Results for 'Torture'

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  1. Torture - the Case for Dirty Harry and Against Alan Dershowitz.Uwe Steinhoff - 2006 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (3):337-353.
    Can torture be morally justified? I shall criticise arguments that have been adduced against torture and demonstrate that torture can be justified more easily than most philosophers dealing with the question are prepared to admit. It can be justified not only in ticking nuclear bomb cases but also in less spectacular ticking bomb cases and even in the socalled Dirty Harry cases. There is no morally relevant difference between self-defensive killing. of a culpable aggressor and torturing someone (...)
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  2. Torture with Consent.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    There are attempts to define torture which say that a person is only being tortured if the pain inflicted upon them is pain that they have not consented to. In this very brief paper, I recommend that we define torture without this condition.
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  3. Torture. How Denying Moral Standing Violates Human Dignity.Andreas Maier - forthcoming - In Webster Elaine & Kaufmann Paulus (eds.), Violations of Human Dignity. Springer.
    In this article I try to elucidate the concept of human dignity by taking a closer look at the features of a paradigmatic torture situation. After identifying the salient aspects of torture, I discuss various accounts for the moral wrongness of such acts and argue that what makes torture a violation of human dignity is the perverted moral relationship between torturer and victim. This idea is subsequently being substantiated and defended against important objections. In the final part (...)
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  4. Torture Pornopticon: (In)Security Cameras, Self-Governance and Autonomy.Steve Jones - 2015 - In Linnie Blake & Xavier Aldana Reyes (eds.), Digital Horror: Haunted Technologies, Network Panic and the Found Footage Phenomenon. I.B. Tauris. pp. 29-41.
    Torture porn’ films centre on themes of abduction, imprisonment and suffering. Within the subgenre, protagonists are typically placed under relentless surveillance by their captors. CCTV features in more than 45 contemporary torture-themed films (including Captivity, Hunger, and Torture Room). Security cameras signify a bridging point between the captors’ ability to observe and to control their prey. Founded on power-imbalance, torture porn’s prison-spaces are panoptical. Despite failing to encapsulate contemporary surveillance’s complexities (see Haggerty, 2011), the panopticon remains (...)
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  5. A Utilitarian Argument Against Torture Interrogation of Terrorists.Jean Maria Arrigo - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (3):543-572.
    Following the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, much support for torture interrogation of terrorists has emerged in the public forum, largely based on the “ticking bomb” scenario. Although deontological and virtue ethics provide incisive arguments against torture, they do not speak directly to scientists and government officials responsible for national security in a utilitarian framework. Drawing from criminology, organizational theory, social psychology, the historical record, and my interviews with military professionals, I assess the potential of (...)
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  6.  33
    On the Ethics of Torture.Uwe Steinhoff - 2013 - State University of New York Press.
    A detailed, clear, and comprehensive overview of the current philosophical debate on. The question of when, and under what circumstances, the practice of torture might be justified has received a great deal of attention in the last decade in both academia and in the popular media. Many of these discussions are, however, one-sided with other perspectives either ignored or quickly dismissed with minimal argument. In On the Ethics of Torture, Uwe Steinhoff provides a complete account of the philosophical (...)
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  7. Torture and the Military Profession.Jessica Wolfendale - 2007 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    The military claims to be an honourable profession, yet military torture is widespread. Why is the military violating its own values? Jessica Wolfendale argues that the prevalence of military torture is linked to military training methods that cultivate the psychological dispositions connected to crimes of obedience. While these methods are used, the military has no credible claim to professional status. Combating torture requires that we radically rethink the nature of the military profession and military training.
     
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  8.  34
    Dignity, Torture, and Human Rights.Suzy Killmister - 2016 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (5):1087-1101.
    This paper focuses on a distinct puzzle for understanding the relationship between dignity and human rights. The puzzle is that dignity appears to enter human rights theory in two distinct roles: on the one hand, dignity is commonly pointed to as the foundation of human rights, i.e. that in virtue of which we have human rights. On the other hand, dignity is commonly pointed to as that which is at risk in a subset of human rights, paradigmatically torture. But (...)
