The current assessment of behaviors in the inventories to diagnose autism spectrum disorders (ASD) focus on observation and discrete categorizations. Behaviors require movements, yet measurements of physical movements are seldom included. Their inclusion however, could provide an objective characterization of behavior to help unveil interactions between the peripheral and the central nervous systems. Such interactions are critical for the development and maintenance of spontaneous autonomy, self-regulation and voluntary control. At present, current approaches cannot deal with the heterogeneous, dynamic and stochastic (...) nature of development. Accordingly, they leave no avenues for real-time or longitudinal assessments of change in a coping system continuously adapting and developing compensatory mechanisms. We offer a new unifying statistical framework to reveal re-afferent kinesthetic features of the individual with ASD. The new methodology is based on the non-stationary stochastic patterns of minute fluctuations (micro-movements) inherent to our natural actions. Such patterns of behavioral variability provide re-entrant sensory feedback contributing to the autonomous regulation and coordination of the motor output. From an early age, this feedback supports centrally driven volitional control and fluid, flexible transitions between intentional and spontaneous behaviors. We show that in ASD there is a disruption in the maturation of this form of proprioception. Despite this disturbance, each individual has unique adaptive compensatory capabilities that we can unveil and exploit to evoke faster and more accurate decisions. Measuring the kinesthetic re-afference in tandem with stimuli variations we can detect changes in their micro-movements indicative of a more predictive and reliable kinesthetic percept. Our methods address the heterogeneity of ASD with a personalized approach grounded in the inherent sensory-motor abilities that the individual has already developed. (shrink)
We consider, from a physical perspective, the case where the interface between an organism and its environment becomes large enough that it acts as a buffer regulating their matter and energy exchanges. We illustrate the physiological and evolutionary role of buffers through the example of lungfish estivation. Then we ponder the relevance of buffers of this kind to the quest for a general definition of concepts like niche construction, the extended phenotype, and related ones, whose meaning is conveyed at present (...) mostly through particular examples. Finally, we comment on the potential significance of buffers to organism—environment codetermination in the sense originally suggested by Lewontin. (shrink)
Experimental high-energy and nuclear physics was created in Spain thanks to Joaquín Catalá de Alemany, who founded the Institute of Corpuscular Physics (IFIC) at the University of Valencia in 1950. The physics of photographic emulsions, cheap and easy to manipulate, were well adapted to the depressed situation in Spain following the Civil War. This essay describes how, using these techniques, Catalá de Alemany created a group, established links with international laboratories, and fostered a tradition that continues today.
O artigo debate o alcance da conceituação de ética no campo social e na área jurídica. Analisa as transformações sociais e políticas da sociedade capitalista mundial e as peculiaridades dos movimentos sociais e políticos do Brasil recente. Destaca como fundamental desafio ético do Direito, diante da prevalência da ideologia capitalista dominante a necessidade de aproximar o Direito da realidade social e garantir, no plano material, os direitos existentes no plano meramente formal. Debate a necessidade de formação dos agentes sociais e (...) profissionais do Direito na compreensão da emergência histórica e identidade dos novos direitos sociais. Destaca a premissa de que o futuro da humanidade depende do resultado do antagonismo entre dois sistemas: o sistema capitalista e o sistema dos direitos humanos. Afirma que a base ideológica da política criminal da intolerância é sustentada pelo discurso econômico-transnacional, que concebeu o movimento de Lei e Ordem, que estabelece uma política de guerra aos inimigos, selecionados das classes subalternizadas, e mantém a opção por um estado de exceção permanente. Considera que muitos juristas chegam a afirmar que a criminalização das condutas deve prevalecer na guerra contra as drogas, na preservação da vida, no enfrentamento do abortamento, na garantia da segurança individual e, ainda, no enfrentamento das questões relacionadas com o meio ambiente. Conclui que a nova postura pedagógica necessária deve ser o debate sobre valores, que tem como fundamento a dignidade humana, que se constitui no fundamento da vida ética. E o Direito não pode ignorar isso. A busca da felicidade dá sentido à existência humana. Mas não se trata da busca da felicidade individualista, que o sistema capitalista exorta. A felicidade há de ter um sentido social. Felicidade e alteridade, nesse sentido, são palavras que se aproximam tanto, na concepção da ética, que poderíamos considerá-las sinônimas. Com efeito, é preciso romper com o imobilismo e transformar o mundo, fazendo prevalecer os princípios do sistema dos direitos humanos. Esse é o compromisso Ético do Direito. (shrink)
Responding to recent concerns about the reliability of the published literature in psychology and other disciplines, we formed the X-Phi Replicability Project to estimate the reproducibility of experimental philosophy. Drawing on a representative sample of 40 x-phi studies published between 2003 and 2015, we enlisted 20 research teams across 8 countries to conduct a high-quality replication of each study in order to compare the results to the original published findings. We found that x-phi studies – as represented in our sample (...) – successfully replicated about 70% of the time. We discuss possible reasons for this relatively high replication rate in the field of experimental philosophy and offer suggestions for best research practices going forward. (shrink)
