Results for 'Tomasz ��uradzki'

975 found
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  1. Conscientious Refusal of Abortion in Emergency Life-Threatening Circumstances and Contested Judgments of Conscience.Wojciech Ciszewski & Tomasz Żuradzki - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (7):62-64.
    Lawrence Nelson (2018) criticizes conscientious objection (CO) to abortion statutes as far as they permit health care providers to escape criminal liability for what would otherwise be the legally wrongful taking of a pregnant woman’s life by refusing treatment (i.e. abortion). His key argument refers to the U.S. Supreme Court judgment (Roe v. Wade 1973) that does not treat the unborn as constitutional persons under the Fourteenth Amendment. Therefore, Nelson claims that within the U.S. legal system any vital interests of (...)
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  2. Tomasz Mróz, Wincenty Lutosławski 1863-1954. Jestem obywatelem utopii.Tomasz Skrzyński - 2009 - Ruch Filozoficzny 66 (2).
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  3. Stochastic Outcomes in Branching Space-Time: Analysis of Bell's Theorem.Tomasz Placek - 2000 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (3):445-475.
    The paper extends the framework of outcomes in branching space-time (Kowalski and Placek [1999]) by assigning probabilities to outcomes of events, where these probabilities are interpreted either epistemically or as weighted possibilities. In resulting models I define the notion of common cause of correlated outcomes of a single event, and investigate which setups allow for the introduction of common causes. It turns out that a deterministic common cause can always be introduced, but (surprisingly) only special setups permit the introduction of (...)
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  4.  39
    Outcomes in Branching Space-Time and GHZ-Bell Theorems.Tomasz Kowalski & Tomasz Placek - 1999 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (3):349-375.
    The paper intends to provide an algebraic framework in which subluminal causation can be analysed. The framework merges Belnap's 'outcomes in branching time' with his 'branching space-time' (BST). it is shown that an important structure in BST, called 'family of outcomes of an event', is a boolean algebra. We define next non-stochastic common cause and analyse GHZ-Bell theorems. We prove that there is no common cause that accounts for results of GHZ-Bell experiment but construct common causes for two other quantum (...)
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  5.  14
    Beliefs About Obedience Levels in Studies Conducted Within the Milgram Paradigm: Better Than Average Effect and Comparisons of Typical Behaviors by Residents of Various Nations.Tomasz Grzyb & Dariusz Dolinski - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
  6.  81
    Counterfactuals and Spatiotemporal Events.Tomasz Bigaj - 2004 - Synthese 142 (1):1-19.
    One of the basic assumptions of David Lewis's formal semantics of counterfactuals is that the crucial relation of comparative similarity between possible worlds is a linear ordering.Yet there are arguments that when we take into account relativistic features of space-time, this relationshould be only a partial ordering. The first part of the paper deals with the question of how to formulate appropriatetruth conditions for counterfactuals under the supposition of a partial ordering of possible worlds. Such truthconditions will be put forward, (...)
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  7.  18
    On Logic of Strictly-Deontic Modalities. A Semantic and Tableau Approach.Tomasz Jarmużek & Mateusz Klonowski - 2020 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 29 (3):335–380.
    Standard deontic logic (SDL) is defined on the basis of possible world semantics and is a logic of alethic-deontic modalities rather than deontic modalities alone. The interpretation of the concepts of obligation and permission comes down exclusively to the logical value that a sentence adopts for the accessible deontic alternatives. Here, we set forth a different approach, this being a logic which additionally takes into consideration whether sentences stand in relation to the normative system or to the system of values (...)
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  8.  10
    Why Can’T We Just Ask? The Influence of Research Methods on Results. The Case of the “Bystander Effect”.Tomasz Grzyb - 2016 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 47 (2):233-235.
    The article discusses the issue of the departure from examining real behaviours in a real environment, a trend in social psychology which has been observed going back several years, and the impact of this phenomenon for social psychology as a scientific discipline. The article presents two studies on the well-known and explored “bystander effect”. This phenomenon is examined in two ways – once by way of a “traditional” field experiment conducted in natural conditions, and once through a survey. As it (...)
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  9.  9
    AI Transparency: A Matter of Reconciling Design with Critique.Tomasz Hollanek - forthcoming - AI and Society.