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  9.  4
    Physician Involvement in Torture: An Ethical Perspective. [REVIEW]Norain A. Siddiqui, Murat Civaner & Omur Cinar Elci - 2013 - Journal of Medical Humanities 34 (1):59-71.
    Evidence proves that physician involvement in torture is widely practiced in society. Despite its status as an illegal act as established by multiple international organizations, mandates are routinely unheeded and feebly enforced. Philosophies condemning and condoning torture are examined as well as physicians’ professional responsibilities and the manner in which such varying allegiances can be persuasive. Physician involvement in torture has proven detrimental to the core values of medicine and has tainted the field’s commitment to individuals’ health (...)
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  10.  83
    Torture Warrants and Democratic States: Dirty Hands in an Age of Terror.Paul Lauritzen - 2010 - Journal of Religious Ethics 38 (1):93-112.
    In the aftermath of September 11, 2001, policy makers and others have debated the question of whether or not the United States should torture in an effort to prevent terrorist attacks. In a series of controversial essays, the legal theorist Alan Dershowitz argues that, if a democratic society is going to torture, it should at least be done under the cover of law. To that end, he recommends establishing a legal mechanism by which a judge could issue (...) warrants—much as they do now for search warrants. In this essay, I examine Dershowitz's proposal in light of Michael Walzer's classic essay on dirty hands. Just as Walzer uses political theater as a lens for viewing the issue of political assassination, I similarly draw upon a dramatic response to Dershowitz's proposal to think through the issue of torture warrants. (shrink)
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  11.  30
    Understanding Torture.J. Jeremy Wisnewski - 2010 - Edinburgh University Press.
    Understanding Torture surveys the massive literature surrounding torture, arguing that, once properly understood, there can be no defence of torture in any circumstances.
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  12.  20
    PERSPECTIVES ON TORTURE: Reports From a Dialogue Including Christian, Judaic, Islamic, and Feminist Viewpoints.Jonathan K. Crane - 2011 - Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (4):585-588.
    Torture continues to be a pressing political issue in North America, yet religious scholarly reflection on the ethics of torture remains all but sidelined in public discourse for a variety of complex reasons. These reasons are explored—and critiqued—in this collection of reflections by Christian, Jewish, Muslim, and feminist religious ethicists. These scholars find that historical amnesia, forced if not twisted readings of classical texts and contemporary human rights instruments, and sociological factors are but a few of the factors (...)
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  13.  38
    Legitimating Torture?Gerald Lang - 2017 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 11 (2):331-349.
    Steinhoff defends the moral and legal permissibility of torture in a limited range of circumstances. This article criticizes Steinhoff’s arguments. The analogy between ordinary defensive violence and defensive torture which Steinhoff argues for is partly spoiled by the presence, within defensive torture, of opportunistic harm, in addition to eliminative harm. Steinhoff’s arguments that the mere legalization of defensive torture would not metastasize into a more full-fledged institutionalization of torture are also found wanting. As a minimal (...)
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  14. The Myth of "Torture Lite".Jessica Wolfendale - 2009 - Ethics and International Affairs 23 (1):47-61.
    Although the term "torture lite" is frequently used to distinguish between physically mutilating torture and certain interrogation methods that are supposedly less severe, the distinction is not recognized in international law.
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  15.  4
    Documentation of Torture and the Istanbul Protocol: Applied Medical Ethics. [REVIEW]Holger Furtmayr & Andreas Frewer - 2010 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 13 (3):279-286.
    The so-called Istanbul Protocol, a Manual on the Effective Investigation and Documentation of Torture and other Cruel, Inhumane or Degrading Treatment or Punishment was adopted by the United Nations soon after its completion in 1999 and since then has become an acknowledged standard for documenting cases of alleged torture and other forms of severe maltreatment. In 2009 the “Forum for medicine and human rights” at the Medical Faculty at the University Erlangen-Nuremburg has provided the first German edition of (...)
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  16.  63
    Torture and Just War.Darrell Cole - 2012 - Journal of Religious Ethics 40 (1):26-51.
    I offer an argument for why torture, as an act of state-sponsored force to gain information crucial to the well-being of the common good, should be considered as a tactic of war, and therefore scrutinized in terms of just war theory. I argue that, for those committed to the justifiability of the use of force, most of the popular arguments against all acts of torture are unpersuasive because the logic behind them would forbid equally any act of mutilating (...)
