BackgroundPrevious studies have found that the decision-making process for stored unused frozen embryos involves much emotional burden influenced by socio-cultural factors. This study aims to ascertain how Japanese patients make a decision on the fate of their frozen embryos: whether to continue storage discard or donate to research.MethodsTen Japanese women who continued storage, 5 who discarded and 16 who donated to research were recruited from our infertility clinic. Tape-recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed for emergent themes.ResultsA model of patients’ decision-making (...) processes for the fate of frozen embryos was developed, with a common emergent theme, “coming to terms with infertility” resulting in either acceptance or postponing acceptance of their infertility. The model consisted of 5 steps: 1) the embryo-transfer moratorium was sustained, 2) the “Mottainai”- embryo and having another child were considered; 3) cost reasonability was taken into account; 4) partner’s opinion was confirmed to finally decide whether to continue or discontinue storage. Those discontinuing, then contemplated 5): the effect of donation. Great emotional conflict was expressed in the theme, steps 2, 4, and 5.ConclusionsPatients’ 5 step decision-making process for the fate of frozen embryos was profoundly affected by various Japanese cultural values and moral standards. At the end of their decision, patients used culturally inherent values and standards to come to terms with their infertility. While there is much philosophical discussion on the moral status of the embryo worldwide, this study, with actual views of patients who own them, will make a significant contribution to empirical ethics from the practical viewpoint. (shrink)
We systematically study several principles and give a principle which is weaker than disjunctive Markov’s principle. We also show that the principle is underivable and strictly weaker than MP∨ in certain extensions of the system EL of elementary analysis.
We identify bar recursion on moduli of continuity as a fundamental notion of constructive mathematics. We show that continuous functions from the Baire space \ to the natural numbers \ which have moduli of continuity with bar recursors are exactly those functions induced by Brouwer operations. The connection between Brouwer operations and bar induction allows us to formulate several continuity principles on the Baire space stated in terms of bar recursion on continuous moduli which naturally characterise some variants of bar (...) induction. These principles state that a certain kind of continuous function from \ to \ admits a modulus of continuity with a bar recursor. The results for the Baire space are recast in the setting of the Cantor space \ using the notion of fan recursor, a bar recursor for binary trees. This yields characterisations of uniformly continuous functions on the Cantor space and fan theorem in terms of fan recursors. The results for the Cantor space hold over the extensional version of intuitionistic arithmetic in all finite types ), and those for the Baire space hold over \ extended with the type for Brouwer operations. Our work places Spector’s bar recursion in a proper context of Brouwer’s intuitionistic mathematics and clarifies the connection between bar recursion and bar induction. (shrink)
Este artigo pretende elucidar alguns aspectos da biografia existencial de Sartre sobre o poeta e romancista Jean Genet. Elucidando a estrutura da obra, veremos que a presente biografia faz emergir o sentido e o peso do social nas análises sartreanas acerca da liberdade.
RESUMO O presente artigo pretende restituir o exame ontofenomenológico da ipseidade e da temporalidade em “L’être et le néant” a partir de dois momentos, quais sejam: fenomenologia das três dimensões temporais e ontologia da temporalidade. Este duplo exame não poderá ser pensado sem uma definição prévia do para-si como ipse temporal que falta de... para..., isto é, como ser que, enquanto nada de ser, é uma falta de ser que busca, em vão, preenchê-la. A impossibilidade deste preenchimento, como buscaremos evidenciar, (...) é ontologicamente necessária para que a temporalização do serpara-si não se deixe infestar com a inércia típica do ser-em-si. ABSTRACT The present article intends to restore, from the Sartrean work L'être et le néant, the ontophenomenological examination of ipseity and temporality, understanding this examination in two moments: phenomenology of the three temporal dimensions and ontology of temporality. This double exam could not be thought without a previous definition of for-itself’s as temporal ipseas lack of from… to…, that is, as a for-itself which, while nothingness of being, is a lack of being that constantly seeks to fill it. The impossibility of this fill-up, as we shall see, is ontologically necessary so that the temporality of the being-for-itself does not let itself infest with the typical inertia of the being-in-itself. (shrink)