    In the late 2010s, various international committees, expert groups, and national strategy boards have voiced the demand to ‘open’ the algorithmic black box, to audit, expound, and demystify artificial intelligence. The opening of the algorithmic black box, however, cannot be seen only as an engineering challenge. In this article, I argue that only the sort of transparency that arises from critique—a method of theoretical examination that, by revealing pre-existing power structures, aims to challenge them—can help us produce technological systems that (...)
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  10. Granice Wykładni Prawa: Znaczenie Językowe Tekstu Prawnego Jako Granica Wykładni.Tomasz Spyra - 2006 - "Zakamycze".
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  11. The Normative Significance of Identifiability.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2019 - Ethics and Information Technology 21 (4):295-305.
    According to psychological research, people are more eager to help identified individuals than unidentified ones. This phenomenon significantly influences many important decisions, both individual and public, regarding, for example, vaccinations or the distribution of healthcare resources. This paper aims at presenting definitions of various levels of identifiability as well as a critical analysis of the main philosophical arguments regarding the normative significance of the identifiability effect, which refer to: (1) ex ante contractualism; (2) fair distribution of chances and risks; (3) (...)
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  12.  6
    Modal Boolean Connexive Logics: Semantics and Tableau Approach.Tomasz Jarmużek & Jacek Malinowski - 2019 - Bulletin of the Section of Logic 48 (3):213-243.
    In this paper we investigate Boolean connexive logics in a language with modal operators: □, ◊. In such logics, negation, conjunction, and disjunction behave in a classical, Boolean way. Only implication is non-classical. We construct these logics by mixing relating semantics with possible worlds. This way, we obtain connexive counterparts of basic normal modal logics. However, most of their traditional axioms formulated in terms of modalities and implication do not hold anymore without additional constraints, since our implication is weaker than (...)
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  13.  22
    Remarks on Discussive Propositional Calculus.Tomasz Furmanowski - 1975 - Studia Logica 34 (1):39 - 43.
  14. Moral Uncertainty in Bioethical Argumentation: A New Understanding of the Pro-Life View on Early Human Embryos.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2014 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (6):441-457.
    In this article, I present a new interpretation of the pro-life view on the status of early human embryos. In my understanding, this position is based not on presumptions about the ontological status of embryos and their developmental capabilities but on the specific criteria of rational decisions under uncertainty and on a cautious response to the ambiguous status of embryos. This view, which uses the decision theory model of moral reasoning, promises to reconcile the uncertainty about the ontological status of (...)
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  15.  20
    Normality: a Two-Faced Concept.Tomasz Wysocki - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (4):689-716.
    Consider how we evaluate how normal an object is. On the dual-nature hypothesis, a normality evaluation depends on the object’s goodness and frequency. On the single-nature hypothesis, the evaluation depends solely on either frequency or goodness. To assess these hypotheses, I ran four experiments. Study 1 shows that normality evaluations vary with both the goodness and the frequency assessment of the object. Study 2 shows that manipulating the goodness and the frequency dimension changes the normality evaluation. Yet, neither experiment rules (...)
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  16. Which Causes of an Experience Are Also Objects of the Experience?Tomasz Budek & Katalin Farkas - 2014 - In Berit Brogaard (ed.), Does Perception Have Content? Oxford University Press. pp. 351-370.
    It is part of the phenomenology of perceptual experiences that objects seem to be presented to us. The first guide to objects is their perceptual presence. Further reflection shows that we take the objects of our perceptual experiences to be among the causes of our experiences. However, not all causes of the experience are also objects of the experience. This raises the question indicated in the title of this paper. We argue that taking phenomenal presence as the guide to the (...)
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  17.  48
    Dissecting Weak Discernibility of Quanta.Tomasz Bigaj - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 50:43-53.
  18. Problem Niedookreślenia Teorii Przez Dane Doświadczenia.Tomasz Rzepiński - 2006 - Wydawn. Naukowe Instytutu Filozofii Uniwersytetu Im. Adama Mickiewicza.
  19. Argument z niepewności normatywnej a etyczna ocena badań naukowych wykorzystujących ludzkie embriony.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2012 - Diametros 32:131-159.
    Konserwatywni przeciwnicy prowadzenia badań naukowych na ludzkich embrionach argumentują, że od momentu poczęcia mają one status moralny równy statusowi ludzi dorosłych: zarodki mają takie samo prawo do życia jak dorośli. W artykule przedstawiam oryginalną argumentację za tym stanowiskiem, której źródła można znaleźć w XVII-wiecznej teologii moralnej i współczesnej teorii decyzji. Argumentacja ta nie odwołuje się do statusu ontologicznego embrionów, ale do pewnego typu rozumowania praktycznego na temat tego, co należy robić w rozmaitych sytuacjach niepewności. Na pierwszy rzut oka wydaje się (...)
