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  1.  38
    The Introduction of Online Authentication as Part of the New Electronic National Identity Card in Germany.Torsten Noack & Herbert Kubicek - 2010 - Identity in the Information Society 3 (1):87-110.
    This chapter provides an analysis of the long process of introducing an electronic identity for online authentication in Germany. This process is described as a multi-facet innovation, involving actors from different policy fields shifting over time. The eID process started in the late ‘90s in the context of eGovernment and eCommerce with the legislation on e-signatures, which were supposed to allow for online authentication of citizens. When after 5 years it was recognized that this was not the case, a new (...)
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  2.  22
    The Path Dependency of National Electronic Identities.Herbert Kubicek & Torsten Noack - 2010 - Identity in the Information Society 3 (1):111-153.
    This paper compares the four national electronic Identity Management Systems (eIDMS), which have been described in the previous chapters. The section Similarities and differences between four national eIDMS will highlight the differences between these systems conceived as socio-technical systems with regard to the eID itself, the eID cards as tokens, the authentication processes as well as the procedures for distribution and personalisation, the support provided for installing the technology and any provider-related regulation. The section A three-fold path dependency , according (...)
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  3.  22
    Different Countries-Different Paths Extended Comparison of the Introduction of eIDs in Eight European Countries.Herbert Kubicek & Torsten Noack - 2010 - Identity in the Information Society 3 (1):235-245.
    A first comparison of the innovation processes of introducing electronic identities on a national level in Austria, Belgium, Germany and Spain, based on extensive expert interviews with key actors, has been amended by four more country reports from Denmark, Finland, Estonia and Sweden in order to check the validity of generalisations derived from the first four cases. The extended comparison with the four additional countries increases the variance between the eID systems in Europe by showing differing technical and organisational features, (...)
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