Results for 'Tom Beesley'

995 found
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  1.  10
    The magnitude of suppression to self-initiated sensations is dependent on the initiating motor-action.Mifsud Nathan, Beesley Tom & Whitford Thomas - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  2.  20
    Out of control: An associative account of congruency effects in sequence learning.Tom Beesley, Fergal W. Jones & David R. Shanks - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):413-421.
    The demonstration of a sequential congruency effect in sequence learning has been offered as evidence for control processes that act to inhibit automatic response tendencies via unconscious conflict monitoring. Here we propose an alternative interpretation of this effect based on the associative learning of chains of sequenced contingencies. This account is supported by simulations with a Simple Recurrent Network, an associative model of sequence learning. We argue that the control- and associative-based accounts differ in their predictions concerning the magnitude of (...)
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  3.  13
    Attenuation of visual evoked responses to hand and saccade-initiated flashes.Nathan G. Mifsud, Tom Beesley, Tamara L. Watson, Ruth B. Elijah, Tegan S. Sharp & Thomas J. Whitford - 2018 - Cognition 179:14-22.
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  4.  10
    An Analysis of the Overlooked Value of Greatness.Brandon Beesley - forthcoming - Dianoia The Undergraduate Philosophy Journal of Boston College:57-69.
    Greatness is a prevalent topic within philosophy of which many interpretations are offered, ranging from Aristotle's virtue-driven megalopsychos to Nietzsche’s power-hungry übermensch. Humanity’s persisting interest in the idea of greatness is undeniable– the desire for achievement can become obsessive, overwhelming and, for many, anxiety inducing. While there have been innumerable attempts to explain what greatness is, there is little to no scholarship on why we burden ourselves with the pursuit of greatness, consequently and uncharacteristically placing ourselves in a position of (...)
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  5.  6
    On the Equivalence of Causal Propagators of the Dirac Equation in Vacuum-Destabilising External Fields.Jonathan J. Beesley - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-30.
    In QED, an external electromagnetic field can be accounted for non-perturbatively by replacing the causal propagators used in Feynman diagram calculations with Green’s functions for the Dirac equation under the external field. If the external field destabilises the vacuum, then it is a difficult problem to determine which Green’s function is appropriate, and multiple approaches have been developed in the literature whose equivalence, in many cases, is not clear. In this paper, we demonstrate for a broad class of external fields (...)
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  6.  29
    Value of choice.Tom Walker - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (1):61-64.
    Accounts of the value of patient choice in contemporary medical ethics typically focus on the act of choosing. Being the one to choose, it is argued, can be valuable either because it enables one to bring about desired outcomes, or because it is a way of enacting one’s autonomy. This paper argues that all such accounts miss something important. In some circumstances, it is having the opportunity to choose, not the act of choosing, that is valuable. That is because in (...)
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  7. Prospects for the global governance of autonomous weapons: comparing Chinese, Russian, and US practices.Tom F. A. Watts, Guangyu Qiao-Franco, Anna Nadibaidze, Hendrik Huelss & Ingvild Bode - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (1):1-15.
    Technological developments in the sphere of artificial intelligence (AI) inspire debates about the implications of autonomous weapon systems (AWS), which can select and engage targets without human intervention. While increasingly more systems which could qualify as AWS, such as loitering munitions, are reportedly used in armed conflicts, the global discussion about a system of governance and international legal norms on AWS at the United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (UN CCW) has stalled. In this article we argue for the (...)
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  8. Sex, Lies, and Consent.Tom Dougherty - 2013 - Ethics 123 (4):717-744.
    How wrong is it to deceive someone into sex by lying, say, about one's profession? The answer is seriously wrong when the liar's actual profession would be a deal breaker for the victim of the deception: this deception vitiates the victim's sexual consent, and it is seriously wrong to have sex with someone while lacking his or her consent.
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  9. Yes Means Yes: Consent as Communication.Tom Dougherty - 2015 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 43 (3):224-253.
  10. Respecting autonomy without disclosing information.Tom Walker - 2012 - Bioethics 27 (7):388-394.
    There is widespread agreement that it would be both morally and legally wrong to treat a competent patient, or to carry out research with a competent participant, without the voluntary consent of that patient or research participant. Furthermore, in medical ethics it is generally taken that that consent must be informed. The most widely given reason for this has been that informed consent is needed to respect the patient’s or research participant’s autonomy. In this article I set out to challenge (...)
