relating to specific persons, can be used (...)
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  24. Moral Intuitions: Are Philosophers Experts?Kevin Tobia, Wesley Buckwalter & Stephen Stich - 2013 - Philosophical Psychology 26 (5):629-638.
    Recently psychologists and experimental philosophers have reported findings showing that in some cases ordinary people's moral intuitions are affected by factors of dubious relevance to the truth of the content of the intuition. Some defend the use of intuition as evidence in ethics by arguing that philosophers are the experts in this area, and philosophers' moral intuitions are both different from those of ordinary people and more reliable. We conducted two experiments indicating that philosophers and non-philosophers do indeed sometimes have (...)
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  25. ‘That’-Clauses and Non-Nominal Quantification.Tobias Rosefeldt - 2008 - Philosophical Studies 137 (3):301 - 333.
    This paper argues that ‘that’-clauses are not singular terms (without denying that their semantical values are propositions). In its first part, three arguments are presented to support the thesis, two of which are defended against recent criticism. The two good arguments are based on the observation that substitution of ‘the proposition that p’ for ‘that p’ may result in ungrammaticality. The second part of the paper is devoted to a refutation of the main argument for the claim that ‘that’-clauses are (...)
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  26.  1
    Rationality, Strategic Interactions, and Theories of Middle Range.Tobias Wolbring - 2020 - Social Science Information 59 (4):569-574.
    Various versions of rational choice theories exist. In the face of common misconceptions of the approach, this comment aims to make two contributions. First, it informs about different variants and emphasizes the essential component of strategic uncertainty in game theory. Second, this article highlights the role of bridge assumptions when applying rational choice theories in practice. Hence, the rational choice approach is not a theory which can be directly applied in practice without further assumptions. Instead the rational choice approach is (...)
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  27. Number; The Language of Science.Tobias Dantzig - 1931 - Philosophy 6 (24):517-519.
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  28.  62
    A Framework for Local Cortical Oscillation Patterns.Tobias H. Donner & Markus Siegel - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (5):191-199.
  29. Discovery and Explanation in Biology and Medicine.Kenneth F. Schaffner - 1995 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 46 (4):621-623.
     
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  30.  10
    Lucky or Clever? From Expectations to Responsibility Judgments.Tobias Gerstenberg, Tomer D. Ullman, Jonas Nagel, Max Kleiman-Weiner, David A. Lagnado & Joshua B. Tenenbaum - 2018 - Cognition 177:122-141.
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  31. Ernst Cassirers Phänomenologie der Wahrnehmung.Tobias Endres - 2020 - Hamburg, Deutschland: Felix Meiner Verlag.
    Auf die Frage „Was ist Wahrnehmung und welche Rolle spielt sie für die Objektivität der Erfahrung?“ hätte Ernst Cassirer vermutlich schlicht geantwortet: „Wahrnehmung ist eine erste Form objektiver Erfahrung.“ Tobias Endres macht es sich zur Aufgabe, Cassirers „Philosophie der symbolischen Formen“ einer Neu- und Gesamtinterpretation zu unterziehen und sie als eine „Phänomenologie der Wahrnehmung“ auszulegen. In Auseinandersetzung mit klassischen und gegenwärtigen Wahrnehmungstheorien wie der Sinnesdatentheorie, dem Disjunktivismus oder dem Enaktivismus gelingt es dem Autor, die Aktualität und Originalität solch einer (...)
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  32.  38
    Mindfulness Meditation Counteracts Self-Control Depletion.Malte Friese, Claude Messner & Yves Schaffner - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):1016-1022.
    Mindfulness meditation describes a set of different mental techniques to train attention and awareness. Trait mindfulness and extended mindfulness interventions can benefit self-control. The present study investigated the short-term consequences of mindfulness meditation under conditions of limited self-control resources. Specifically, we hypothesized that a brief period of mindfulness meditation would counteract the deleterious effect that the exertion of self-control has on subsequent self-control performance. Participants who had been depleted of self-control resources by an emotion suppression task showed decrements in self-control (...)
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  33. Is Knowing-How Simply a Case of Knowing-That?Tobias Rosefeldt - 2004 - Philosophical Investigations 27 (4):370–379.
    Jason Stanley and Timothy Williamson have argued that there is no fundamental distinction between what Gilbert Ryle famously called 'knowing how' and 'knowing that', and that the former can be treated as a special kind of the latter. I will endeavour to show that sentences of the form 'a knows how to F' are ambiguous between a reading in which we ascribe knowledge-that to a and another in which we ascribe something to a which is irreducible to any kind of (...)
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  34.  68
    Multiple Conflict-Driven Control Mechanisms in the Human Brain.Tobias Egner - 2008 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (10):374-380.
  35. Personal Identity and the Phineas Gage Effect.Kevin P. Tobia - 2015 - Analysis 75 (3):396-405.
    Phineas Gage’s story is typically offered as a paradigm example supporting the view that part of what matters for personal identity is a certain magnitude of similarity between earlier and later individuals. Yet, reconsidering a slight variant of Phineas Gage’s story indicates that it is not just magnitude of similarity, but also the direction of change that affects personal identity judgments; in some cases, changes for the worse are more seen as identity-severing than changes for the better of comparable magnitude. (...)
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  36.  81
    Why the Social Sciences Are Irreducible.Tobias Hansson Wahlberg - 2019 - Synthese 196 (12):4961-4987.