Resumo: Este artigo pretende investigar a maneira pela qual o filósofo francês Jean-Paul Sartre enquadra, em sua psicologia fenomenológica da imaginação, a problemática acerca do irreal normal e do irreal patológico. Estruturando psicofenomenologicamente a atividade da consciência imaginante, será possível ver que a imagem difere radicalmente da percepção, mas ambas permanecem, contudo, consciência intencional. Nessa toada, cabe a indagação: se toda consciência imaginante é consciência intencional, como enquadrar as experiências alucinatórias?: The aim of the present article is to investigate how (...) the French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre understood, in his phenomenological psychology of the imagination, the problematic of the "normal unreal" and the "pathological unreal". By psycho-phenomenologically structuring the activity of the imaginative consciousness, we can see that the image differs radically from perception, but both remain intentional consciousness. In this context, it is necessary to ask the following question: if all imaginative consciousness is intentional consciousness, how can we frame hallucinatory experiences? (shrink)
The central problem in the quantum theory of measurement, how to describe the process of state reduction in terms of the quantum mechanical formalism, is solved on the basis of the relativity of quantal states, which implies that once the apparatus is detected in a well-defined state, the object state must reduce to a corresponding one. This is a process termed by Schrödinger disentanglement. Here, it is essential to observe that Renninger's negative result does constitute an actual measurement process. From (...) this point of view, Heisenberg's interpretation of his microscope experiment and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen arguments are reinvestigated. Satisfactory discussions are given to various experimental situations, such as the Stern-Gerlach-type experiment, successive measurements, macroscopic measurements, and Schrödinger's cat. Finally it is proposed to regard a state vector in quantum mechanics as an irreducible physical construct, in Margenau's sense, that is not further analyzable both mathematically and conceptually. (shrink)
We investigate the novel problem of what happens in special relativity and in relativistic field theories whenthree-dimensional space is quantized. First we examine the equation for elastic waves on a linear chain, the simplest example of a quantized medium, and propose, on its analogy, a nonlinearp-k relationp=ħk(sinhkl)/kl for light and material waves. Here,kl is a new variable which represents the space-quantization effect on the plane wave of wave numberk=|k|. (Note thatkl=0 givesp=ħk.) This relation makes the light velocity in vacuum dependent (...) onkl. We postulate, however, that the phase and group velocities of each individual light wave are still invariant, and try to generalize special relativity to the case ofkl ≠ 0. This can be simply done if the invariance ofkl is assumed. Our results suggest that “localization” might be a relative concept. One interesting consequence of our proposal is that relativistic field theories become automatically finite. This comes out without violating unitarity or causality. A precise measurement of velocities of high-energy photons or massive particles is desirable for checking our proposal. (shrink)
Este artigo pretende restituir a leitura que Heidegger e Sartre realizam da filosofia de Descartes, desvelando, a partir disso, as diferentes posições interpretativas que ambos os filósofos tomam em relação ao pensamento cartesiano. Observar-se-á que o tratamento dado por Heidegger à metafísica cartesiana explicita um anti-humanismo contrário ao humanismo sartreano. A partir dessa diferença, seremos capazes de assinalar um distanciamento teórico entre Heidegger e Sartre, distanciamento que poderá revelar, por conseguinte, a maneira peculiar pela qual Sartre opera com os conceitos (...) hedeggerianos em L’être et le néant. Palavras-chave: humanismo; anti-humanismo; fenomenologia; liberdade; metafísica.: This article aims to replace the Hedeigger’s and Sartre’s read from Descarte’s philosophy unveiling, from that, the different interpretive positions that both philosophers take in relation to the Cartesian thought. We will observe that the treatment given by Heidegger to the Cartesian metaphysics reveals an anti-humanism contrary from Sartre’s humanism. From this difference, we will be able to point out a theoretical detachment between Heidegger and Sartre, detachment that may reveal, meanwhile, the peculiar way by which Sartre deals with the Heidegger’s concepts in L’être et le néant. Keywords: humanism; anti-humanism; phenomenology; freedom; metaphysics. (shrink)
Does religion bring peace or war? In order to discuss this fundamental question, it is essential to reflect upon religious education that shapes the views of religion among young generations. This book has developed from the special panel on "Religious Education and Peace" for the 19th World Congress of the International Association for the History of Religions, the largest international organization in religious studies, which took place in Tokyo in March 2005. Its international contributors discuss the kinds of religious education (...) used for peace education that is attempted or needed, in their respective societies faced with tensions and conflicts, not only between different religions but also between religion and secularism. This is the first book in the field that includes both Asian and Western writers. It is an innovative attempt to build a bridge between the study of religion/religious education and peace education. This book was previously published as a special issue of _British Journal of Religious Education_. (shrink)