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  11.  70
    Informed Consent and the Requirement to Ensure Understanding.Tom Walker - 2011 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (1):50-62.
    It is generally held that doctors and researchers have an obligation to obtain informed consent. Over time there has been a move in relation to this obligation from a requirement to disclose information to a requirement to ensure that that information is understood. Whilst this change has been resisted, in this article I argue that both sides on this matter are mistaken. When investigating what information is needed for consent to be informed we might be trying to determine what information (...)
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  12. Multi-Dimensional Utility and the Index Number Problem: Jeremy Bentham, J. S. Mill, and Qualitative Hedonism: Tom Warke.Tom Warke - 2000 - Utilitas 12 (2):176-203.
    This article develops an unconventional perspective on the utilitarianism of Bentham and Mill in at least four areas. First, it is shown that both authors conceived of utility as irreducibly multi-dimensional, and that Bentham in particular was very much aware of the ambiguity that multi-dimensionality imposes upon optimal choice under the greatest happiness principle. Secondly, I argue that any attribution of intrinsic worth to any form of human behaviour violates the first principles of Bentham's and Mill's utilitarianism, and that this (...)
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  13.  80
    Who do we treat first when resources are scarce?Tom Walker - 2010 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 27 (2):200-211.
    In a health service with limited resources we must make decisions about who to treat first. In this paper I develop a version of the restoration argument according to which those whose need for resources is a consequence of their voluntary choices should receive lower priority when it comes to health care. I then consider three possible problems for this argument based on those that have been raised against other theories of this type: that we don't know in a particular (...)
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  14.  23
    Miscarriage, Abortion, and Disease.Tom Waters - 2023 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 48 (3):243-251.
    The frequency of death from miscarriage is very high, greater than the number of deaths from induced abortion or major diseases.Berg (2017, Philosophical Studies 174:1217–26) argues that, given this, those who contend that personhood begins at conception (PAC) are obliged to reorient their resources accordingly—towards stopping miscarriage, in preference to stopping abortion or diseases. This argument depends on there being a basic moral similarity between these deaths. I argue that, for those that hold to PAC, there are good reasons to (...)
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  15. Future-Bias and Practical Reason.Tom Dougherty - 2015 - Philosophers' Imprint 15.
    Nearly everyone prefers pain to be in the past rather than the future. This seems like a rationally permissible preference. But I argue that appearances are misleading, and that future-biased preferences are in fact irrational. My argument appeals to trade-offs between hedonic experiences and other goods. I argue that we are rationally required to adopt an exchange rate between a hedonic experience and another type of good that stays fixed, regardless of whether the hedonic experience is in the past or (...)
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  16.  19
    Scientism: Philosophy and the Infatuation with Science.Tom Sorell Ltd & Tom Sorell - 1991 - New York: Routledge.
    First Published in 2004. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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  17.  51
    The Scope of Consent.Tom Dougherty - 2021 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    The scope of someone's consent is the range of actions that they permit by giving consent. The Scope of Consent investigates the under-explored question of which normative principle governs the scope of consent. To answer this question, the book's investigation involves taking a stance on what constitutes consent. By appealing to the idea that someone can justify their behaviour by appealing to another person's consent, Dougherty defends the view that consent consists in behaviour that expresses a consent-giver's will for how (...)
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  18. Scientism: Philosophy and the Infatuation with Science.Tom Sorell - 1991 - New York: Routledge.
    First Published in 2004. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
     
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  19. The Epistemic Significance of Disagreement.Tom Kelly - 2005 - In Tamar Szabo Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.), Oxford Studies in Epistemology Volume 1. Oxford University Press UK.
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  20. Vague Value.Tom Dougherty - 2013 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 89 (2):352-372.
    You are morally permitted to save your friend at the expense of a few strangers, but not at the expense of very many. However, there seems no number of strangers that marks a precise upper bound here. Consequently, there are borderline cases of groups at the expense of which you are permitted to save your friend. This essay discusses the question of what explains ethical vagueness like this, arguing that there are interesting metaethical consequences of various explanations.
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  21. Informed Consent, Disclosure, and Understanding.Tom Dougherty - 2020 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 48 (2):119-150.
