Results for 'Tolgahan Toy'

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Tolgahan Toy
Middle East Technical University (PhD)
  1.  6
    A Defense of Meaning Eliminativism: A Connectionist Approach.Tolgahan Toy - 2022 - Dissertation, Middle East Technical University
    The standard approach to model how human beings understand natural languages is the symbolic, compositional approach according to which the meaning of a complex expression is a function of the meanings of its constituents. In other words, meaning plays a fundamental role in the model. In this work, because of the polysemous, flexible, dynamic, and contextual structure of natural languages, this approach is rejected. Instead, a connectionist model which eliminates the concept of meaning is proposed.
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  2. Toy Models for Retrocausality.Huw Price - 2008 - Studies in Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 39 (4):752-761.
    A number of writers have been attracted to the idea that some of the peculiarities of quantum theory might be manifestations of 'backward' or 'retro' causality, underlying the quantum description. This idea has been explored in the literature in two main ways: firstly in a variety of explicit models of quantum systems, and secondly at a conceptual level. This note introduces a third approach, intended to complement the other two. It describes a simple toy model, which, under a natural interpretation, (...)
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  3. Understanding (With) Toy Models.Alexander Reutlinger, Dominik Hangleiter & Stephan Hartmann - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axx005.
    Toy models are highly idealized and extremely simple models. Although they are omnipresent across scientific disciplines, toy models are a surprisingly under-appreciated subject in the philosophy of science. The main philosophical puzzle regarding toy models is that it is an unsettled question what the epistemic goal of toy modeling is. One promising proposal for answering this question is the claim that the epistemic goal of toy models is to provide individual scientists with understanding. The aim of this paper is to (...)
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  4.  74
    Toying with the Toolbox: How Metaphysics Can Still Make a Contribution.Steven French - 2018 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 49 (2):211-230.
    Current analytic metaphysics has been claimed to be, at best, out of touch with modern physics, at worst, actually in conflict with the latter The continuum companion to the philosophy of science, Continuum, London, 2011; Ladyman and Ross Every thing must go: metaphysics naturalized, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2007). While agreeing with some of these claims, it has been suggested that metaphysics may still be of service by providing a kind of ‘toolbox’ of devices that philosophers of science can access (...)
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  5.  58
    Understanding (with) Toy Models.Alexander Reutlinger, Dominik Hangleiter & Stephan Hartmann - 2018 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 69 (4):1069-1099.
    Toy models are highly idealized and extremely simple models. Although they are omnipresent across scientific disciplines, toy models are a surprisingly under-appreciated subject in the philosophy of science. The main philosophical puzzle regarding toy models concerns what the epistemic goal of toy modelling is. One promising proposal for answering this question is the claim that the epistemic goal of toy models is to provide individual scientists with understanding. The aim of this article is to precisely articulate and to defend this (...)
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  6.  66
    Big Toy Models: Representing Physical Systems as Chu Spaces.Samson Abramsky - 2012 - Synthese 186 (3):697 - 718.
    We pursue a model-oriented rather than axiomatic approach to the foundations of Quantum Mechanics, with the idea that new models can often suggest new axioms. This approach has often been fruitful in Logic and Theoretical Computer Science. Rather than seeking to construct a simplified toy model, we aim for a 'big toy model', in which both quantum and classical systems can be faithfully represented—as well as, possibly, more exotic kinds of systems. To this end, we show how Chu spaces can (...)
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  7. Signs, Toy Models, and the A Priori.Lydia Patton - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (3):281-289.
    The Marburg neo-Kantians argue that Hermann von Helmholtz's empiricist account of the a priori does not account for certain knowledge, since it is based on a psychological phenomenon, trust in the regularities of nature. They argue that Helmholtz's account raises the 'problem of validity' (Gueltigkeitsproblem): how to establish a warranted claim that observed regularities are based on actual relations. I reconstruct Heinrich Hertz's and Ludwig Wittgenstein's Bild theoretic answer to the problem of validity: that scientists and philosophers can depict the (...)
