Results for 'Tomasz ��urek'

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  1. Tomasz Mróz, Wincenty Lutosławski 1863-1954. Jestem obywatelem utopii.Tomasz Skrzyński - 2009 - Ruch Filozoficzny 66 (2).
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  2. Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and Rational Choice Under Risk or Uncertainty.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (11):774-778.
    In this paper I present an argument in favour of a parental duty to use preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). I argue that if embryos created in vitro were able to decide for themselves in a rational manner, they would sometimes choose PGD as a method of selection. Couples, therefore, should respect their hypothetical choices on a principle similar to that of patient autonomy. My thesis shows that no matter which moral doctrine couples subscribe to, they ought to conduct the PGD (...)
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  3. Which Causes of an Experience Are Also Objects of the Experience?Tomasz Budek & Katalin Farkas - 2014 - In Berit Brogaard (ed.), Does Perception Have Content? Oxford University Press. pp. 351-370.
    It is part of the phenomenology of perceptual experiences that objects seem to be presented to us. The first guide to objects is their perceptual presence. Further reflection shows that we take the objects of our perceptual experiences to be among the causes of our experiences. However, not all causes of the experience are also objects of the experience. This raises the question indicated in the title of this paper. We argue that taking phenomenal presence as the guide to the (...)
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  4.  45
    Dissecting Weak Discernibility of Quanta.Tomasz Bigaj - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 50:43-53.
  5. Moral Uncertainty in Bioethical Argumentation: A New Understanding of the Pro-Life View on Early Human Embryos.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2014 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (6):441-457.
    In this article, I present a new interpretation of the pro-life view on the status of early human embryos. In my understanding, this position is based not on presumptions about the ontological status of embryos and their developmental capabilities but on the specific criteria of rational decisions under uncertainty and on a cautious response to the ambiguous status of embryos. This view, which uses the decision theory model of moral reasoning, promises to reconcile the uncertainty about the ontological status of (...)
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  6.  23
    Metacognitive Model of Mindfulness.Tomasz Jankowski & Pawel Holas - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 28:64-80.
  7. The Normative Significance of Identifiability.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2019 - Ethics and Information Technology 21 (4):295-305.
    According to psychological research, people are more eager to help identified individuals than unidentified ones. This phenomenon significantly influences many important decisions, both individual and public, regarding, for example, vaccinations or the distribution of healthcare resources. This paper aims at presenting definitions of various levels of identifiability as well as a critical analysis of the main philosophical arguments regarding the normative significance of the identifiability effect, which refer to: (1) ex ante contractualism; (2) fair distribution of chances and risks; (3) (...)
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  8.  9
    Why Can’T We Just Ask? The Influence of Research Methods on Results. The Case of the “Bystander Effect”.Tomasz Grzyb - 2016 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 47 (2):233-235.
    The article discusses the issue of the departure from examining real behaviours in a real environment, a trend in social psychology which has been observed going back several years, and the impact of this phenomenon for social psychology as a scientific discipline. The article presents two studies on the well-known and explored “bystander effect”. This phenomenon is examined in two ways – once by way of a “traditional” field experiment conducted in natural conditions, and once through a survey. As it (...)
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  9.  9
    To Pay or Not to Pay? Business Owners’ Tax Morale: Testing a Neo-Institutional Framework in a Transition Environment.Tomasz Mickiewicz, Anna Rebmann & Arnis Sauka - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 157 (1):75-93.
    In order to understand how the environment influences business owner/managers’ attitudes towards tax morale, we build a theoretical model based on a neo-institutionalist framework. Our model combines three complementary perspectives on institutions—normative, cultural–cognitive and regulatory–instrumental. This enables a broader understanding of factors that influence business owner–managers’ attitudes towards tax evasion. We test the resulting hypotheses using regression analysis on survey data on business owner/managers in Latvia—a transition country, which has undergone massive institutional changes since it was part of the Soviet (...)
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  10. Argument z niepewności normatywnej a etyczna ocena badań naukowych wykorzystujących ludzkie embriony.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2012 - Diametros 32:131-159.
    Konserwatywni przeciwnicy prowadzenia badań naukowych na ludzkich embrionach argumentują, że od momentu poczęcia mają one status moralny równy statusowi ludzi dorosłych: zarodki mają takie samo prawo do życia jak dorośli. W artykule przedstawiam oryginalną argumentację za tym stanowiskiem, której źródła można znaleźć w XVII-wiecznej teologii moralnej i współczesnej teorii decyzji. Argumentacja ta nie odwołuje się do statusu ontologicznego embrionów, ale do pewnego typu rozumowania praktycznego na temat tego, co należy robić w rozmaitych sytuacjach niepewności. Na pierwszy rzut oka wydaje się (...)