    It is often claimed that the social sciences cannot be reduced to a lower-level individualistic science. The standard argument for this position is the Fodorian multiple realizability argument. Its defenders endorse token–token identities between “higher-level” social objects and pluralities/sums of “lower-level” individuals, but they maintain that the properties expressed by social science predicates are often multiply realizable, entailing that type–type identities between social and individualistic properties are ruled out. In this paper I argue that the multiple realizability argument for explanatory (...)
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  37.  24
    Spreading the Blame: The Allocation of Responsibility Amongst Multiple Agents.Tobias Gerstenberg & David A. Lagnado - 2010 - Cognition 115 (1):166-171.
  38.  11
    The Ethics of Peace and War: From State Security to World Community. By Iain Atack.Tobias Winright - 2007 - Heythrop Journal 48 (6):1019–1021.
  39.  64
    Water is and is Not H 2 O.Kevin P. Tobia, George E. Newman & Joshua Knobe - 2020 - Mind and Language 35 (2):183-208.
    The Twin Earth thought experiment invites us to consider a liquid that has all of the superficial properties associated with water (clear, potable, etc.) but has entirely different deeper causal properties (composed of “XYZ” rather than of H2O). Debates about natural kind concepts have sought to accommodate an apparent fact about ordinary people's judgments: Intuitively, the Twin Earth liquid is not water. We present results showing that people do not have this intuition. Instead, people tend to judge that there is (...)
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  40. Das Logische Ich: Kant üBer den Gehalt des Begriffes von Sich Selbst.Tobias Rosefeldt - 2000 - Philo.
  41. Sophisticated Modal Primitivism.Tobias Wilsch - 2017 - Philosophical Issues 27 (1):428-448.
    Summary: The paper provides an argument for modal primitivism, the view that necessity is not defined and is therefore part of the structure of reality. It then raises the explanation-challenge for primitivists: how can modal truths be explained by hyper-intensional truths, if necessity is not defined in terms of hyper-intensional phenomena? To address the challenge, the paper introduces 'sophisticated modal primitivism' which gives a substantive analysis of the notion of a 'source of necessity'. The final part of the paper offers (...)
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  42. The Watson-Crick Model and Reductionism.Kenneth F. Schaffner - 1969 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 20 (4):325-348.
  43. Personal Identity, Direction of Change, and Neuroethics.Kevin Tobia - 2016 - Neuroethics 9 (1):37-43.
    The personal identity relation is of great interest to philosophers, who often consider fictional scenarios to test what features seem to make persons persist through time. But often real examples of neuroscientific interest also provide important tests of personal identity. One such example is the case of Phineas Gage – or at least the story often told about Phineas Gage. Many cite Gage’s story as example of severed personal identity; Phineas underwent such a tremendous change that Gage “survived as a (...)
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  44.  26
    The Perception and Categorisation of Emotional Stimuli: A Review.Tobias Brosch, Gilles Pourtois & David Sander - 2010 - Cognition and Emotion 24 (3):377-400.
  45.  8
    Creatures of Habit : A Multi-Level Learning Perspective on the Modulation of Congruency Effects.Tobias Egner - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  46.  89
    Elder-Vass on the Causal Power of Social Structures.Tobias Hansson Wahlberg - 2014 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 44 (6):774-791.
    In this review essay, I examine the central tenets of sociologist Dave Elder-Vass’s recent contribution to social ontology, as put forth in his book The Causal Power of Social Structures: Emergence, Structure and Agency. Elder-Vass takes issue with ontological individualists and maintains that social structures exist and have causal powers in their own right. I argue that he fails to establish his main theses: he shows neither that social structures have causal powers “in their own right” (in any sense of (...)
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  47.  23
    Comment: The Appraising Brain: Towards a Neuro-Cognitive Model of Appraisal Processes in Emotion.Tobias Brosch & David Sander - 2013 - Emotion Review 5 (2):163-168.
    Appraisal theories have described elaborate mechanisms underlying the elicitation of emotion at the psychological-cognitive level, but typically do not integrate neuroscientific concepts and findings. At the same time, theoretical developments in appraisal theory have been pretty much ignored by researchers studying the neuroscience of emotion. We feel that a stronger integration of these two literatures would be highly profitable for both sides. Here we outline a blueprint of the “appraising brain.” To this end, we review neuroimaging research investigating the processing (...)
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  48.  29
    Kant on Representation and Objectivity.Tobias Rosefeldt - 2004 - Philosophical Review 116 (3):468-470.
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  49. The Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophrenia: An Historical and Philosophical Analysis.Kenneth S. Kendler & Kenneth F. Schaffner - 2011 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (1):41-63.
    This essay selectively reviews, from an historical and philosophical perspective, the dopamine (DA) hypothesis of schizophrenia (DHS; Table 1 lists the abbreviations used in this essay). Our goal is not to adjudicate the validity of the theory—although we arrive at a generally skeptical conclusion—but to focus on the process whereby the DHS has evolved over time and been evaluated. Since its inception, the DHS has been the most prominent etiologic theory in psychiatry and is still referred to widely in current (...)
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  50.  70
    Why Privacy is Not Enough Privacy in the Context of “Ubiquitous Computing” and “Big Data”.Tobias Matzner - 2014 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 12 (2):93-106.
    Purpose – Ubiquitous computing and “big data” have been widely recognized as requiring new concepts of privacy and new mechanisms to protect it. While improved concepts of privacy have been suggested, the paper aims to argue that people acting in full conformity to those privacy norms still can infringe the privacy of others in the context of ubiquitous computing and “big data”. Design/methodology/approach – New threats to privacy are described. Helen Nissenbaum's concept of “privacy as contextual integrity” is reviewed concerning (...)
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