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  8.  58
    A Toy Model for Quantum Mechanics.S. J. van Enk - 2007 - Foundations of Physics 37 (10):1447-1460.
    The toy model used by Spekkens (Phys. Rev. A 75, 032110, 2007) to argue in favor of an epistemic view of quantum mechanics is extended by generalizing his definition of pure states (i.e. states of maximal knowledge) and by associating measurements with all pure states. The new toy model does not allow signaling but, in contrast to the Spekkens model, does violate Bell-CHSH inequalities. Negative probabilities are found to arise naturally within the model, and can be used to explain the (...)
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  9.  12
    Toys as Mimetic Objects. A Problem From Plato’s Laws.Stephen Kidd - 2017 - Aisthesis: Pratiche, Linguaggi E Saperi Dell’Estetico 10 (1):97-105.
    What is a toy? As objects of play, toys seem to be inextricably bound up with mimesis: a child plays ‘make believe’, for example, with a doll or toy cart. But as I will show, Plato has a very different conception of toys from the modern one which tends to conceive of play as essentially mimetic. Toys do not derive their pleasure from being mimetic objects; rather, they are essentially pleasure objects and as such only incidentally mirror the objects of (...)
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  10.  33
    Stabilizer Notation for Spekkens' Toy Theory.Matthew F. Pusey - 2012 - Foundations of Physics 42 (5):688-708.
    Spekkens has introduced a toy theory (Spekkens in Phys. Rev. A 75(3):032110, 2007) in order to argue for an epistemic view of quantum states. I describe a notation for the theory (excluding certain joint measurements) which makes its similarities and differences with the quantum mechanics of stabilizer states clear. Given an application of the qubit stabilizer formalism, it is often entirely straightforward to construct an analogous application of the notation to the toy theory. This assists calculations within the toy theory, (...)
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  11.  80
    The Toys of Organic Chemistry: Material Manipulatives and Inductive Reasoning.Kate McKinney Maddalena - 2013 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 35 (2):227-248.
    Chemical visualizations and models are special kinds of situated, inductive arguments. In this paper, I examine several historical case studies—an archive of images from museums, special collections, and popular magazines—as examples of emergent practices of physical modeling as theoretical play which became the basis for molecular biology and structural chemistry. Specifically, I trace a legacy of visualization tools that starts with Archibald Scott Cooper and Friedrich Kekulé in the late 1800s, crystallizes as material manipulatives in Kekulé’s student Jacobus Henricus Van’t (...)
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  12. Probing Possibilities: Toy Models, Minimal Models, and Exploratory Models.Axel Gelfert - 2019 - In Matthieu Fontaine, Cristina Barés-Gómez, Francisco Salguero-Lamillar, Lorenzo Magnani & Ángel Nepomuceno-Fernández (eds.), Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology. Springer Verlag.
    According to one influential view, model-building in science is primarily a matter of simplifying theoretical descriptions of real-world target systems using abstraction and idealization. This view, however, does not adequately capture all types of models. Many contemporary models in the natural and social sciences – from physics to biology to economics – stand in a more tenuous relationship with real-world target systems and have a decidedly stipulative element, in that they create, by fiat, ‘model worlds’ that operate according to some (...)
     
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  13. Toy Stories: On the Disciplinary Regime of Vibration.George Rossolatos - 2017 - Semiotica 2017 (218):145-164.
    Sex toys promote a new consumptive ethos whose significance may be adequately outlined by attending to the institutional implications of this product category’s consumption. By drawing on Foucault’s theory of sexuality and the technologies of the self that materialize with the aid of discursive formations about sexuality, as well as on relevant sociological and ethnographic insights, I undertake a qualitative content analysis on a corpus of 100 sex toys’ product reviews from popular magazines and web sites in order to identify (...)
