Results for 'Tong Sun'

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  1. Sun Zhengyu Zhe Xue Wen Ji.Zhengyu Sun - 2007 - Jinlin Ren Min Chu Ban She.
    v.1. zhe xue de mu guang -- v.2. shu ren de shi jie -- v.3. tan suo zhen shan mei -- v.4. chong gao de wei zhi -- v.5. zhe xue guan yan jiu -- v.6-7. bian zheng fa yan jiu -- v.8-9. zhe xue tong lun.
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  2.  18
    A Portrait of Nanomedicine and its Bioethical Implications.Rebecca M. Hall, Tong Sun & Mauro Ferrari - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):763-779.
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  3.  22
    A Portrait of Nanomedicine and Its Bioethical Implications.Rebecca M. Hall, Tong Sun & Mauro Ferrari - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):763-779.
    This review addresses the current and future potential of nanomedicine, and its ethical considerations within the comprehensive framework of the four dimensions of medical ethics: Beneficence, Non-Maleficence, Respect, and Justice. From this perspective, the ethical considerations for nanomedicine are not novel, but have been addressed by precedents throughout the history of medicine. While these ethical challenges are not unique to nanomedicine, some require additional consideration, given the envisioned pervasive impact of nanomedicine on society.
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  4.  5
    Evolution and Migration of Shale Facies and Their Control on Shale Gas: A Case Study From the Wufeng-Longmaxi Formations in the Sichuan Basin and its Surroundings.Zongquan Hu, Wei Du, Chuanxiang Sun, Jing Wu, Tong Zhu, Jianhua Zhao & Caina Yan - 2018 - Interpretation: SEG 6 (4):SN57-SN70.
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  5. International Workshop on Web-Based Internet Computing for Science and Engineering (ICSE 2006)-A Model of XML Access Control with Dual-Level Security Views.Wei Sun, Da-xin Liu & Tong Wang - 2006 - In O. Stock & M. Schaerf (eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer Verlag. pp. 3842--799.
     
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  6. Bian Jie Shang de Xing Zhe: Sun Zhouxing Xue Shu Sui Bi.Zhouxing Sun - 2011 - Shanghai Ren Min Chu Ban She.
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  7. Sun Bokui Zhe Xue Wen Cun =.Bokui Sun - 2010 - Jiangsu Ren Min Chu Ban She.
    v. 1. Tan suo zhe dao lu de tan suo -- v. 2. Lukaqi yu Makesi -- v. 3. Makesi zhu yi zhe xue ji ben wen ti yan jiu -- v. 4. Makesi zhu yi zhe xue jing dian wen xian yan jiu.
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  8. Sun Guohua Zi Xuan Ji.Guohua Sun - 2007 - Zhongguo Ren Min da Xue Chu Ban She.
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  9. Tong Qingbing Tan Wen Xue Guan Nian.Qingbing Tong - 2008 - Henan da Xue Chu Ban She.
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  10. Tong Qingbing Tan Shen Mei Xin Li.Qingbing Tong - 2008 - Henan da Xue Chu Ban She.
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  11. Sun Zhongshan Jian She Zhe Xue: Zhongguo Xian Dai Xi Tong Si Wei de Kai Qi Ji Yun Yong = the Constructive Philosophy of Sun Yat-Sen: The Outset and Application of the Modern Chinese Systematic Thinking.Mingtong Huang - 2006 - She Hui Ke Xue Wen Xian Chu Ban She.
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  12.  66
    Cognitive Architectures and Multi-Agent Social Simulation.Ron Sun - unknown
    As we know, a cognitive architecture is a domain-generic computational cognitive model that may be used for a broad analysis of cognition and behavior. Cognitive architectures embody theories of cognition in computer algorithms and programs. Social simulation with multi-agent systems can benefit from incorporating cognitive architectures, as they provide a realistic basis for modeling individual agents (as argued in Sun 2001). In this survey, an example cognitive architecture will be given, and its application to social simulation will be sketched.