Este trabajo tiene el objetivo de argumentar cómo se manifiesta la generosidad en la vida y obra de José Martí. Muestra la necesidad e importancia de recurrir a sus obras para fortalecer este valor desde los escenarios familiares, escolares, comunitarios y sociales. Se concluyó que la generosidad constituye en la actualidad una tarea pedagógica de gran importancia y el legado martiano es una vía obligada a recorrer. This work has the objective of analyzing how the generosity in Marti's life and (...) work is expressed. It shows the need and importance of turning to his works to strengthen this value from the family, scholar, community and social scenes. It was concluded that generosity constitutes at the present time a pedagogical task of great importance and the Martian legate is an obligated way to travel. (shrink)
RESUMEN Juan Marinello Vidaurreta, eminente trabajador de las letras, que no cambió la pluma por la política, sino que hizo de la política incesante gestión de creación espiritual. Vivió tres etapas decisivas de Cuba: los rezagos de la colonia española; la República mediatizada, que combatió; y el socialismo, que ayudó a consolidar. El objetivo es demostrar la confluencia del pensamiento martiano y marxista desde el análisis de la cultura en la obra de Juan Marinello Vidaurreta. Se asumió la concepción dialéctica (...) materialista como metodología general para conocer el objeto de investigación en sus antecedentes y tendencias actuales. Además permitió ampliar el conocimiento sobre el tema objeto de estudio, a través del análisis de texto, el contenido y el discurso; la crítica de fuentes posibilitó extraer inferencias a partir de la teoría preexistente y la información empírica acopiada. El pensamiento marinelliano se fue formando como resultado de la influencia del movimiento progresista cubano, del pensamiento martiano y marxista-leninista, lo más avanzado del pensamiento latinoamericano y universal. Subyace en su obra una concepción integradora y totalizadora de la cultura, de base martiana y marxista. ABSTRACT Juan Marinello Vidaurreta eminent worker of the letters that did not change the pen by the policy, but that made of the policy, incessant management of spiritual creation. He lived three decisive stages of Cuba: the lags of the Spanish colony; the mediated Republic, which fought; and socialism, which helped to consolidate. The objective is to demonstrate the confluence of Marti's and Marxist thinking from the analysis of culture in the work of Juan Marinello Vidaurreta. The dialectical materialist conception was assumed as general methodology to know the object of research in its antecedents and current trends. In addition it allowed expanding the knowledge on the subject under study, through the analysis of text, content and discourse; the critique of sources made it possible to draw inferences from the preexisting theory and the empirical information collected. Marinellian thought was formed as a result of the influence of the Cuban progressive movement, of Marti and Marxist-Leninist thought, the most advanced of Latin American and universal thought. It underlies in his work an integrative and totalizing conception of the culture, of Marti base and marxist. (shrink)
The work of Chandra and Harel contained in Chandra and Harel 156–178) can be considered as the beginning of the construction of a theoretical framework in which the computability and the complexity of queries to relational databases could be studied. In the definition of the class CQ of computable queries, the authors included untyped queries , that is, queries whose answers are relations of possibly different arities on different relational structures or databases. However, it seems that in the quite wide (...) and important work which followed on the subject, untyped queries were not considered at all, neither in the abstract machines side , nor in the logic framework. We propose to re-introduce these queries in the study of query computability and complexity without the need to leave the relational model. One important application which we consider in the theoretical setting is the computation of numerical queries, that is, queries which range over the naturals. Numerical queries do not fit in the current state of the theory regarding the two formalisms referenced above, since they can result in numerical values which are not necessarily in the domain of the given structure. We define an extension of the reflective relational machine of Abiteboul et al. , which we call untyped reflective relational machine , and we prove that this model is complete considering the whole class CQ . In the logic framework, we define a new quantifier, which we call conditional quantifier , and we build with it an infinitary logic which we denote by L ω 1 ω c . The difference between this logic and the well-known infinitary logic L ω 1 ω is that a formula of our logic can induce relations of different arities on different structures or databases. Then we prove that L ω 1 ω c strictly includes the whole sub-class of the total computable queries, including untyped queries. Finally, we define a fragment of L ω 1 ω c which we prove that exactly captures the sub-class of the total computable queries, but which is undecidable. We also define an undecidable fragment of L ω 1 ω which exactly captures the sub-class of the total and typed computable queries. (shrink)