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  14.  17
    Toys Are Me: Children’s Extension of Self to Objects.Gil Diesendruck & Reut Perez - 2015 - Cognition 134:11-20.
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  15.  70
    Philosophical Toys Today.Tomáš Dvořák - 2013 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 35 (2):173-196.
    The article introduces a thematic issue of the journal Theory of Science that attempts to revive the category of "philosophi- cal toys" - objects and instruments designed for experimental scientific research that simultaneously played crucial role in the creation of the modern visual culture. It claims that to fully understand their nature and the kind of experience philosophical toys induce, it is necessary to situate their origins in eighteenth-century experimental science and aesthetics and proposes to approach them as perceptual and (...)
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  16.  96
    Philosophical Toys as Vectors for Diagrammatic Creation: The Case of The Fragmented Orchestra.Claudia Mongini - 2013 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 35 (2):289-313.
    The central topic of this essay consists into establishing a relation between two dimensions of formation: the conceptual process of creating philo- sophical toys - that is of reelaborating existing philosophical concepts, mainly deriving from the thought of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, in terms of their potential as ‘operative constructs' - and their parallel redeployment towards the specific problem of analyz- ing a recent transdisciplinary artwork. By means of this strategical shift, theory looses its character of explanation and illustration. (...)
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  17.  33
    Talk About Toy Models.Joshua Luczak - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 57:1-7.
    Scientific models are frequently discussed in philosophy of science. A great deal of the discussion is centred on approximation, idealisation, and on how these models achieve their representational function. Despite the importance, distinct nature, and high presence of toy models, they have received little attention from philosophers. This paper hopes to remedy this situation. It aims to elevate the status of toy models: by distinguishing them from approximations and idealisations, by highlighting and elaborating on several ways the Kac ring, a (...)
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  18.  3
    Toy story or children story? Putting children and their rights at the forefront of the artificial intelligence revolution.E. Fosch-Villaronga, S. van der Hof, C. Lutz & A. Tamò-Larrieux - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-20.
    Policymakers need to start considering the impact smart connected toys have on children. Equipped with sensors, data processing capacities, and connectivity, SCTs targeting children increasingly penetrate pervasively personal environments. The network of SCTs forms the Internet of Toys and often increases children's engagement and playtime experience. Unfortunately, this young part of the population and, most of the time, their parents are often unaware of SCTs’ far-reaching capacities and limitations. The capabilities and constraints of SCTs create severe side effects at the (...)
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  19.  7
    Ecce Deus: Die Urchristliche Lehre Des Reingöttlichen Jesus.William Benjamin Smith.Crawford H. Toy - 1912 - International Journal of Ethics 22 (2):227-232.
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  20.  5
    Toys, Tools & Teachers: The Challenges of Technology.Marge Cambre & Mark Hawkes - 2004 - R&L Education.
    Cambre and Hawkes offer a framework for thinking about technology as it impacts teaching and learning today. We look at technology through a trifocal lense: technology as teaching aid, technology as threat, and technology as progress. We trace the evolution of school technology briefly, leading up to the computer as the point convergence. From the toys they play with to the tools they learn with, we see that students are bombarded with things technological. This mushrooming of technology and how it (...)
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  21.  3
    Of Toys, Cultural Heritage and Globalization: The Collective Narrative Identity of Traditional Mexican Toys.Griselda Zárate & Sahad Rivera - 2017 - Semiotics:105-114.
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  22. Toying with the Parser: Aesthetic Materiality in Electronic Writing.Daniel Punday - 2003 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 61 (2):105–119.
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  23. Is Credibility a Guide to Possibility? A Challenge for Toy Models in Science.Ylwa Sjölin Wirling - 2021 - Analysis 81 (3):470-478.