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  13.  49
    The Symposium on the Synergy Between Implicit and Explicit Learning Processes.Robert Mathews & Ron Sun - unknown
    Implicit processes are thought to be relatively fast, inaccessible, holistic, and imprecise, while explicit processes are slow, accessible and precise (e.g., Reber, 1989, Sun 2002). This dichotomy is closely related to some other well-known dichotomies including symbolic versus subsymbolic processing (Rumelhart et al., 1986), conceptual versus subconceptual processing (Smolensky, 1988), and conscious versus unconscious processing (Jacoby et al., 1994). This dichotomy has been justified by extensive studies of implicit and explicit learning, implicit and explicit memory, and implicit versus explicit metacognition (...)
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  14.  38
    The Symposium on the Synergy Between Implicit and Explicit Learning Processes.Ron Sun - manuscript
    Implicit processes are thought to be relatively fast, inaccessible, holistic, and imprecise, while explicit processes are slow, accessible and precise (e.g., Reber, 1989, Sun 2002). This dichotomy is closely related to some other wellknown dichotomies including symbolic versus subsymbolic processing (Rumelhart et al., 1986), conceptual versus subconceptual processing (Smolensky, 1988), and conscious versus unconscious processing (Jacoby et al., 1994). This dichotomy has been justified by extensive studies of implicit and explicit learning, implicit and explicit memory, and implicit versus explicit metacognition (...)
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  15.  16
    EMAIL: Rsun@Cs.Ua.Edu.Ron Sun & Todd Peterson - unknown
    In developing autonomous agents, one usually emphasizes only (situated) procedural knowledge, ignoring more explicit declarative knowledge. On the other hand, in developing symbolic reasoning models, one usually emphasizes only declarative knowledge, ignoring procedural knowledge. In contrast, we have developed a learning model Clarion, which is a hybrid connectionist model consisting of both localist and distributed representations, based on the two-level approach proposed in Sun (1995). learns and utilizes both procedural and declarative knowledge, tapping into the synergy of..
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  16. Revenge of the Forbidden City: The Suppression of the Falungong in China, 1999-2008.James Tong - 2009 - Oup Usa.
    By 1999, the Falun Gong religious movement had spread widely and broadly throughout China. While on the surface its ideology of spiritual and physical cultivation did not seem threatening, the Chinese government felt otherwise. That year, the government cracked down hard on the movement, and its successful repression of it over a six year period is a textbook example of how the Chinese state operates in the face of perceived internal threats. Its success in containing the movement speaks volumes about (...)
     
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  17.  90
    Binocular Rivalry and Visual Awareness in Human Extrastriate Cortex.Frank Tong, K. Nakayama, J. T. Vaughan & Nancy Kanwisher - 1998 - Neuron 21:753-59.
  18.  64
    The Interaction of the Explicit and the Implicit in Skill Learning: A Dual-Process Approach.Ron Sun - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (1):159-192.
    This article explicates the interaction between implicit and explicit processes in skill learning, in contrast to the tendency of researchers to study each type in isolation. It highlights various effects of the interaction on learning (including synergy effects). The authors argue for an integrated model of skill learning that takes into account both implicit and explicit processes. Moreover, they argue for a bottom-up approach (first learning implicit knowledge and then explicit knowledge) in the integrated model. A variety of qualitative data (...)
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  19.  28
    Duality of the Mind.Ron Sun - manuscript
    Synthesizing situated cognition, reinforcement learning, and hybrid connectionist modeling, a generic cognitive architecture focused on situated involvement and interaction with the world is developed in this book. The architecture notably incorporates the distinction of implicit and explicit processes.
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  20.  65
    Incubation, Insight, and Creative Problem Solving: A Unified Theory and a Connectionist Model.Ron Sun - 2010 - Psychological Review 117 (3):994-1024.