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  17.  35
    Conflictual Moralities, Ethical Torture: Revisiting the Problem of “Dirty Hands”. [REVIEW]Moran Yemini - 2014 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (1):163-180.
    The problem of “dirty hands” has become an important term, indeed one of the most important terms of reference, in contemporary academic scholarship on the issue of torture. The aim of this essay is to offer a better understanding of this problem. Firstly, it is argued that the problem of “dirty hands” can play neither within rule-utilitarianism nor within absolutism. Still, however, the problem of “dirty hands” represents an acute, seemingly irresolvable, conflict within morality, with the moral agent understood, (...)
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  18.  25
    Rape as 'Torture'? Catharine MacKinnon and Questions of Feminist Strategy.Clare McGlynn - 2008 - Feminist Legal Studies 16 (1):71-85.
    How can we eradicate violence against women? How, at least, can we reduce its prevalence? One possibility offered by Catharine MacKinnon is to harness international human rights norms, especially prohibitions on torture, and apply them to sexual violence with greater rigour and commitment than has hitherto been the case. This article focuses particularly on the argument that all rapes constitute torture in which states are actively complicit. It questions whether a feminist strategy to reconceptualise rape as torture (...)
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  19.  30
    The Lash is Mightier Than the Sword1: Torture and Citizenry in Medieval Muslim Jurisprudence.Rumee Ahmed - 2011 - Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (4):606-612.
    Medieval Muslim scholars unequivocally prohibited the torture of prisoners of war out of a concern for maintaining theoretical constructs about the boundaries of the Muslim and non-Muslim communities. Muslim scholars worried that the torturing prisoners of war would compromise values and ideals predicated on such constructs, and that the demands of citizenship trumped any benefit to the Muslim community that might accrue from torture.
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  20.  25
    Feminist Approaches to Religion and Torture.Christine E. Gudorf - 2011 - Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (4):613-621.
    Feminists look critically at any infliction of pain on others, usually requiring that it be consensual, and often both consensual and for the benefit of the person afflicted. Most torture of women is not recognized under official definitions of torture because it is not performed by or with the consent of (government) officials. Women are, however, also victims of torture under official definitions as military or civilian prisoners or as members of defeated populations in war, and are (...)
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  21.  4
    Why Did U.S. Healthcare Professionals Become Involved in Torture During the War on Terror?Myles Balfe - 2016 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 13 (3):449-460.
    This article examines why U.S. healthcare professionals became involved in “enhanced interrogation,” or torture, during the War on Terror. A number of factors are identified including a desire on the part of these professionals to defend their country and fellow citizens from future attack; having their activities approved and authorized by legitimate command structures; financial incentives; and wanting to prevent serious harm from occurring to prisoners/detainees. The factors outlined here suggest that psychosocial factors can influence health professionals’ ethical decision-making.
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  22.  11
    Torture Approval in Comparative Perspective.Peter Miller - 2011 - Human Rights Review 12 (4):441-463.
    Torture is (almost) universally condemned as barbaric and ineffective, yet it persists in the modern world. What factors influence levels of support for torture? Public opinion data from 31 countries in 2006 and 2008 (a total of 44 country-years) are used to test three hypotheses related to the acceptability of torture. The findings, first, show that outright majorities in 31 country-years reject the use of torture. Multiple regression results show that countries with high per capita income (...)
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  23.  10
    An Overview of Political Torture in the Twentieth Century.Ruxandra Cesereanu - 2006 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 5 (14):120-143.
    The present essay focuses on political torture during the twentieth century. It takes a multidisciplinary approach, because it entails insights from history, politics, ideology, anthropology, psychology and literature. The aim of the present essay is to discuss the relation between "Classical" torture (in the past centuries) and "Modern" torture (in the twentieth century), analyzing the phenomena in a comparative perspective and paying attention to the hidden and unconscious motives behind historical facts. What I am interested in is (...)
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  24.  3
    Preventing Torture in Nepal: A Public Health and Human Rights Intervention.Danielle D. Celermajer & Jack Saul - 2016 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 13 (2):223-237.