From 1912, Alejandro Korn and José Ingenieros began to publish articles that then would be part of their historical works, respectively, Influencias filosóficas en la evolución nacional and La evolución de las ideas argentinas. Therefore, they started to generate some discussion in reference to sections that they knew of each other's work. Being the first major works from a developing philosophical field about the history of Argentine thought, their authors sought to create cultural traditions to affirm their own academic, cultural (...) and political positions. Thus, they based their positions about their academic situation through their interventions in the debate on the evaluation of the various features of the intellectual past of the country and national identity during the academic professionalization of historical studies, and actively participated in discussions on the function of culture and philosophy in a national project. Yet, besides, in order to address their history of ideas, the two most important teachers of the philosophical sphere around 1918 tested very different methodological approaches that worked under different conceptions of philosophical and historical practice and two different ways of thinking the reception and circulation of ideas from Europe. (shrink)
As one tries to grasp love and its images within José Leonilson's production, a multiplicity of aspects and meanings are seen that also relate to Louise Bourgeois's oeuvre in regard to the interest in human relations. Through a comparative approach to both artists' poetics, an understanding is created that love is not a simplistic action and all the words read in or applied to their visual discourse must be considered within a wide range of love in visual and literary images. (...) Keywords: literature and visual arts / love / creativity / Bourgeois, Louise / Leonilson, José / word and image. (shrink)
Common notions of comparative philosophy tend to be strongly configured by the East-West axis. This essay suggests ways of seeing Latin American liberation philosophy as a form of comparative philosophy and an important Latin American thinker as being relevant for East-West political philosophy. The essay focuses on the Peruvian activist and intellectual, José Mariátegui, who is widely regarded to have been a leading Marxist, liberatory, and decolonial figure in 20th century Latin America. Like many “Third World” intellectuals of the interwar (...) years, Mariátegui had an interest in decolonization struggles in Asia and wrote with some consistency on this subject and in ways that bear significantly upon key themes in his political theory. Since very little of this has received commentary, this essay begins a discussion of Mariátegui's decolonial experimentation with ideas about Asia, decolonization, and indigenous cultural forms, like those of the Incas and Confucians. After some preliminary discussion of Euro.. (shrink)
This paper studies in detail about the early years of José Gaos (1900- 1969) and his education in philosophy and literature. Therefore, we know that their studies (academic or not) were not purely “philosophical” in 1915. Literature and philosophy played in Gaos an equally important role. The first real encounter with philosophy happens before he comes to Valencia in 1915; but in this year Gaos also receives a strong education, in aesthetic and literary, through press and philosophical journals, and especially (...) within the group formed with Max Aub, José Medina Echeverría and his brother Carlos Gaos. (shrink)
Resumen Para Eckhart la transformación del ser humano opera a partir de un progresivo reconocimiento que cada uno hace de su propia condición creatural a la luz de la vida intratrinitaria de Dios. El ser humano necesita liberarse de su constante inseguridad y dependencia de las cosas y de las convenciones sociales. Solo así puede iniciar ese camino de transformación que le permite ir de su condición terrenal, truncada por posesiones, miedos y limitaciones hacia una existencia en Dios plena en (...) el espíritu, en la gratuidad y en la libertad. Este camino conduce a la unión con Dios, pero ésta solo se alcanza a través del desasimiento de las cosas y del ego.For Eckhart the transformation of the human being operates from a progressive recognition that each one makes of his own creature condition in the light of God's intratrinitarian life. Human beings need to be freed from their constant insecurity and dependence on things and social conventions. Only in this way can he initiate that path of transformation which allows him to go from his earthly condition, truncated by possessions, fears and limitations to an existence in God full of the spirit, gratuitousness and freedom. This way leads to union with God, but this is only achieved through the disengagement of things and ego. (shrink)
Summary The article deals with the political thought of the young Spanish philosopher and intellectual, José Ortega y Gasset (1883?1955). The main aim is to examine to what extent his political thought was articulated in a systematic manner, and to understand if it was meant to be practically implemented. Ortega's political thought has been described as liberal on the one hand, and anti-democratic and conservative on the other. The disparities regarding Ortega's politics usually arise from his declarations, which aimed to (...) confront the changing social and political situation in Spain. To many researchers, these declarations seem incoherent, evolutionary, or ideas that can be directly deduced from the evolution of his philosophical theory. The extent to which Ortega's political theory was systematic will be understood through focusing on the role designed for the Spanish intellectuals in Ortega's declarations and works. Instead of considering his political thought in relation to either his philosophy or the political events and changing circumstances in Spain, I will attempt to examine how, during the years of his youth, his political declarations were always guided by a consistent feature with a practical political purpose: to challenge the Spanish intellectuals to promote social awareness of and reflection on the country's problems, and to consider potential solutions to these problems. (shrink)