    This article proposes a unified framework for understanding creative problem solving, namely, the explicit–implicit interaction theory. This new theory of creative problem solving constitutes an attempt at providing a more unified explanation of relevant phenomena (in part by reinterpreting/integrating various fragmentary existing theories of incubation and insight). The explicit–implicit interaction theory relies mainly on 5 basic principles, namely, (a) the coexistence of and the difference between explicit and implicit knowledge, (b) the simultaneous involvement of implicit and explicit processes in most (...)
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  21. Primary Visual Cortex and Visual Awareness.Frank Tong - 2003 - Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4 (3):219-229.
  22.  86
    Feminine and Feminist Ethics.Rosemarie Tong - 1995 - Social Philosophy Today 10:183-205.
  23.  47
    Motivational Representations Within a Computational Cognitive Architecture.Ron Sun - unknown
    This paper discusses essential motivational representations necessary for a comprehensive computational cognitive architecture. It hypothesizes the need for implicit drive representations, as well as explicit goal representations. Drive representations consist of primary drives — both low-level primary drives (concerned mostly with basic physiological needs) and high-level primary drives (concerned more with social needs), as well as derived (secondary) drives. On the basis of drives, explicit goals may be generated on the fly during an agent’s interaction with various situations. These motivational (...)
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  24. Chinese Auditors' Ethical Behavior in an Audit Conflict Situation.Ferdinand A. Gul, Andy Y. Ng & Marian Yew Jen Wu Tong - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 42 (4):379 - 392.
    This paper draws on the economics of ethical compliance model to examine the association between ethical reasoning, perceived risk of detection, perceived levels of penalties and Chinese auditors'' ethical behavior in an audit conflict situation. Using 53 Chinese auditors from Shenzen as subjects, and a survey questionnaire, this study found that there is a significant negative association between ethical reasoning and the likelihood of unethical behavior and that this negative association is weaker for auditors who perceive higher risks of detection.
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  25.  87
    Top-Down Versus Bottom-Up Learning in Cognitive Skill Acquisition.Ron Sun - unknown
    This paper explores the interaction between implicit and explicit processes during skill learning, in terms of top-down learning (that is, learning that goes from explicit to implicit knowledge) versus bottom-up learning (that is, learning that goes from implicit to explicit knowledge). Instead of studying each type of knowledge (implicit or explicit) in isolation, we stress the interaction between the two types, especially in terms of one type giving rise to the other, and its effects on learning. The work presents an (...)
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  26.  55
    Simulating Organizational Decision-Making Using a Cognitively Realistic Agent Model.Ron Sun - manuscript
    Most of the work in agent-based social simulation has assumed highly simplified agent models, with little attention being paid to the details of individual cognition. Here, in an effort to counteract that trend, we substitute a realistic cognitive agent model (CLARION) for the simpler models previously used in an organizational design task. On that basis, an exploration is made of the interaction between the cognitive parameters that govern individual agents, the placement of agents in different organizational structures, and the performance (...)
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  27. Theoretical Status of Computational Cognitive Modeling.Ron Sun - unknown
    This article explores the view that computational models of cognition may constitute valid theories of cognition, often in the full sense of the term ‘‘theory”. In this discussion, this article examines various (existent or possible) positions on this issue and argues in favor of the view above. It also connects this issue with a number of other relevant issues, such as the general relationship between theory and data, the validation of models, and the practical benefits of computational modeling. All the (...)
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  28.  84
    The Ethics of Care: A Feminist Virtue Ethics of Care for Healthcare Practitioners.Rosemarie Tong - 1998 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 23 (2):131 – 152.
    In this paper I seek to distinguish a feminist virtue ethics of care from (1) justice ethics, (2) narrative ethics, (3) care ethics and (4) virtue ethics. I also connect this contemporary discussion of what makes a virtue ethics of care feminist to eighteenth and nineteenth century debates about male, female, and human virtue. I conclude that by focusing on issues related to gender - primarily those related to the systems, structures, and ideologies that create and sustain patterns of male (...)
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  29. On Levels of Cognitive Modeling.Ron Sun, Andrew Coward & Michael J. Zenzen - 2005 - Philosophical Psychology 18 (5):613-637.