    In this article we address torture in military and police organizations as a public health and human rights challenge that needs to be addressed through multiple levels of intervention. While most mental health approaches focus on treating the harmful effects of such violence on individuals and communities, the goal of the project described here was to develop a primary prevention strategy at the institutional level to prevent torture from occurring in the first place. Such an approach requires understanding (...)
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  25.  12
    The Contemporary U.S. Torture Debate in Christian Historical Perspective.David P. Gushee - 2011 - Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (4):589-597.
    The U.S. turn toward torture tested the moral resources of all faiths, but perhaps especially of Christianity, which has the greatest number of adherents in the United States. This moral crucible revealed that American Christian scholars and leaders were generally blind to the resources available in relation to the resources available to address torture in a study of scripture, early Christian experience under empire, Christian abuses of suspected heretics, and the just war theory, all of which are considered (...)
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  26.  3
    Human Rights as Reputation Builder: Compliance with the Convention Against Torture[REVIEW]Dana Zartner & Jennifer Ramos - 2011 - Human Rights Review 12 (1):71-92.
    A strong record of human rights protections is an important factor for a state to maintain a positive international reputation. In this article, we suggest that states will use compliance with human rights treaties as a mechanism by which to improve their reputations to help achieve their foreign policy goals. We hypothesize that international human rights compliance is a means to improve a state’s reputation in three specific situations: when the state is facing regional pressures as the result of a (...)
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  27.  2
    " Agents of Aggressive Order": Letters, Hands, and the Grasping Power of Teeth in the Early Canadian Torture Narrative.Monique Tschofen - 2007 - Mediatropes 1 (1):19-41.
    This paper brings together a most fascinating and under-examined body of early New World writing that belong to a genre of writing I call “the torture narrative” with the insights of Marshall McLuhan in order to offer a way of thinking about body parts, especially hands, teeth, tongues, and eyeballs, and their extensions through technologies such as alphabets, manuscripts, books, and weapons. At its core are questions about the nature and effects of the changes wrought by the early-Gutenberg era—a (...)
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  28.  5
    Torturous Ambivalence: Judaic Struggles with Torture.Jonathan K. Crane - 2011 - Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (4):598-605.
    A surprising lack of consensus exists among contemporary Jewish scholars about Judaism's position vis-à-vis torture. Some claim that Judaism condones torture while others insist that Judaism condemns it. These diverging opinions on such a troubling practice suggest an ambivalence deep within the Judaic textual tradition about torturing bodies. This brief essay critiques both perspectives for twisting the textual tradition and offers some preliminary suggestions for a more robust Judaic approach to torture.
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  29.  1
    The US Alien Tort Claims Act of 1789, the US Torture Victims Protection Act of 1992, and the Gongadze Case: A Right Without Adequate Remedy? [REVIEW]Mary Dominick - 2008 - Human Rights Review 9 (4):545-547.
    The US 1992 Torture Victims Protection Act (TVPA) strengthens the reach of the 1789 Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA) to US citizens alleging claims of torture and/or extrajudicial killings that occur abroad, but only if the plaintiffs were US citizens at the time of the criminal acts. Should the later-in-time statute, which gives effect to the United Nations Convention against Torture and extends remedies under the ATCA, be amended to apply to those given political asylum in this (...)
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  30.  26
    Torture and Dignity: An Essay on Moral Injury.J. M. Bernstein - 2015 - University of Chicago Press.
    In this unflinching look at the experience of suffering and one of its greatest manifestations—torture—J.M. Bernstein critiques the repressions of traditional moral theory, showing that our morals are not immutable ideals but fragile constructions that depend on our experience of suffering itself. Morals, Bernstein argues, not only guide our conduct but also express the depth of mutual dependence that we share as vulnerable and injurable individuals. Beginning with the attempts to abolish torture in the eighteenth century, and then (...)
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  31.  51
    Confronting Evils: Terrorism, Torture, Genocide.Claudia Card - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this contribution to philosophical ethics, Claudia Card revisits the theory of evil developed in her earlier book The Atrocity Paradigm, and expands it to consider collectively perpetrated and collectively suffered atrocities. Redefining evil as a secular concept and focusing on the inexcusability - rather than the culpability - of atrocities, Card examines the tension between responding to evils and preserving humanitarian values. This stimulating and often provocative book contends that understanding the evils in terrorism, torture and genocide enables (...)