Desde su anónima irrupción en “Algo se aproxima” hasta su último avistamiento en La grande, Carlos Tomatis, personaje emblemático en la narrativa del argentino Juan José Saer, se erige como metáfora de la esterilidad posmoderna en la melancólica figura del escritor sin escritura. Sorna epigramática, desdén autosuficiente y fantasías punitivas configuran su carácter melancólico y pendular. Nuestro trabajo busca correlacionar su imposibilidad de capitalizar la experiencia en forma de narración con la escritura saereana, signada por destellos epifánicos y una pulsión (...) balbuceante que acaba, puntuación obsesiva mediante, por disolver la sintaxis. Si bien Tomatis y su troupe reproducen el tono hostil de los ensayos saereanos de los años 60 y 70 signados por el rechazo a la doxa literaria, en su prolífico discurrir Saer constituye la inversión especular de su héroe condenado al silencio. (shrink)
While human genetic research promises to deliver a range of health benefits to the population, genetic research that takes place in Indigenous communities has proven controversial. Indigenous peoples have raised concerns, including a lack of benefit to their communities, a diversion of attention and resources from non-genetic causes of health disparities and racism in health care, a reinforcement of “victim-blaming” approaches to health inequalities, and possible misuse of blood and tissue samples. Drawing on the international literature, this article reviews the (...) ethical issues relevant to genetic research in Indigenous populations and considers how some of these have been negotiated in a genomic research project currently under way in a remote Aboriginal community. We consider how the different levels of Indigenous research governance operating in Australia impacted on the research project and discuss whether specific guidelines for the conduct of genetic research in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities are warranted. (shrink)
One of the most characteristic features of Comparative Literature in terms of methodological practice is that of operating in “in between” spaces. Not only does this feature suggest the comparative approach as something which originates through movement, thus making it imperative for the researcher to deal with the notion of mobility, it also characterizes many of the concepts with which it operates. Considering the possibility, as well as the fertility, of practicing this methodology in the analysis and critique of contemporary (...) visual art, we understand that it fits the analysis of any enterprise regarding the in-betweens of visual and verbal texts. These fundamental aspects were elected for a comparative analysis of two visuals artists whose œuvres operate in in-between spaces between the visual and the verbal as much as between the self and the Other. José Leonilson (Brazil 1957-1993) and Louise Bourgeois (France/EUA 1911-2010) reveal, through a comparative analysis, creative and constitutive actions which elaborate a space we could best understand through the image of a seaside landscape where the line we try to draw to divide the saltwater from the sand never stands. But, in what manners could the constituted poetic space created by them be of significance for a broader spectrum than the literary interest? In our understanding, Leonilson’s and Bourgeois’s poetics operate through a silent hearing of the Other, might that be their loved ones, the stone or cloths. This conceptual notion, required for the creative action, thus establishes a particular notion of balance between them and the Other. It is this precise aspect that also operates the mobility of the notion of love through their œuvre, and through the election of personal emotional narratives as the thriving force for creation. And what could be more needed nowadays, here as elsewhere, than considering together with Leonilson’s and Bourgeois’ images that love shall be the perpetual moving space that at times nears, and later distances us from each other? (shrink)
The following paper aims to show that the reception of José María Arguedas’most ambitious work, Todas las Sangres [Every Blood], and his suicide were the consequences of a generation that valued authenticity over sincerity. By making acritical analysis of the life and works of Argueda in the light of Lionel Trilling’s conceptsof “sincerity” and “authenticity”, the following paper concludes that Argueda’s natural sincerity might actually have been more complex and productive than the authenticity of his literary and academic peers.
"Aranguren: filosofía en la vida y vida en la filosofía" llevó por nombre la exposición sobre la figura y el legado de José Luis L. Aranguren (Ávila 1909- Madrid 1996) que pudo verse desde el 4 de junio al 26 de julio de 2009 en el Pabellón Transatlántico de la Residencia de Estudiantes de Madrid con ocasión del centenario del nacimiento del filósofo abulense.
This paper seeks to show the proximity between the phenomenologicalreflection that Merleau-Ponty presents in the article “The War Has Taken Place”, and the stories of Jose Carlos Agüero, in his book, Los rendidos. From a phenomenological perspective, both authors describe the experience of pain, shame and forgiveness as the pursuit of freedom and justice. The text is divided into two parts. In the first part, we present discourses of justice which were established after the Peruvian armed conflict and the (...) need of exercising the phenomenological “epochè” in order to describe the feelings of terror and shame that underlie as background of this shared experience. In the second part, supported by Merleau Ponty’s concepts of intersubjectivity and historicity, we define freedom as the pursuit of justice, which can only be understood at the primordialaction of being in relation with others, from which we give meaning to the past. (shrink)
José Ortega y Gasset not only expressed his views on subjects such as art or mass culture but he was also one of the promoters and founders of a United Europe which he considered a cultural unity. However, his view on the proper functioning of multicultural societies was as skeptical as his attitude towards the possibility of constructing an unified world that could be based on cultural coexistence of the Western World societies.