Order:
See also
Toby Ord
Oxford University
  1. The Reversal Test: Eliminating Status Quo Bias in Applied Ethics.Nick Bostrom & Toby Ord - 2006 - Ethics 116 (4):656-679.
    Suppose that we develop a medically safe and affordable means of enhancing human intelligence. For concreteness, we shall assume that the technology is genetic engineering (either somatic or germ line), although the argument we will present does not depend on the technological implementation. For simplicity, we shall speak of enhancing “intelligence” or “cognitive capacity,” but we do not presuppose that intelligence is best conceived of as a unitary attribute. Our considerations could be applied to specific cognitive abilities such as verbal (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   40 citations  
  2.  55
    Why Maximize Expected Choice‐Worthiness?William MacAskill & Toby Ord - forthcoming - Noûs.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  3.  32
    Why Maximize Expected Choice‐Worthiness?1.William MacAskill & Toby Ord - forthcoming - Noûs.
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  4. Moral Uncertainty About Population Ethics.Hilary Greaves & Toby Ord - forthcoming - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    Given the deep disagreement surrounding population axiology, one should remain uncertain about which theory is best. However, this uncertainty need not leave one neutral about which acts are better or worse. We show that as the number of lives at stake grows, the Expected Moral Value approach to axiological uncertainty systematically pushes one towards choosing the option preferred by the Total and Critical Level views, even if one’s credence in those theories is low.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5.  92
    The Scourge: Moral Implications of Natural Embryo Loss.Toby Ord - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (7):12 – 19.
    It is often claimed that from the moment of conception embryos have the same moral status as adult humans. This claim plays a central role in many arguments against abortion, in vitro fertilization, and stem cell research. In what follows, I show that this claim leads directly to an unexpected and unwelcome conclusion: that natural embryo loss is one of the greatest problems of our time and that we must do almost everything in our power to prevent it. I examine (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  6. Making Fair Choices on the Path to Universal Health Coverage.Ole Frithjof Norheim, Trygve Ottersen, Bona Chitah, Richard Cookson, Norman Daniels, Nir Eyal, Walter Flores, Axel Gosseries, Daniel Hausman, Samia Hurst, Lydia Kapiriri, Toby Ord, Shlomi Segall, Frehiwot Defaye, Alex Voorhoeve & Alicia Yamin - 2014 - World Health Organisation.
    This report by the WHO Consultative Group on Equity and Universal Health Coverage addresses how countries can make fair progress towards the goal of universal coverage. It explains the relevant tradeoffs between different desirable ends and offers guidance on how to make these tradeoffs.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  7.  56
    The Diagonal Method and Hypercomputation.Toby Ord & Tien D. Kieu - 2005 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (1):147-156.
    The diagonal method is often used to show that Turing machines cannot solve their own halting problem. There have been several recent attempts to show that this method also exposes either contradiction or arbitrariness in other theoretical models of computation which claim to be able to solve the halting problem for Turing machines. We show that such arguments are flawed—a contradiction only occurs if a type of machine can compute its own diagonal function. We then demonstrate why such a situation (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  8.  71
    A New Counterexample to Prioritarianism.Toby Ord - 2015 - Utilitas 27 (3):298-302.
    Prioritarianism is the moral view that a fixed improvement in someone's well-being matters more the worse off they are. Its supporters argue that it best captures our intuitions about unequal distributions of well-being. I show that prioritarianism sometimes recommends acts that will make things more unequal while simultaneously lowering the total well-being and making things worse for everyone ex ante. Intuitively, there is little to recommend such acts and I take this to be a serious counterexample for prioritarianism.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  9.  30
    Moral Trade.Toby Ord - 2015 - Ethics 126 (1):118-138.
    If people have different resources, tastes, or needs, they may be able to exchange goods or services such that they each feel they have been made better off. This is trade. If people have different moral views, then there is another type of trade that is possible: they can exchange goods or services such that both parties feel that the world is a better place or that their moral obligations are better satisfied. We can call this moral trade. I introduce (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  10.  27
    The Many Forms of Hypercomputation.Toby Ord - unknown - Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computation 178:142-153.
    This paper surveys a wide range of proposed hypermachines, examining the resources that they require and the capabilities that they possess. 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  11.  4
    Moral Uncertainty About Population Axiology.Hilary Greaves & Toby Ord - 2017 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 12 (2):135-167.
    Given the deep disagreement surrounding population axiology, one should remain uncertain about which theory is best. However, this uncertainty need not leave one neutral about which acts are better or worse. We show that, as the number of lives at stake grows, the Expected Moral Value approach to axiological uncertainty systematically pushes one toward choosing the option preferred by the Total View and critical-level views, even if one’s credence in those theories is low.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12. 10. Joseph Raz, The Practice of Value Joseph Raz, The Practice of Value (Pp. 805-809).Jeff McMahan, Nick Bostrom, Toby Ord, Paul E. Hurley, Pekka Väyrynen & Jacob Ross - 2006 - Ethics 116 (4).