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  20.  2
    Proposal and Comparison of Network Anomaly Detection Based on Long-Memory Statistical Models.Tomasz Andrysiak, Łukasz Saganowski, Michał Choraś & Rafał Kozik - 2016 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 24 (6):944-956.
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  21.  20
    Computational Enactivism Under the Free Energy Principle.Tomasz Korbak - 2019 - Synthese 198 (3):2743-2763.
    In this paper, I argue that enactivism and computationalism—two seemingly incompatible research traditions in modern cognitive science—can be fruitfully reconciled under the framework of the free energy principle. FEP holds that cognitive systems encode generative models of their niches and cognition can be understood in terms of minimizing the free energy of these models. There are two philosophical interpretations of this picture. A computationalist will argue that as FEP claims that Bayesian inference underpins both perception and action, it entails a (...)
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  22.  33
    Knowledge Argument Versus Bundle Theory According to Derek Parfit.Tomasz Huzarek - 2017 - Scientia et Fides 5 (2):237-250.
    According to constitutive reductionism of Derek Parfit, a subject/person is not a separate existing being but his existence consists in the existence of a brain and body, performance of actions, thinking and occurrence of other physical and mental events. The identity of the subject in time comes down only to “Relation R” - mental consistency and/or connectedness – elicited by appropriate reasons. In the following article, I will try, relying on Frank Johnson's Knowledge Argument, to argue in favour of the (...)
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  23.  25
    Metacognitive Model of Mindfulness.Tomasz Jankowski & Pawel Holas - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 28:64-80.
  24.  9
    How to Justify the Symmetrization Postulate in Quantum Mechanics.Tomasz Bigaj - forthcoming - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie:1-19.
    The aim of this paper is to reconstruct and correct one argument in support of the symmetrization postulate in quantum mechanics. I identify the central premise of the argument as a thesis specifying a particular ontic property of quantum superpositions. The precise form of this thesis depends on some underlying assumptions of a metaphysical character. I compare the exchange degeneracy argument with alternative formal arguments for the symmetrization postulate, and I discuss the role and meaning of labels in the symmetric/antisymmetric (...)
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  25. Is Nature Deterministic? A Branching Perspective on Epr Phenomena.Tomasz Placek - 2000
     
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  26. Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and Rational Choice Under Risk or Uncertainty.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (11):774-778.
    In this paper I present an argument in favour of a parental duty to use preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). I argue that if embryos created in vitro were able to decide for themselves in a rational manner, they would sometimes choose PGD as a method of selection. Couples, therefore, should respect their hypothetical choices on a principle similar to that of patient autonomy. My thesis shows that no matter which moral doctrine couples subscribe to, they ought to conduct the PGD (...)
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  27.  9
    To Pay or Not to Pay? Business Owners’ Tax Morale: Testing a Neo-Institutional Framework in a Transition Environment.Tomasz Mickiewicz, Anna Rebmann & Arnis Sauka - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 157 (1):75-93.
    In order to understand how the environment influences business owner/managers’ attitudes towards tax morale, we build a theoretical model based on a neo-institutionalist framework. Our model combines three complementary perspectives on institutions—normative, cultural–cognitive and regulatory–instrumental. This enables a broader understanding of factors that influence business owner–managers’ attitudes towards tax evasion. We test the resulting hypotheses using regression analysis on survey data on business owner/managers in Latvia—a transition country, which has undergone massive institutional changes since it was part of the Soviet (...)
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  28.  85
    On Discernibility and Symmetries.Tomasz Bigaj - 2015 - Erkenntnis 80 (1):117-135.
    This paper addresses the issue of the multiplicity of various grades of discernibility that can be defined in model theory. Building upon earlier works on the subject, I first expand the known logical categorizations of discernibility by introducing several symmetry-based concepts of discernibility, including one I call “witness symmetry-discernibility”. Then I argue that only grades of discernibility stronger than this one possess certain intuitive features necessary to individuate objects. Further downsizing of the set of non-equivalent grades of discernibility can be (...)
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  29.  5
    What Ever Happened to My Peace of Mind? Hag Horror as Narrative of Trauma.Tomasz Fisiak - 2019 - Text Matters - a Journal of Literature, Theory and Culture 9 (9):316-327.