    The article first addresses the importance of cognitive modeling, in terms of its value to cognitive science (as well as other social and behavioral sciences). In particular, it emphasizes the use of cognitive architectures in this undertaking. Based on this approach, the article addresses, in detail, the idea of a multi-level approach that ranges from social to neural levels. In physical sciences, a rigorous set of theories is a hierarchy of descriptions/explanations, in which causal relationships among entities at a high (...)
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  30.  42
    Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning: Weighting and Partitioning.Ron Sun & Todd Peterson - unknown
    This paper addresses weighting and partitioning in complex reinforcement learning tasks, with the aim of facilitating learning. The paper presents some ideas regarding weighting of multiple agents and extends them into partitioning an input/state space into multiple regions with di erential weighting in these regions, to exploit di erential characteristics of regions and di erential characteristics of agents to reduce the learning complexity of agents (and their function approximators) and thus to facilitate the learning overall. It analyzes, in reinforcement learning (...)
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  31.  31
    Cognitive Science Meets Multi-Agent Systems: A Prolegomenon.Ron Sun - 2001 - Philosophical Psychology 14 (1):5 – 28.
    In the current research on multi-agent systems (MAS), many theoretical issues related to sociocultural processes have been touched upon. These issues are in fact intellectually profound and should prove to be significant for MAS. Moreover, these issues should have equally significant impact on cognitive science, if we ever try to understand cognition in the broad context of sociocultural environments in which cognitive agents exist. Furthermore, cognitive models as studied in cognitive science can help us in a substantial way to better (...)
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  32.  47
    Accounting for the Computational Basis of Consciousness: A Connectionist Approach.Ron Sun - 1999 - Consciousness and Cognition 8 (4):529-565.
    This paper argues for an explanation of the mechanistic (computational) basis of consciousness that is based on the distinction between localist (symbolic) representation and distributed representation, the ideas of which have been put forth in the connectionist literature. A model is developed to substantiate and test this approach. The paper also explores the issue of the functional roles of consciousness, in relation to the proposed mechanistic explanation of consciousness. The model, embodying the representational difference, is able to account for the (...)
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  33.  90
    Desiderata for Cognitive Architectures.Ron Sun - 2004 - Philosophical Psychology 17 (3):341-373.
    This article addresses issues in developing cognitive architectures--generic computational models of cognition. Cognitive architectures are believed to be essential in advancing understanding of the mind, and therefore, developing cognitive architectures is an extremely important enterprise in cognitive science. The article proposes a set of essential desiderata for developing cognitive architectures. It then moves on to discuss in detail some of these desiderata and their associated concepts and ideas relevant to developing better cognitive architectures. It argues for the importance of taking (...)
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  34.  71
    The Importance of Cognitive Architectures: An Analysis Based on CLARION.Ron Sun - unknown
    Research in computational cognitive modeling investigates the nature of cognition through developing process-based understanding by specifying computational models of mechanisms (including representations) and processes. In this enterprise, a cognitive architecture is a domaingeneric computational cognitive model that may be used for a broad, multiple-level, multipledomain analysis of behavior. It embodies generic descriptions of cognition in computer algorithms and programs. Developing cognitive architectures is a difficult but important task. In this article, discussions of issues and challenges in developing cognitive architectures will (...)
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  35.  47
    Stock Option Repricing: Heads I Win, Tails You Lose. [REVIEW]Avinash Arya & Huey-Lian Sun - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 50 (4):297-312.
    Recent scandals at Enron, WorldCom and Global Crossing have put the ethical spotlight on corporate malfeasance as never before. However, these are the situations in which management knew that they made the wrong choice. As professor Joseph Badaracco of Harvard Business School points out, the real ethical dilemmas arise when people must choose between right and right — where both choices can be justified, yet one must be chosen over the other. Whether or not to reprice stock options represents one (...)