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  11.  31
    Are Field Quanta Real Objects? Some Remarks on the Ontology of Quantum Field Theory.Tomasz Bigaj - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 62:145-157.
  12.  16
    Normality: a Two-Faced Concept.Tomasz Wysocki - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (4):689-716.
    Consider how we evaluate how normal an object is. On the dual-nature hypothesis, a normality evaluation depends on the object’s goodness and frequency. On the single-nature hypothesis, the evaluation depends solely on either frequency or goodness. To assess these hypotheses, I ran four experiments. Study 1 shows that normality evaluations vary with both the goodness and the frequency assessment of the object. Study 2 shows that manipulating the goodness and the frequency dimension changes the normality evaluation. Yet, neither experiment rules (...)
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  13. On Infinite EPR-Like Correlations.Tomasz Placek & Leszek Wroński - 2009 - Synthese 167 (1):1-32.
    The paper investigates, in the framework of branching space–times, whether an infinite EPR-like correlation which does not involve finite EPR-like correlations is possible.
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  14.  25
    Twierdzenie Bayesa w projektowaniu strategii diagnostycznych w medycynie.Tomasz Rzepiński - 2018 - Diametros 57:39-60.
    The paper will compare two methods used in the design of diagnostic strategies. The first one is a method that precises predictive value of diagnostic tests. The second one is based on the use of Bayes’ theorem. The main aim of this article is to identify the epistemological assumptions underlying both of these methods. For the purpose of this objective, example projects of one and multi-stage diagnostic strategy developed using both methods will be considered.
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  15.  83
    On Discernibility and Symmetries.Tomasz Bigaj - 2015 - Erkenntnis 80 (1):117-135.
    This paper addresses the issue of the multiplicity of various grades of discernibility that can be defined in model theory. Building upon earlier works on the subject, I first expand the known logical categorizations of discernibility by introducing several symmetry-based concepts of discernibility, including one I call “witness symmetry-discernibility”. Then I argue that only grades of discernibility stronger than this one possess certain intuitive features necessary to individuate objects. Further downsizing of the set of non-equivalent grades of discernibility can be (...)
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  16.  17
    On Some Troubles with the Metaphysics of Fermionic Compositions.Tomasz Bigaj - 2016 - Foundations of Physics 46 (9):1168-1184.
    In this paper I discuss some metaphysical consequences of an unorthodox approach to the problem of the identity and individuality of “indistinguishable” quantum particles. This approach is based on the assumption that the only admissible way of individuating separate components of a given system is with the help of the permutation-invariant qualitative properties of the total system. Such a method of individuation, when applied to fermionic compositions occupying so-called GMW-nonentangled states, yields highly implausible consequences regarding the number of distinct components (...)
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  17.  7
    How to Justify the Symmetrization Postulate in Quantum Mechanics.Tomasz Bigaj - forthcoming - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie:1-19.
    The aim of this paper is to reconstruct and correct one argument in support of the symmetrization postulate in quantum mechanics. I identify the central premise of the argument as a thesis specifying a particular ontic property of quantum superpositions. The precise form of this thesis depends on some underlying assumptions of a metaphysical character. I compare the exchange degeneracy argument with alternative formal arguments for the symmetrization postulate, and I discuss the role and meaning of labels in the symmetric/antisymmetric (...)
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  18.  14
    Exchanging Quantum Particles.Tomasz Bigaj - 2015 - Philosophia Scientae 19:185-198.
  19.  86
    Possibilities Without Possible Worlds/Histories.Tomasz Placek - 2011 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (6):737-765.
    The paper puts forward a theory of historical modalities that is framed in terms of possible continuations rather than possible worlds or histories. The proposal is tested as a semantic theory for a language with historical modalities, tenses, and indexicals.
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  20.  21
    Remarks on Discussive Propositional Calculus.Tomasz Furmanowski - 1975 - Studia Logica 34 (1):39 - 43.
  21. Stochastic Outcomes in Branching Space-Time: Analysis of Bell's Theorem.Tomasz Placek - 2000 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (3):445-475.
    The paper extends the framework of outcomes in branching space-time (Kowalski and Placek [1999]) by assigning probabilities to outcomes of events, where these probabilities are interpreted either epistemically or as weighted possibilities. In resulting models I define the notion of common cause of correlated outcomes of a single event, and investigate which setups allow for the introduction of common causes. It turns out that a deterministic common cause can always be introduced, but (surprisingly) only special setups permit the introduction of (...)