    In his pioneering study of Grande Dame Guignol, a female-centric 1960s subgenre of horror film, Peter Shelley explains that the grande dame, a stock character in this form of cinematic expression, “may pine for a lost youth and glory, or she may be trapped by idealized memories of childhood, with a trauma that haunts her past”. Indeed, a typical Grande Dame Guignol female protagonist/antagonist usually deals with various kinds of traumatic experiences: loss of a child, domestic violence, childhood abuse, family (...)
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  30.  65
    A Refutation Theory.Tomasz Skura - 2009 - Logica Universalis 3 (2):293-302.
    A general theory of refutation systems is given. Some applications (concerning maximality and minimality in lattices of logics) are also discussed.
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  31. Uzasadnienie Sprzeciwu Sumienia: Lekarze, Poborowi I Żołnierze.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2016 - Diametros 47:98-128.
    I will argue that physicians have an ethical obligation to justify their conscientious objection and the most reliable interpretation of the Polish legal framework claims that conscientious objection is permissible only when the justification shows the genuineness of the judgment of conscience that is not based on false beliefs and arises from a moral norm that has a high rank. I will demonstrate that the dogma accepted in the Polish doctrine that the reasons that lie behind conscientious objection in medicine (...)
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  32.  31
    Are Field Quanta Real Objects? Some Remarks on the Ontology of Quantum Field Theory.Tomasz Bigaj - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 62:145-157.
  33. Tomasz Mróz. Selected Issues in the History of Polish Philosophy.Carl Humphries - 2017 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 21 (2):251-254.
    This article reviews the book Selected Issues in the History of Polish Philosophy, by Tomasz Mróz.
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  34.  16
    On Discernibility in Symmetric Languages: The Case of Quantum Particles.Tomasz Bigaj - 2020 - Synthese 198 (9):8485-8502.
    In this paper I consider the question of whether absolute discernibility is attainable in symmetric languages. Simon Saunders has proven that all facts expressible in first-order language with identity can be equivalently stated within its symmetric sublanguage. I use this result to show specifically how particles of the same type can be absolutely discerned in the permutation-invariant language of the quantum theory of many particles.
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  35. Meta-Reasoning in Making Moral Decisions Under Normative Uncertainty.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2016 - In Dima Mohammed & Marcin Lewiński (eds.), Argumentation and Reasoned Action. College Publications. pp. 1093-1104.
    I analyze recent discussions about making moral decisions under normative uncertainty. I discuss whether this kind of uncertainty should have practical consequences for decisions and whether there are reliable methods of reasoning that deal with the possibility that we are wrong about some moral issues. I defend a limited use of the decision theory model of reasoning in cases of normative uncertainty.
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  36.  6
    Ethical Review of Animal Research and the Standards of Procedural Justice: A European Perspective.Tomasz Pietrzykowski - 2021 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 18 (3):525-534.
    Committees established for the ethical review of research involving animals have become a widespread legal standard around the world. Despite many differences in their composition, powers, and institutional settings, they share many common problems related to the well-established standards of procedural justice in administrative practice. The paper adapts the general theory of procedural justice to the specific context of ethical review committees. From this perspective, the main concerns over the procedural aspects of the ethical evaluation of research projects are identified (...)
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  37. On Infinite EPR-Like Correlations.Tomasz Placek & Leszek Wroński - 2009 - Synthese 167 (1):1-32.
    The paper investigates, in the framework of branching space–times, whether an infinite EPR-like correlation which does not involve finite EPR-like correlations is possible.
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  38.  10
    A System for Proper Multiple-Conclusion Entailment.Tomasz Skura & Andrzej Wiśniewski - 2015 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 24 (2).
  39. Summa Teologii, kwestia I (z komentarzem Mikołaja Olszewskiego).Tomasz Z. Akwinu - 1995 - Principia.
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  40.  25
    Against the Precautionary Approach to Moral Status: The Case of Surrogates for Living Human Brains.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (1):53-56.
    My paper builds on the conceptual tools from three interrelated philosophical debates that—as I believe—may help structure important if chaotic discussions about surrogates for living human brains and resolve some practical issues related to regulatory matters. In particular, I refer to the discussions about the “moral precautionary principle” in research ethics (Koplin and Wilkinson 2019); about normative uncertainty in ethics (MacAskill, Bykvist, and Ord 2020), and about the inductive risk problem for animal welfare scientists (Birch 2018). I elucidate upon the (...)