    Several philosophers of science claim that scientific toy models afford knowledge of possibility, but answers to the question of why toy models can be expected to competently play this role are scarce. The main line of reply is that toy models support possibility claims insofar as they are credible. I raise a challenge for this credibility-thesis, drawing on a familiar problem for imagination-based modal epistemologies, and argue that it remains unanswered in the current literature. The credibility-thesis has a long way (...)
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  24. From Toys to Games: Overcoming the View of Natural Selection as a Filter.Víctor J. Luque - 2016 - Kairos 17 (1):1-24.
  25.  6
    Interinstitutional Perspectives on Contract Cheating: A Qualitative Narrative Exploration From Canada.Silvia Rossi, Margaret A. Toye, Nancy Chibry & Sarah Elaine Eaton - 2019 - International Journal for Educational Integrity 15 (1).
    This paper explores contract cheating from the perspectives of researchers at three post-secondary institutions in Alberta, Canada, describing their efforts to develop and advance awareness of, interventions against, and responses to contract cheating at their respective institutions. Contract cheating is when a third party produces or completes academic work for a student, and the student then presents the work as their own. The student might have personal connections to the third party, or the student might pay a fee and outsource (...)
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  26.  12
    Toy Rats and Real Rats: Nonhomeostatic Plasticity in Drinking.Robert C. Bolles - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (1):103-103.
  27.  3
    Toying with the Parser: Aesthetic Materiality in Electronic Writing.Daniel Punday - 2003 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 61 (2):105-119.
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  28. Many Toys Are in Box.Existential Sentences - 1971 - Foundations of Language: International Journal of Language and Philosophy 7.
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  29.  8
    Toying with the Law: Deleuze, Lacan and the Promise of Perversion.Kai Heron - 2020 - Sage Publications: European Journal of Political Theory.
    European Journal of Political Theory, Ahead of Print. This article proposes that Deleuze’s psychoanalytically inspired theory of humour and irony provides an underappreciated way to theorize acts of resistance that adopt a structurally perverse position towards a law or authority. In his books Coldness and Cruelty and Difference and Repetition, Deleuze explains that the law is susceptible to two kinds of subversive procedure. The first, which he calls irony and which he aligns with sadism, reveals a gap between the law (...)
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  30. Toy Models in Physics and the Reasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics.Annalisa Marzuoli - 2008 - In Giovanna Corsi & Rossella Lupacchini (eds.), Deduction, Computation, Experiment. Exploring the Effectiveness of Proof. Springer. pp. 49.
     
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  31.  7
    General Introduction to the Study of Holy Scripture, the Principles, Methods, History, and Results of its Several Departments and of the Whole.C. H. Toy - 1899 - International Journal of Ethics 10 (1):131-131.
  32.  19
    The Propehets of Israel: Popular Sketches From Old Testament History.Carl Heinrich Cornill.C. H. Toy - 1899 - International Journal of Ethics 9 (2):248-249.
  33. Toying with the Law: Deleuze, Lacan and the Promise of Perversion.Kai Heron - 2020 - European Journal of Political Theory.
    This article proposes that Deleuze’s psychoanalytically inspired theory of humour and irony provides an underappreciated way to theorize acts of resistance that adopt a structurally perverse positi...
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  34. Toy Story 3.Cecilia García - 2010 - Critica: La Reflexion Calmada Desenreda Nudos 60 (968):105.
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  35.  50
    It’s Not a Game: Accurate Representation with Toy Models.James Nguyen - 2020 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 71 (3):1013-1041.
    Drawing on ‘interpretational’ accounts of scientific representation, I argue that the use of so-called ‘toy models’ provides no particular philosophical puzzle. More specifically; I argue that once one gives up the idea that models are accurate representations of their targets only if they are appropriately similar, then simple and highly idealized models can be accurate in the same way that more complex models can be. Their differences turn on trading precision for generality, but, if they are appropriately interpreted, toy models (...)
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  36. Toy Languages and Free Imaginations.Katuzi Ono - 1982 - Annals of the Japan Association for Philosophy of Science 6 (2):59-82.