  22. Expecting the Unexpected.Tom Dougherty, Sophie Horowitz & Paulina Sliwa - 2015 - Res Philosophica 92 (2):301-321.
    In an influential paper, L. A. Paul argues that one cannot rationally decide whether to have children. In particular, she argues that such a decision is intractable for standard decision theory. Paul's central argument in this paper rests on the claim that becoming a parent is ``epistemically transformative''---prior to becoming a parent, it is impossible to know what being a parent is like. Paul argues that because parenting is epistemically transformative, one cannot estimate the values of the various outcomes of (...)
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  23. Why Do Female Students Leave Philosophy? The Story from Sydney.Tom Dougherty, Samuel Baron & Kristie Miller - 2015 - Hypatia 30 (2):467-474.
    The anglophone philosophy profession has a well-known problem with gender equity. A sig-nificant aspect of the problem is the fact that there are simply so many more male philoso-phers than female philosophers among students and faculty alike. The problem is at its stark-est at the faculty level, where only 22% - 24% of philosophers are female in the United States (Van Camp 2014), the United Kingdom (Beebee & Saul 2011) and Australia (Goddard 2008).<1> While this is a result of the (...)
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  24.  74
    Ulysses Contracts in Medicine.Tom Walker - 2012 - Law and Philosophy 31 (1):77-98.
    Ulysses contracts are a method by which one person binds himself by agreeing to be bound by others. In medicine such contracts have primarily been discussed as ways of treating people with episodic mental illnesses, where the features of the illness are such that they now judge that they will refuse treatment at the time it is needed. Enforcing Ulysses contracts in these circumstances would require medical professionals to override the express refusal of the patient at the time treatment is (...)
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  25. Affirmative Consent and Due Diligence.Tom Dougherty - 2018 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 46 (1):90-112.
  26. On Whether To Prefer Pain to Pass.Tom Dougherty - 2011 - Ethics 121 (3):521-537.
    Most of us are “time-biased” in preferring pains to be past rather than future and pleasures to be future rather than past. However, it turns out that if you are risk averse and time-biased, then you can be turned into a “pain pump”—in order to insure yourself against misfortune, you will take a series of pills which leaves you with more pain and better off in no respect. Since this vulnerability seems rationally impermissible, while time-bias and risk aversion seem rationally (...)
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  27. Female Under-Representation Among Philosophy Majors: A Map of the Hypotheses and a Survey of the Evidence.Tom Dougherty, Samuel Baron & Kristie Miller - 2015 - Feminist Philosophy Quarterly 1 (1):1-30.
    Why is there female under-representation among philosophy majors? We survey the hypotheses that have been proposed so far, grouping similar hypotheses together. We then propose a chronological taxonomy that distinguishes hypotheses according to the stage in undergraduates’ careers at which the hypotheses predict an increase in female under-representation. We then survey the empirical evidence for and against various hypotheses. We end by suggesting future avenues for research.
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  28.  64
    A stroll through the worlds of robots and animals: Applying Jakob von Uexkülls theory of meaning to adaptive robots and artificial life.Tom Ziemke & Noel E. Sharkey - 2001 - Semiotica 2001 (134).
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  29. Eight Dimensions for the Emotions.Tom Cochrane - 2009 - Social Science Information 48 (3):379-420.
    The author proposes a dimensional model of our emotion concepts that is intended to be largely independent of one’s theory of emotions and applicable to the different ways in which emotions are measured. He outlines some conditions for selecting the dimensions based on these motivations and general conceptual grounds. Given these conditions he then advances an 8-dimensional model that is shown to effectively differentiate emotion labels both within and across cultures, as well as more obscure expressive language. The 8 dimensions (...)
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  30.  98
    Simulation Methods for an Abductive System in Science.Tom Addis, Jan Townsend Addis, Dave Billinge, David Gooding & Bart-Floris Visscher - 2008 - Foundations of Science 13 (1):37-52.
    We argue that abduction does not work in isolation from other inference mechanisms and illustrate this through an inference scheme designed to evaluate multiple hypotheses. We use game theory to relate the abductive system to actions that produce new information. To enable evaluation of the implications of this approach we have implemented the procedures used to calculate the impact of new information in a computer model. Experiments with this model display a number of features of collective belief-revision leading to consensus-formation, (...)