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  32.  11
    Ethics for Enemies: Terror, Torture, and War.F. M. Kamm (ed.) - 2011 - Oxford University Press.
    Ethics for Enemies comprises three original philosophical essays on torture, terrorism, and war. F. M. Kamm deploys ethical theory in her challenging new treatments of these most controversial practical issues. First she considers the nature of torture and the various occasions on which it could occur, in order to determine why it might be wrong to torture a wrongdoer held captive, even if this were necessary to save his victims. In the second essay she considers what makes (...)
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  33. Review of Henry Shue, Fighting Hurt: Rule and Exception in Torture and War.David L. Perry - 2016 - Parameters 46 (3).
    Review of Henry Shue, Fighting Hurt: Rule and Exception in Torture and War.
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  34. War, Torture and Terrorism: Ethics and War in the 21st Century.David Rodin (ed.) - 2007 - Blackwell.
    This collection by leading scholars represents state of the art writings on the ethics of war. Many of the most important and contested controversies in modern war receive comprehensive discussion: the practice of torture, terrorism, assassination and targeted killing, the bombing of civilians in war, humanitarian intervention, and the invasion of Iraq Analytical introduction provides a guide to recent developments in the ethics of war An excellent overview for general readers interested in the current debate and controversies over the (...)
     
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  35. Torture and Truth.Page DuBois - 1991 - Routledge.
     
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  36.  2
    J.M. Bernstein, Torture and Dignity: An Essay on Moral Injury. Reviewed By.Roberts Joseph Tarquin Foulkes - 2017 - Philosophy in Review 37 (1):5-7.
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  37.  16
    Torture and Moral Integrity: A Philosophical Enquiry.Matthew H. Kramer - 2014 - Oxford University Press.
    The morality of interrogational torture has been the subject of heated debate in recent years. In explaining why torture is morally wrong, Kramer engages in deep philosophical reflections on the nature of morality and on moral conflicts.
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  38. A Defense of Torture: Separation of Cases, Ticking Time-Bombs, and Moral Justification.Fritz Allhoff - 2005 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (2):243-264.
    In this paper, I argue for the permissibility of torture in idealized cases by application of separation of cases: if torture is permissible given any of the dominant moral theories (and if one of those is correct), then torture is permissible simpliciter and I can discharge the tricky business of trying to adjudicate among conflicting moral views. To be sure, torture is not permissible on all the dominant moral theories as at least Kantianism will prove especially (...)
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  39.  78
    Torture? : The Case for Dirty Harry and Against Alan Dershowitz.Uwe Gteinhoff - 2007 - In David Rodin (ed.), Journal of Applied Philosophy. Blackwell. pp. 337-353.
    abstract Can torture be morally justified? I shall criticise arguments that have been adduced against torture and demonstrate that torture can be justified more easily than most philosophers dealing with the question are prepared to admit. It can be justified not only in ticking nuclear bomb cases but also in less spectacular ticking bomb cases and even in the so‐called Dirty Harry cases. There is no morally relevant difference between self‐defensive killing of a culpable aggressor and torturing (...)
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  40.  14
    Liberalism, Torture, and the Ticking Bomb.David Luban - unknown
    Torture used to be incompatible with American values. Our Bill of Rights forbids cruel and unusual punishment, and that has come to include all forms of corporal punishment except prison and death by methods purported to be painless. Americans and our government have historically condemned states that torture; we have granted asylum or refuge to those who fear it. The Senate ratified the Convention Against Torture, Congress enacted antitorture legislation, and judicial opinions spoke of "the dastardly and (...)
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  41. The Moral Justifiability of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment.Michael Davis - 2005 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (2):161-178.
    Since Henry Shue’s classic 1978 paper on torture, the “ticking-bomb case” has seemed to demonstrate that torture is morally justified in some moral emergencies (even if not as an institution). After presenting an analysis of torture as such and an explanation of why it, and anything much like it, is morally wrong, I argue that the ticking-bomb case demonstrates nothing at all—for at least three reasons. First, it is an appeal to intuition. The intuition is not as (...)