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  36.  19
    Bottom-Up Skill Learning in Reactive Sequential Decision Tasks.Ron Sun, Todd Peterson & Edward Merrill - unknown
    This paper introduces a hybrid model that unifies connectionist, symbolic, and reinforcement learning into an integrated architecture for bottom-up skill learning in reactive sequential decision tasks. The model is designed for an agent to learn continuously from on-going experience in the world, without the use of preconceived concepts and knowledge. Both procedural skills and high-level knowledge are acquired through an agent’s experience interacting with the world. Computational experiments with the model in two domains are reported.
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  37.  53
    Business Reputation and Labor Efficiency, Productivity, and Cost.Marty Stuebs & Li Sun - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 96 (2):265 - 283.
    Assumed benefits from improved reputation are often used as motives to drive corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. Are improved cost efficiencies among these reputation benefits? Cost efficiencies and cost management have become more relevant as revenue streams dry up in these tough economic times. Can a good reputation aid these efforts to develop cost efficiencies specifically when managing labor costs? Prior research hypothesizes that good reputation can create labor productivity and efficiency benefits. The purpose of this study is to empirically (...)
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  38.  68
    Learning, Action, and Consciousness: A Hybrid Approach Toward Modeling Consciousness.Ron Sun - 1997 - Neural Networks 10:1317-33.
    _role, especially in learning, and through devising hybrid neural network models that (in a qualitative manner) approxi-_ _mate characteristics of human consciousness. In doing so, the paper examines explicit and implicit learning in a variety_ _of psychological experiments and delineates the conscious/unconscious distinction in terms of the two types of learning_ _and their respective products. The distinctions are captured in a two-level action-based model C_larion_. Some funda-_ _mental theoretical issues are also clari?ed with the help of the model. Comparisons with (...)
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  39. Competing Theories of Binocular Rivalry: A Possible Resolution. [REVIEW]Frank Tong - 2001 - Brain and Mind 2 (1):55-83.
    The neural basis of binocular rivalry has beenthe subject of vigorous debate. Do discrepantmonocular patterns rival for awareness becauseof neural competition among patternrepresentations or monocular channels? In thisarticle, I briefly review psychophysical andneurophysiological evidence pertaining to boththeories and discuss important new neuroimagingdata which reveal that rivalry is fullyresolved in monocular visual cortex. These newfindings strongly suggest that interocularcompetition mediates binocular rivalry and thatV1 plays an important role in the selection ofconscious visual information. They furthersuggest that rivalry is not a unitaryphenomenon. (...)
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  40.  70
    Where Should the Line Be Drawn on Insider Trading Ethics?Yulong Ma & Huey-Lian Sun - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (1):67-75.
    Finance ethics have drawn increasing attention from both government regulators and academic researchers. This paper addresses the issue of insider trading ethics. Previous studies on insider trading ethics have failed to provide convincing arguments and consistent results. In particular, the arguments against insider trading are based primarily on moral and philosophical grounds and lack empirical rigor. This study intends to establish and examine the relationship between the ethical issue and economic issue of insider trading. We argue that the ethics of (...)
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  41.  81
    Introduction to Computational Cognitive Modeling.Ron Sun - 2008 - In The Cambridge Handbook of Computational Psychology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 3--19.
  42.  79
    Out-of-Body Experiences: From Penfield to Present.Frank Tong - 2003 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (3):104-106.
  43.  90
    Symbol Grounding: A New Look at an Old Idea.Ron Sun - 2000 - Philosophical Psychology 13 (2):149-172.
    Symbols should be grounded, as has been argued before. But we insist that they should be grounded not only in subsymbolic activities, but also in the interaction between the agent and the world. The point is that concepts are not formed in isolation (from the world), in abstraction, or "objectively." They are formed in relation to the experience of agents, through their perceptual/motor apparatuses, in their world and linked to their goals and actions. This paper takes a detailed look at (...)
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  44.  43
    ‘Psychopaths’ at Work? Implications of Lay Persons’ Use of Labels and Behavioural Criteria for Psychopathy.Carlo Caponecchia, Andrew Y. Z. Sun & Anne Wyatt - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 107 (4):399-408.