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  31.  88
    Sexual Misconduct on a Scale: Gravity, Coercion, and Consent.Tom Dougherty - 2021 - Ethics 131 (2):319-344.
    To develop a theoretical framework for drawing moral distinctions between instances of sexual misconduct, I defend the “Ameliorative View” of consent, according to which there are three possibilities for what effect, if any, consent has: “fully valid consent” eliminates a wronging, “fully invalid consent” has no normative effect, and “partially valid consent” has an ameliorative effect on a wronging in the respect that it makes the wronging less grave. I motivate the view by proposing a solution to the problem of (...)
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  32. Agent-neutral deontology.Tom Dougherty - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 163 (2):527-537.
    According to the “Textbook View,” there is an extensional dispute between consequentialists and deontologists, in virtue of the fact that only the latter defend “agent-relative” principles—principles that require an agent to have a special concern with making sure that she does not perform certain types of action. I argue that, contra the Textbook View, there are agent-neutral versions of deontology. I also argue that there need be no extensional disagreement between the deontologist and consequentialist, as characterized by the Textbook View.
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  33. Why does duress undermine consent?1.Tom Dougherty - 2019 - Noûs 55 (2):317-333.
    In this essay, I discuss why consent is invalidated by duress that involves attaching penalties to someone's refusal to give consent. At the heart of my explanation is the Complaint Principle. This principle specifies that consent is defeasibly invalid when the consent results from someone conditionally imposing a penalty on the consent‐giver's refusal to give the consent, such that the consent‐giver has a legitimate complaint against this imposition focused on how it is affects their incentives for consenting. The Complaint Principle (...)
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  34. Modal Normativism and De Re Modality.Tom Donaldson & Jennifer Wang - 2022 - Argumenta 7 (2):293-307.
    In the middle of the last century, it was common to explain the notion of necessity in linguistic terms. A necessary truth, it was said, is a sentence whose truth is guaranteed by linguistic rules. Quine famously argued that, on this view, de re modal claims do not make sense. “Porcupettes are porcupines” is necessarily true, but it would be a mistake to say of a particular porcupette that it is necessarily a porcupine, or that it is possibly purple. Linguistic (...)
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  35.  92
    Epistemic Conditions of Moral Responsibility.Tom Yates - 2022 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    What conditions on a person’s knowledge must be satisfied in order for them to be morally responsible for something they have done? The first two decades of the twenty-first century saw a surge of interest in this question. Must an agent, for example, be aware that their conduct is all-things-considered … Continue reading Epistemic Conditions of Moral Responsibility →.
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  36.  21
    Generalization as search.Tom M. Mitchell - 1982 - Artificial Intelligence 18 (2):203-226.
  37.  10
    Persons of authority: the Ston pa tshad ma'i skyes bur sgrub pa'i gtam of a lag sha ngag dbang bstan dar: a Tibetan work on the central religious questions in Buddhist epistemology.Tom J. F. Tillemans - 1993 - Stuttgart: F. Steiner. Edited by Tom J. F. Tillemans.
  38. Mind the Gap: Bridging economic and naturalistic risk-taking with cognitive neuroscience.Tom Schonberg, Craig R. Fox & Russell A. Poldrack - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (1):11.
  39.  27
    The enactive approach: Theoretical sketches from cell to society.Tom Froese & Ezequiel A. Di Paolo - 2011 - Pragmatics and Cognition 19 (1):1-36.
    There is a small but growing community of researchers spanning a spectrum of disciplines which are united in rejecting the still dominant computationalist paradigm in favor of the enactive approach. The framework of this approach is centered on a core set of ideas, such as autonomy, sense-making, emergence, embodiment, and experience. These concepts are finding novel applications in a diverse range of areas. One hot topic has been the establishment of an enactive approach to social interaction. The main purpose of (...)
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  40.  64
    The enactive approach: Theoretical sketches from cell to society.Tom Froese & Ezequiel A. Di Paolo - 2011 - Pragmatics and Cognition 19 (1):1-36.
    There is a small but growing community of researchers spanning a spectrum of disciplines which are united in rejecting the still dominant computationalist paradigm in favor of theenactive approach. The framework of this approach is centered on a core set of ideas, such as autonomy, sense-making, emergence, embodiment, and experience. These concepts are finding novel applications in a diverse range of areas. One hot topic has been the establishment of an enactive approach to social interaction. The main purpose of this (...)