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  42.  15
    Terrorism, Ticking Time-Bombs, and Torture: A Philosophical Analysis.Fritz Allhoff - 2012 - University of Chicago Press.
    In Terrorism, Ticking Time-Bombs, and Torture, Fritz Allhoff demonstrates the weakness of the case against torture; while allowing that torture constitutes a moral wrong, he nevertheless argues that, in exceptional cases, it represents the ...
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  43. Why Torture is Wrong.Bob Brecher - unknown
    Even people who think torture is justified in certain circumstances regard it - to say the least - as undesirable, however necessary they think it is. So I approach the issue by analysing the extreme case where people such as Dershowitz, Posner and Walzer think torture is justified, the so-called ticking bomb scenario. And since the justification offered is always consequentialist - no one thinks that torture is in any way “good in itself” – I confine myself (...)
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  44. Is Torture Ever Morally Justifiable?Seumas Miller - 2005 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (2):179-192.
    In this paper I argue that torture is morally justified in some extreme emergencies. However, I also argue that notwithstanding the moral permissibility of torture in some extreme emergencies, torture ought not to be legalised or otherwise institutionalised.
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  45. Torture: A Touchstone for Global Social Justice.Bob Brecher - unknown
    This chapter considers the wider significance of torture, addressing the manner in which it represents a touchstone for any universalistic morality, and arguing that it offers a means of refuting any moral relativism, something that ties in closely with my long-term theoretical work in metaethics (eg Getting What You Want? A Critique of Liberal Morality (Routledge: London and New York, 1998; and ongoing work around the ultimate justification of morality). Since torture consists in the erasure of a person (...)
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  46. Torture: When the Unthinkable is Morally Permissible.Mirko Bagaric & Julie Clarke - 2007 - State University of New York Press.
    Argues that there are moral grounds to use torture where the lives of the innocent are at stake.
     
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  47.  71
    A Defense of Torture.Fritz Allhoff - 2005 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (2):243-264.
    In this paper, I argue for the permissibility of torture in idealized cases by application of separation of cases: if torture is permissible given any of the dominant moral theories (and if one of those is correct), then torture is permissible simpliciter and I can discharge the tricky business of trying to adjudicate among conflicting moral views. To be sure, torture is not permissible on all the dominant moral theories as at least Kantianism will prove especially (...)
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  48. Torture and the Dream of Reason.Paul W. Kahn - 2011 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 78 (3):747-766.
    The torture prohibition is not just one rule among many. Its status as an absolute prohibition in both domestic and international law suggests that it lies at the very foundation of the rule of law. Yet, the prohibition is oddly discontinuous with other practices of state sanctioned violence. I argue here that the prohibition functions as much as symbol as norm. To explain what it symbolizes, I deploy some of the interpretive methodology Freud used to interpret dreams. The (...) prohibition is a kind of waking dream. As with other dreams, we must pierce the manifest content to reveal the unconscious meaning. The prohibition, I argue, comes less from a concern about victims than about torturers, for the right to torture was a claim of the sacral monarch. The affective weight of the prohibition emerges from the relationship of law to sovereignty, and to the violent, sacrificial demand of even a popular sovereign. (shrink)
     
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  49.  76
    Torture and the "Distributive Justice" Theory of Self-Defense: An Assessment.Whitley Kaufman - 2008 - Ethics and International Affairs 22 (1):93–115.
    The goal of this feature is to demonstrate that distributive justice is a flawed theory of self-defense and must be rejected, thus undercutting the argument that torture can be justified as self-defense.
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  50. Terrorism and Torture.Fritz Allhoff - 2005 - In Timothy Shanahan (ed.), International Journal of Applied Philosophy. Open Court. pp. 121-134.
    After the events of 9/11, the concept of torture has emerged as one that is both pertinent and provoking. National polls have shown that some Americans support torture in some situations, though the majority still stand opposed. Torture has not received a tremendous amount of discussion in the philosophical literature, though I suspect that the leftward slant of academia would, for the most part, ensure limited support for torture. In this paper, I would like to first (...)
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