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  37.  11
    Book Review:The Messages of the Poets. Nathaniel Schmidt. [REVIEW]C. H. Toy - 1912 - Ethics 22 (4):474-.
  38.  12
    Book Review:Ecce Deus: Die Urchristliche Lehre Des Reingottlichen Jesus. William Benjamin Smith. [REVIEW]Crawford H. Toy - 1912 - Ethics 22 (2):227-.
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  39.  69
    Donna Haraway's Cyborg Touching (Up/On) Luce Irigaray's Ethics and the Interval Between: Poethics as Embodied Writing.Margaret E. Toye - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (1):182-200.
    In this article, I argue that Donna Haraway's figure of the cyborg needs to be reassessed and extricated from the many misunderstandings that surround it. First, I suggest that we consider her cyborg as an ethical concept. I propose that her cyborg can be productively placed within the ethical framework developed by Luce Irigaray, especially in relationship to her concept of the “interval between.” Second, I consider how Haraway's “cyborg writing” can be understood as embodied ethical writing, that is, as (...)
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  40.  8
    Toying With Truth. Wolfe - 1926 - Modern Schoolman 3 (3):42-43.
  41.  14
    Book Review:General Introduction to the Study of Holy Scripture, the Principles, Methods, History, and Results of its Several Departments and of the Whole. Charles Augustus Briggs. [REVIEW]C. H. Toy - 1899 - Ethics 10 (1):131-.
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  42.  10
    Musical Toys Offered to Gods at Miho Shrine: Instruments for Renewing Ritual Communication.Fumi Ouchi - 2018 - Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 45 (2).
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  43.  10
    Japanese Toys: Playing with History.D. E. M. & Charles A. Pomeroy - 1966 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 86 (2):263.
  44.  8
    Book Review:The Kingdom (Basileia). An Exegetical Study. George Dana Boardman. [REVIEW]C. H. Toy - 1900 - Ethics 10 (2):265-.
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  45.  11
    Book Review:The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. Morris Jastrow, Jr. [REVIEW]C. H. Toy - 1899 - Ethics 9 (2):243-.
  46.  10
    Book Review:The Propehets of Israel: Popular Sketches From Old Testament History. Carl Heinrich Cornill. [REVIEW]C. H. Toy - 1899 - Ethics 9 (2):248-.
  47.  2
    Selling Compromise: Toys, Motherhood, and the Cultural Deal.Allison J. Pugh - 2005 - Gender and Society 19 (6):729-749.
    The turbulent social conflict over what counts as good-enough mothering and the greedy institution of work leaves many women trapped in what Joan Williams called the gender system of domesticity. Like self-help books, advertisements can lead mothers toward a culturally sanctioned compromise. This article looks at the “cultural deals” being offered for mothers by toy catalogs. The author examined the marketing of more than 3,500 toys in 11 catalogs fromthe 2000-2001holiday season. She found that the catalogs presented toys as solutions (...)
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  48.  6
    Book Review:Israel Among the Nations. A Study of the Jews and of Antisemitism. Anatole Leroy-Beaulieu, Frances Hellman. [REVIEW]C. H. Toy - 1896 - Ethics 6 (4):527-.
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  49.  21
    Feminist Love Studies—Editors' Introduction.Ann Ferguson & Margaret E. Toye - 2017 - Hypatia 32 (1):5-18.
  50.  25
    Evidence for the Epistemic View of Quantum States: A Toy Theory.Robert W. Spekkens - 2007 - Physical Review A 75:032110.
    We present a toy theory that is based on a simple principle: the number of questions about the physical state of a system that are answered must always be equal to the number that are unanswered in a state of maximal knowledge. Many quantum phenomena are found to have analogues within this toy theory. These include the noncommutativity of measurements, interference, the multiplicity of convex decompositions of a mixed state, the impossibility of discriminating nonorthogonal states, the impossibility of a universal (...)
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