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  41.  25
    Twierdzenie Bayesa w projektowaniu strategii diagnostycznych w medycynie.Tomasz Rzepiński - 2018 - Diametros 57:39-60.
    The paper will compare two methods used in the design of diagnostic strategies. The first one is a method that precises predictive value of diagnostic tests. The second one is based on the use of Bayes’ theorem. The main aim of this article is to identify the epistemological assumptions underlying both of these methods. For the purpose of this objective, example projects of one and multi-stage diagnostic strategy developed using both methods will be considered.
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  42.  4
    Metaphysics in Contemporary Physics.Tomasz Bigaj & Christian Wüthrich (eds.) - 2015 - Brill | Rodopi.
    The book _Metaphysics in Contemporary Physics_ offers various perspectives on the relation and mutual influence between modern physical theories and analytic metaphysics.
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  43.  6
    Tableaux for Logics of Content Relationship and Set-Assignment Semantics.Tomasz Jarmużek & Mateusz Klonowski - 2022 - Logica Universalis 16 (1-3):195-219.
    In the paper, we examine tableau systems for R. Epstein’s logics of content relationship: D (Dependence Logic), DD (Dual Dependence Logic), Eq (Logic of Equality of Content), S (Symmetric Relatedness Logic) and R (Nonsymmetric Relatedness Logic) (cf. Epstein in Philos Stud 36:137–173, 1979, Epstein in Rep. Math. Logic 21:19–34, 1987, Klonowski in Logic Log Philos 30(4):579–629, 2021, Krajewski in J Non Class Logic 8:7–33, 1991). The first tableau systems for those logics were defined by Carnielli. However, his approach has some (...)
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  44.  35
    Counterfactuals and Historical Possibility.Tomasz Placek & Thomas Müller - 2007 - Synthese 154 (2):173-197.
    We show that truth conditions for counterfactuals need not always be given in terms of a vague notion of similarity. To this end, we single out the important class of historical counterfactuals and give formally rigorous truth conditions for these counterfactuals, employing a partial ordering relation called "comparative closeness" that is defined in the framework of branching space-times. Among other applications, we provide a detailed analysis of counterfactuals uttered in the context of lost bets. In an appendix we compare our (...)
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  45.  7
    Timeless Radcliffe: A Review of Ann Radcliffe, Romanticism and the Gothic. [REVIEW]Tomasz Fisiak - 2016 - Text Matters - a Journal of Literature, Theory and Culture 6 (1):293-328.
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  46.  54
    Semiotics of Identity: Politics and Education.Tomasz Szkudlarek - 2011 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 30 (2):113-125.
    In this text I concentrate on semiotic aspects of the theory of political identity in the work of Ernesto Laclau, and especially on the connection between metaphors, metonymies, catachreses and synecdoches. Those tropes are of ontological status, and therefore they are of key importance in understanding the discursive “production” of identity in political and educational practices. I use the conceptions of both Laclau and Eco to elucidate the operation of this structure, and illustrate it with an example of the emergence (...)
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  47.  18
    On Some Troubles with the Metaphysics of Fermionic Compositions.Tomasz Bigaj - 2016 - Foundations of Physics 46 (9):1168-1184.
    In this paper I discuss some metaphysical consequences of an unorthodox approach to the problem of the identity and individuality of “indistinguishable” quantum particles. This approach is based on the assumption that the only admissible way of individuating separate components of a given system is with the help of the permutation-invariant qualitative properties of the total system. Such a method of individuation, when applied to fermionic compositions occupying so-called GMW-nonentangled states, yields highly implausible consequences regarding the number of distinct components (...)
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  48.  10
    The Research Potential of Educational Theory: On the Specific Characteristics of the Issues of Education.Tomasz Leś - 2017 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 49 (14):1428-1440.
    In this article, I present the argument that educational theory has specific character, which distinguishes it from most scientific disciplines. It requires the application of not only strictly scientific methods, which essentially consist of descriptions and explanations, but also normative ones, which indicate how it is related to philosophy and ethics. Its essential connections with philosophy and ethics cause that clear and final thesis are actually impossible to claim, but from the other hand, it is the only discipline which, according (...)
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  49.  16
    Exchanging Quantum Particles.Tomasz Bigaj - 2015 - Philosophia Scientae 19:185-198.
  50.  9
    Refutation Calculi for Certain Intermediate Propositional Logics.Tomasz Skura - 1992 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 33 (4):552-560.
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