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  22. Uzasadnienie Sprzeciwu Sumienia: Lekarze, Poborowi I Żołnierze.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2016 - Diametros 47:98-128.
    I will argue that physicians have an ethical obligation to justify their conscientious objection and the most reliable interpretation of the Polish legal framework claims that conscientious objection is permissible only when the justification shows the genuineness of the judgment of conscience that is not based on false beliefs and arises from a moral norm that has a high rank. I will demonstrate that the dogma accepted in the Polish doctrine that the reasons that lie behind conscientious objection in medicine (...)
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  23.  56
    Laplace’s Demon Tries on Aristotle’s Cloak: On Two Approaches to Determinism.Tomasz Placek - 2019 - Synthese 196 (1):11-30.
    The paper describes two approaches to determinism: one focuses on the features of global objects, such as possible worlds or models of a theory, whereas the other’s concern is the possible behaviour of individual objects. It then gives an outline of an individuals-based analysis of the determinism of theories. Finally, a general relativistic spacetime with non-isometric extensions is described and used to illustrate a conflict between the two approaches: this spacetime is indeterministic by the first approach but deterministic by the (...)
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  24.  50
    On Topological Issues of Indeterminism.Tomasz Placek, Nuel Belnap & Kohei Kishida - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (S3):1-34.
    Indeterminism, understood as a notion that an event may be continued in a few alternative ways, invokes the question what a region of chanciness looks like. We concern ourselves with its topological and spatiotemporal aspects, abstracting from the nature or mechanism of chancy processes. We first argue that the question arises in Montague-Lewis-Earman conceptualization of indeterminism as well as in the branching tradition of Prior, Thomason and Belnap. As the resources of the former school are not rich enough to study (...)
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  25.  33
    Counterfactuals and Historical Possibility.Tomasz Placek & Thomas Müller - 2007 - Synthese 154 (2):173-197.
    We show that truth conditions for counterfactuals need not always be given in terms of a vague notion of similarity. To this end, we single out the important class of historical counterfactuals and give formally rigorous truth conditions for these counterfactuals, employing a partial ordering relation called "comparative closeness" that is defined in the framework of branching space-times. Among other applications, we provide a detailed analysis of counterfactuals uttered in the context of lost bets. In an appendix we compare our (...)
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  26.  64
    A Refutation Theory.Tomasz Skura - 2009 - Logica Universalis 3 (2):293-302.
    A general theory of refutation systems is given. Some applications (concerning maximality and minimality in lattices of logics) are also discussed.
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  27.  93
    Ungrounded Dispositions in Quantum Mechanics.Tomasz Bigaj - 2012 - Foundations of Science 17 (3):205-221.
    General metaphysical arguments have been proposed in favour of the thesis that all dispositions have categorical bases (Armstrong; Prior, Pargetter, Jackson). These arguments have been countered by equally general arguments in support of ungrounded dispositions (Molnar, Mumford). I believe that this controversy cannot be settled purely on the level of abstract metaphysical considerations. Instead, I propose to look for ungrounded dispositions in specific physical theories, such as quantum mechanics. I explain why non-classical properties such as spin are best interpreted as (...)
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  28.  20
    Computational Enactivism Under the Free Energy Principle.Tomasz Korbak - 2019 - Synthese 198 (3):2743-2763.
    In this paper, I argue that enactivism and computationalism—two seemingly incompatible research traditions in modern cognitive science—can be fruitfully reconciled under the framework of the free energy principle. FEP holds that cognitive systems encode generative models of their niches and cognition can be understood in terms of minimizing the free energy of these models. There are two philosophical interpretations of this picture. A computationalist will argue that as FEP claims that Bayesian inference underpins both perception and action, it entails a (...)
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  29.  15
    Bayesian Propositional Logic.Tomasz Jarmużek, Mateusz Klonowski & Jacek Malinowski - 2017 - Bulletin of the Section of Logic 46 (3/4).
    We define and investigate from a logical point of view a family of consequence relations defined in probabilistic terms. We call them relations of supporting, and write: |≈w where w is a probability function on a Boolean language. A |≈w B iff the fact that A is the case does not decrease a probability of being B the case. Finally, we examine the intersection of |≈w, for all w, and give some formal properties of it.
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  30.  6
    Modal Boolean Connexive Logics: Semantics and Tableau Approach.Tomasz Jarmużek & Jacek Malinowski - 2019 - Bulletin of the Section of Logic 48 (3):213-243.
    In this paper we investigate Boolean connexive logics in a language with modal operators: □, ◊. In such logics, negation, conjunction, and disjunction behave in a classical, Boolean way. Only implication is non-classical. We construct these logics by mixing relating semantics with possible worlds. This way, we obtain connexive counterparts of basic normal modal logics. However, most of their traditional axioms formulated in terms of modalities and implication do not hold anymore without additional constraints, since our implication is weaker than (...)
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  31.  12
    Beliefs About Obedience Levels in Studies Conducted Within the Milgram Paradigm: Better Than Average Effect and Comparisons of Typical Behaviors by Residents of Various Nations.Tomasz Grzyb & Dariusz Dolinski - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  32.  80
    Counterfactuals and Spatiotemporal Events.Tomasz Bigaj - 2004 - Synthese 142 (1):1-19.
    One of the basic assumptions of David Lewis's formal semantics of counterfactuals is that the crucial relation of comparative similarity between possible worlds is a linear ordering.Yet there are arguments that when we take into account relativistic features of space-time, this relationshould be only a partial ordering. The first part of the paper deals with the question of how to formulate appropriatetruth conditions for counterfactuals under the supposition of a partial ordering of possible worlds. Such truthconditions will be put forward, (...)
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  33.  6
    Ethical Review of Animal Research and the Standards of Procedural Justice: A European Perspective.Tomasz Pietrzykowski - 2021 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 18 (3):525-534.
    Committees established for the ethical review of research involving animals have become a widespread legal standard around the world. Despite many differences in their composition, powers, and institutional settings, they share many common problems related to the well-established standards of procedural justice in administrative practice. The paper adapts the general theory of procedural justice to the specific context of ethical review committees. From this perspective, the main concerns over the procedural aspects of the ethical evaluation of research projects are identified (...)
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  34.  24
    Non-Locality and Modality.Tomasz Placek & Jeremy Butterfield (eds.) - 2002 - Dordrecht and Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    Its interpretation, however, is as unsettled now as in the heroic days of Einstein and Bohr.This book focuses on quantum non-locality, the curious quantum ...
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  35.  17
    Classically Archetypal Rules.Tomasz Połacik & Lloyd Humberstone - 2018 - Review of Symbolic Logic 11 (2):279-294.
    A one-premiss rule is said to be archetypal for a consequence relation when not only is the conclusion of any application of the rule a consequence of the premiss, but whenever one formula has another as a consequence, these formulas are respectively equivalent to a premiss and a conclusion of some application of the rule. We are concerned here with the consequence relation of classical propositional logic and with the task of extending the above notion of archetypality to rules with (...)
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  36.  91
    Non-Locality and Possible Worlds: A Counterfactual Perspective on Quantum Entanglement.Tomasz Bigaj - 2006 - Ontos Verlag.
    This book uses the formal semantics of counterfactual conditionals to analyze the problem of non-locality in quantum mechanics. Counterfactual conditionals enter the analysis of quantum entangled systems in that they enable us to precisely formulate the locality condition that purports to exclude the existence of causal interactions between spatially separated parts of a system. They also make it possible to speak consistently about alternative measuring settings, and to explicate what is meant by quantum property attributions. The book develops the possible-world (...)
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  37.  11
    On Discernibility in Symmetric Languages: The Case of Quantum Particles.Tomasz Bigaj - 2020 - Synthese 198 (9):8485-8502.
    In this paper I consider the question of whether absolute discernibility is attainable in symmetric languages. Simon Saunders has proven that all facts expressible in first-order language with identity can be equivalently stated within its symmetric sublanguage. I use this result to show specifically how particles of the same type can be absolutely discerned in the permutation-invariant language of the quantum theory of many particles.
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  38.  10
    A System for Proper Multiple-Conclusion Entailment.Tomasz Skura & Andrzej Wiśniewski - 2015 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 24 (2).
  39.  40
    Perception of Palliative Care and Euthanasia Among Recently Graduated and Experienced Nurses.Tomasz Brzostek, Wim Dekkers, Zbigniew Zalewski, Anna Januszewska & Maciej Górkiewicz - 2008 - Nursing Ethics 15 (6):761-776.
    Palliative care and euthanasia have become the subject of ethical and political debate in Poland. However, the voice of nurses is rarely heard. The aim of this study is to explore the perception of palliative care and euthanasia among recent university bachelor degree graduates and experienced nurses in Poland. Specific objectives include: self-assessment of the understanding of these terms, recognition of clinical cases, potential acceptability of euthanasia, and an evaluation of attitudes towards palliative care and euthanasia. This is an exploratory (...)