    In attempting to explain or deal with negative workplace behaviours such as workplace bullying, the notion of ‘workplace psychopaths’ has recently received much attention. Focusing on individual aspects of negative workplace behaviour is at odds with more systemic approaches that recognise the contribution of individual, organisational and societal influences, without seeking to blame a person(s) for their behaviour or personality disorder. Regarding a coworker as a psychopath is highly stigmatising, and given the relatively low prevalence of psychopathy in the community, (...)
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  45.  50
    Modeling Meta-Cognition in a Cognitive Architecture.Ron Sun, Xi Zhang & Robert Mathews - unknown
    This paper describes how meta-cognitive processes (i.e., the self monitoring and regulating of cognitive processes) may be captured within a cognitive architecture Clarion. Some currently popular cognitive architectures lack sufficiently complex built-in meta-cognitive mechanisms. However, a sufficiently complex meta-cognitive mechanism is important, in that it is an essential part of cognition and without it, human cognition may not function properly. We contend that such a meta-cognitive mechanism should be an integral part of a cognitive architecture. Thus such a mechanism has (...)
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  46.  28
    A Bottom-Up Model of Skill Learning.Ron Sun, Todd Peterson & Edward Merrill - unknown
    We present a skill learning model CLARION. Different from existing models of high-level skill learning that use a topdown approach (that is, turning declarative knowledge into procedural knowledge), we adopt a bottom-up approach toward low-level skill learning, where procedural knowledge develops first and declarative knowledge develops later. CLAR- ION is formed by integrating connectionist, reinforcement, and symbolic learning methods to perform on-line learning. We compare the model with human data in a minefield navigation task. A match between the model and (...)
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  47.  58
    Towards a Feminist Global Bioethics: Addressing Women's Health Concerns Worldwide. [REVIEW]Rosemarie Tong - 2001 - Health Care Analysis 9 (2):229-246.
    In this paper I argue that a global bioethicsis possible. Specifically, I present the viewthat there are within feminist approaches tobioethics some conceptual and methodologicaltools necessary to forge a bioethics thatembraces the health-related concerns of bothdeveloping and developed nations equally. Tosupport my argument I discuss some of thechallenges that have historically confrontedfeminists. If feminists accept the idea thatwomen are entirely the same, then feministspresent as fact the fiction of the essential``Woman.'' Not only does ``Woman'' not exist,``she'' obscures important racial, ethnic,cultural, (...)
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  48.  27
    Autonomous Generation of Symbolic Representations Through Subsymbolic Activities.Ron Sun - 2013 - Philosophical Psychology 26 (6):888 - 912.
    This paper explores an approach for autonomous generation of symbolic representations from an agent's subsymbolic activities within the agent-environment interaction. The paper describes a psychologically plausible general framework and its various methods for autonomously creating symbolic representations. The symbol generation is accomplished within, and is intrinsic to, a generic and comprehensive cognitive architecture for capturing a wide variety of psychological processes (namely, CLARION). This work points to ways of obtaining more psychologically/cognitively realistic symbolic and subsymbolic representations within the framework of (...)
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  49.  16
    Effects of Model-Based and Memory-Based Processing on Speed and Accuracy of Grammar String Generation.Robert C. Mathews & Ron Sun - unknown
    Learners are able to use 2 different types of knowledge to perform a skill. One type is a conscious mental model, and the other is based on memories of instances. The authors conducted 3 experiments that manipulated training conditions designed to affect the availability of 1 or both types of knowledge about an artificial grammar. Participants were tested for both speed and accuracy of their ability to generate letter sequences. Results indicate that model-based training leads to slow accurate responding. Memorybased (...)
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  50. Computational Models of Consciousness: A Taxonomy and Some Examples.Ron Sun & Stan Franklin - 2007 - In Philip David Zelazo, Morris Moscovitch & Evan Thompson (eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 151--174.
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