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  41.  30
    Techne in Aristotle's Ethics: Crafting the Moral Life.Tom Angier - 2010 - Continuum.
    'By identifying the extent to which Aristotle's thinking about ethics was shaped by notions drawn from the crafts Angier has thrown new light on a surprising number of topics and has deepened our understanding of tensions within Aristotle's thought. It is by now a rare achievement to have said something new, true and important about Aristotle.' -- Alasdair MacIntyre, Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, University of Notre Dame, USA.
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  42.  14
    Should Democracy Work through Elections or Sortition?Tom Malleson - 2018 - Politics and Society 46 (3):401-417.
    Are democratic ideals better served by elections or sortition? Is the ideal national legislature one that is elected, chosen by lot, or some combination thereof? To answer these questions properly, it is necessary to perform a careful, balanced, and systematic comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of each. To do so, this article uses foundational democratic values—political equality, popular control, deliberative nature, and competency—as measuring sticks. On the basis of these values a purely elected legislature is compared with a purely (...)
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  43. Expression and Extended Cognition.Tom Cochrane - 2008 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 66 (4):59-73.
    I argue for the possibility of an extremely intimate connection between the emotional content of the music and the emotional state of the person who produces that music. Under certain specified conditions, the music may not just influence, but also partially constitute the musician’s emotional state.
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  44.  35
    A Note on the Epistemological Value of Pretense Imagination.Tom Schoonen - 2021 - Episteme:1-20.
    Pretense imagination is imagination understood as the ability to recreate rational belief revision. This kind of imagination is used in pretend-play, risk-assessment, etc. Some even claim that this kind of hypothetical belief revision can be grounds to justify new beliefs in conditionals, in particular conditionals that play a foundational role in the epistemology of modality. In this paper, I will argue that it cannot. I will first provide a very general theory of pretense imagination, which I formalise using tools from (...)
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  45. Aggregation, Beneficence, and Chance.Tom Dougherty - 2013 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 7 (2):1-19.
    It is plausible to think that it is wrong to cure many people’s headaches rather than save someone else’s life. On the other hand, it is plausible to think that it is not wrong to expose someone to a tiny risk of death when curing this person’s headache. I will argue that these claims are inconsistent. For if we keep taking this tiny risk then it is likely that one person dies, while many others’ headaches are cured. In light of (...)
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  46.  22
    Enactive artificial intelligence: Investigating the systemic organization of life and mind.Tom Froese & Tom Ziemke - 2009 - Artificial Intelligence 173 (3-4):466-500.
  47. The social model of disability.Tom Shakespeare - 2006 - In Lennard J. Davis (ed.), The Disability Studies Reader. Psychology Press. pp. 2--197.
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  48. Truth and Its Uses: Deflationism and Alethic Pluralism.Tom Kaspers - 2023 - Synthese 202 (130):1-24.
    Deflationists believe that the question “What is truth?” should be answered not by means of a metaphysical inquiry into the nature of truth, but by figuring out what use we make of the concept of truth, and the word ‘true’, in practice. This article accepts this methodology, and it thereby rejects pluralism about truth that is driven by ontological considerations. However, it shows that there are practical considerations for a pluralism about truth, formulated at the level of use. The theory (...)
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  49. On Wrongs and Crimes : Does Consent Require Only an Attempt to Communicate?Tom Dougherty - 2019 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 13 (3):409-423.
    In Wrongs and Crimes, Victor Tadros clarifies the debate about whether consent needs to be communicated by separating the question of whether consent requires expressive behaviour from the question of whether it requires “uptake” in the form of comprehension by the consent-receiver. Once this distinction is drawn, Tadros argues both that consent does not require uptake and that consent does not require expressive behaviour that provides evidence to the consent-receiver. As a result, Tadros takes the view that consent requires an (...)
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  50.  46
    Ageing, justice and resource allocation.Tom Walker - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (6):348-352.
    Around the world, the population is ageing in ways that pose new challenges for healthcare providers. To date these have mostly been formulated in terms of challenges created by increasing costs, and the focus has been squarely on life-prolonging treatments. However, this focus ignores the ways in which many older people require life-enhancing treatments to counteract the effects of physical and mental decline. This paper argues that in doing so it misses important aspects of what justice requires when it comes (...)
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