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  40.  52
    Semiotics of Identity: Politics and Education.Tomasz Szkudlarek - 2011 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 30 (2):113-125.
    In this text I concentrate on semiotic aspects of the theory of political identity in the work of Ernesto Laclau, and especially on the connection between metaphors, metonymies, catachreses and synecdoches. Those tropes are of ontological status, and therefore they are of key importance in understanding the discursive “production” of identity in political and educational practices. I use the conceptions of both Laclau and Eco to elucidate the operation of this structure, and illustrate it with an example of the emergence (...)
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  41.  13
    On Regular Groups and Fields.Tomasz Gogacz & Krzysztof Krupiński - 2014 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 79 (3):826-844.
    Regular groups and fields are common generalizations of minimal and quasi-minimal groups and fields, so the conjectures that minimal or quasi-minimal fields are algebraically closed have their common generalization to the conjecture that each regular field is algebraically closed. Standard arguments show that a generically stable regular field is algebraically closed. LetKbe a regular field which is not generically stable and letpbe its global generic type. We observe that ifKhas a finite extensionLof degreen, thenPhas unbounded orbit under the action of (...)
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  42.  8
    Letters of Bertrand Russell and Wincenty Lutosławski on Immortality, Matter and Plato.Tomasz Mróz - 2020 - Russell: The Journal of Bertrand Russell Studies 40:27-42.
    Wincenty Lutosławski was internationally recognized in the academic world as a prominent Plato scholar. His fragmentary correspondence with Bertrand Russell is presented in this paper. Before World War II he initiated an exchange of letters with Russell on issues such as reincarnation, but the replies he received were laconic and discouraging. This changed, however, after the war when Russell published his History of Western Philosophy. Despite their different philosophical positions, Lutosławski’s opinion on this work as a whole was favourable, in (...)
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  43.  34
    Complexity of Networks II: The Set Complexity of Edge‐Colored Graphs.Tomasz M. Ignac, Nikita A. Sakhanenko & David J. Galas - 2012 - Complexity 17 (5):23-36.
  44.  10
    Equivalence Relations Invariant Under Group Actions.Tomasz Rzepecki - 2018 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 83 (2):683-702.
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  45.  41
    Robert Post’s Theory of Freedom of Speech: A Critique of the Reductive Conception of Political Liberty.Tomasz Jarymowicz - 2014 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 40 (1):107-123.
    Deliberative democracy’s approach with its emphasis on a multidimensional conception of freedom is very well suited to offer a sophisticated and critical account of freedom of speech in the democratic public sphere. Nevertheless, it has rarely engaged other competing free speech theories in order to offer a valuable social critique of other ways of thinking about freedom of expression. This article tries to fill this gap by critically engaging Robert Post’s theory of freedom of speech based on democratic self-government. On (...)
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  46.  85
    The Preference Toward Identified Victims and Rescue Duties.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (2):25-27.
    Jeremy R. Garrett claims that the nature and scope of our rescue duties cannot be properly understood and addressed without reference to social context or institutional background conditions. In my comment I focus not on social or institutional but on psychological background conditions that are also necessary for the conceptualization of rescue cases. These additional conditions are of crucial importance since an entire paradigm of “rescue medicine” is founded, as Garret notices, on the powerful and immediate “impulse to rescue” (Garrett (...)
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  47. Metaphysics in Contemporary Physics.Tomasz Bigaj & Christian Wüthrich (eds.) - 2015 - Brill | Rodopi.
    The book _Metaphysics in Contemporary Physics_ offers various perspectives on the relation and mutual influence between modern physical theories and analytic metaphysics.
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  48.  33
    Knowledge Argument Versus Bundle Theory According to Derek Parfit.Tomasz Huzarek - 2017 - Scientia et Fides 5 (2):237-250.
    According to constitutive reductionism of Derek Parfit, a subject/person is not a separate existing being but his existence consists in the existence of a brain and body, performance of actions, thinking and occurrence of other physical and mental events. The identity of the subject in time comes down only to “Relation R” - mental consistency and/or connectedness – elicited by appropriate reasons. In the following article, I will try, relying on Frank Johnson's Knowledge Argument, to argue in favour of the (...)
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  49.  16
    Mathematical Intuitionism and Intersubjectivity. A Critical Exposition of Arguments for Intuitionism.Tomasz Placek - 1999 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 8 (4):518-520.
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  50.  94
    Quantum State Holism: A Case for Holistic Causation.Tomasz Placek - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 35 (4):671-692.
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