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  13. Probing the Improbable: Methodological Challenges for Risks with Low Probabilities and High Stakes.Toby Ord, Rafaela Hillerbrand & Anders Sandberg - unknown
    Some risks have extremely high stakes. For example, a worldwide pandemic or asteroid impact could potentially kill more than a billion people. Comfortingly, scientific calculations often put very low probabilities on the occurrence of such catastrophes. In this paper, we argue that there are important new methodological problems which arise when assessing global catastrophic risks and we focus on a problem regarding probability estimation. When an expert provides a calculation of the probability of an outcome, they are really providing the (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  14. Consequentialism and Decision Procedures.Toby Ord - unknown
    Consequentialism is often charged with being self-defeating, for if a person attempts to apply it, she may quite predictably produce worse outcomes than if she applied some other moral theory. Many consequentialists have replied that this criticism rests on a false assumption, confusing consequentialism’s criterion of the rightness of an act with its position on decision procedures. Consequentialism, on this view, does not dictate that we should be always calculating which of the available acts leads to the most good, but (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15. How to Be a Consequentialist About Everything.Toby Ord - manuscript
    Over the last few decades, there has been an increasing interest in global consequentialism. Where act-consequentialism assesses acts in terms of their consequences, global consequentialism goes much further, assessing acts, rules, motives — and everything else — in terms of the relevant consequences. Compared to act-consequentialism it offers a number of advantages: it is more expressive, it is a simpler theory, and it captures some of the benefits of ruleconsequentialism without the corresponding drawbacks. In this paper, I explore the four (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  16.  26
    Hypercomputation: Computing More Than the Turing Machine.Toby Ord - unknown
    In this report I provide an introduction to the burgeoning field of hypercomputation – the study of machines that can compute more than Turing machines. I take an extensive survey of many of the key concepts in the field, tying together the disparate ideas and presenting them in a structure which allows comparisons of the many approaches and results. To this I add several new results and draw out some interesting consequences of hypercomputation for several different disciplines.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  17.  49
    Exploitation and Peacekeeping: Introducing More Sophisticated Interactions to the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma.Toby Ord & Alan Blair - unknown
    – We present a new paradigm extending the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma to multiple players. Our model is unique in granting players information about past interactions between all pairs of players – allowing for much more sophisticated social behaviour. We provide an overview of preliminary results and discuss the implications in terms of the evolutionary dynamics of strategies.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18.  38
    Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “The Scourge: Moral Implications of Natural Embryo Loss”.Toby Ord - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (7):W1 - W3.
    Many of the commentaries have made similar points regarding the nature of full moral status, so I shall begin by addressing these together. They argue that my representation of the Claim is stronger than many proponents of full moral status would accept (Ord 2008). Robert Card (2008) says that I assume that it is equally bad to lose human life at all stages. Russell DiSilvestro (2008) says that I assume a flawed principle that he calls (M). Marianne Burda (2008) says (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  19.  30
    On the Existence of a New Family of Diophantine Equations for Ω.Toby Ord - 2003 - Fundamenta Informaticae 56:273-284.
    We show how to determine the k-th bit of Chaitin’s algorithmically random real number Ω by solving k instances of the halting problem. From this we then reduce the problem of determining the k-th bit of Ω to determining whether a certain Diophantine equation with two parameters, k and N , has solutions for an odd or an even number of values of N . We also demonstrate two further examples of Ω in number theory: an exponential Diophantine equation with (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20.  19
    Ω in Number Theory.Toby Ord - 2007 - In C. S. Calude (ed.), Randomness and Complexity, from Leibniz to Chaitin. World Scientific. pp. 161-173.
    We present a new method for expressing Chaitin’s random real, Ω, through Diophantine equations. Where Chaitin’s method causes a particular quantity to express the bits of Ω by fluctuating between finite and infinite values, in our method this quantity is always finite and the bits of Ω are expressed in its fluctuations between odd and even values, allowing for some interesting developments. We then use exponential Diophantine equations to simplify this result and finally show how both methods can also be (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  21.  21
    Using Biased Coins as Oracles.Toby Ord & Tien D. Kieu - 2009 - International Journal of Unconventional Computing 5:253-265.
    While it is well known that a Turing machine equipped with the ability to flip a fair coin cannot compute more than a standard Turing machine, we show that this is not true for a biased coin. Indeed, any oracle set X may be coded as a probability pX such that if a Turing machine is given a coin which lands heads with probability pX it can compute any function recursive in X with arbitrarily high probability. We also show how (...)
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  22. Cómo tomar decisiones justas en el camino hacia la cobertura universal de salud.Ole Frithjof Norheim, Trygve Ottersen, Bona Chitah, Richard Cookson, Norman Daniels, Frehiwot Defaye, Nir Eyal, Walter Flores, Axel Gosseries, Daniel Hausman, Samia Hurst, Lydia Kapiriri, Toby Ord, Shlomi Segall, Gita Sen, Alex Voorhoeve, Tessa T. T. Edejer, Andreas Reis, Ritu Sadana, Carla Saenz, Alicia Yamin & Daniel Wikler - 2015 - Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO).
    La cobertura universal de salud está en el centro de la acción actual para fortalecer los sistemas de salud y mejorar el nivel y la distribución de la salud y los servicios de salud. Este documento es el informe fi nal del Grupo Consultivo de la OMS sobre la Equidad y Cobertura Universal de Salud. Aquí se abordan los temas clave de la justicia (fairness) y la equidad que surgen en el camino hacia la cobertura universal de salud. Por lo (...)
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23. Faire Des Choixes Justes Pour Une Couverture Sanitaire Universelle.Ole Frithjof Norheim, Trygve Ottersen, Bona Chitah, Richard Cookson, Norman Daniels, Frehiwot Defaye, Nir Eyal, Walter Flores, Axel Gosseries, Daniel Hausman, Samia Hurst, Lydia Kapiriri, Toby Ord, Shlomi Segall, Gita Sen, Alex Voorhoeve, Daniel Wikler, Alicia Yamin, Tessa T. T. Edejer, Andreas Reis, Ritu Sadana & Carla Saenz - 2015 - World Health Organization.
    This report from the WHO Consultative Group on Equity and Universal Health Coverage offers advice on how to make progress fairly towards universal health coverage.
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  24. Plaga. Moralne konsekwencje naturalnej utraty embrionu.Toby Ord - 2009 - Archeus. Studia Z Bioetyki I Antropologii Filozoficznej 10:63-79.
    No categories
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark