Results for 'Triage'

241 found
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  1.  54
    Triage During the COVID-19 Epidemic in Spain: Better and Worse Ethical Arguments.Benjamin Herreros, Pablo Gella & Diego Real de Asua - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (7):455-458.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has generated an imbalance between the clinical needs of the population and the effective availability of advanced life support resources. Triage protocols have thus become necessary. Triage decisions in situations of scarce resources were not extraordinary in the pre-COVID-19 era; these protocols abounded in the context of organ transplantation. However, this prior experience was not considered during the COVID-19 outbreak in Spain. Lacking national guidance or public coordination, each hospital has been forced to put forth (...)
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  2.  65
    Trolleys, Triage and Covid-19: The Role of Psychological Realism in Sacrificial Dilemmas.Markus Kneer & Ivar R. Hannikainen - 2022 - Cognition and Emotion 36 (1):137-153.
    At the height of the Covid-19 pandemic, frontline medical professionals at intensive care units around the world faced gruesome decisions about how to ration life-saving medical resources. These events provided a unique lens through which to understand how the public reasons about real-world dilemmas involving trade-offs between human lives. In three studies (total N = 2298), we examined people’s moral attitudes toward the triage of acute coronavirus patients, and found elevated support for utilitarian triage policies. These utilitarian tendencies (...)
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  3.  60
    Triage of Critical Care Resources in COVID-19: A Stronger Role for Justice.Lynette Reid - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (8):526-530.
    Some ethicists assert that there is a consensus that maximising medical outcomes takes precedence as a principle of resource allocation in emergency triage of absolutely scarce resources. But the nature of the current severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 pandemic and the history of debate about balancing equity and efficiency in resource allocation do not support this assertion. I distinguish a number of concerns with justice and balancing considerations that should play a role in critical care triage policy, (...)
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  4.  11
    Frailty Triage: Is Rationing Intensive Medical Treatment on the Grounds of Frailty Ethical?Dominic J. C. Wilkinson - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (11):48-63.
    In early 2020, a number of countries developed and published intensive care triage guidelines for the pandemic. Several of those guidelines, especially in the UK, encouraged the explicit assessment...
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  5.  35
    ICU Triage in an Impending Crisis: Uncertainty, Pre-Emption and Preparation.Dominic Wilkinson - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (5):287-288.
    The COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic raises a host of challenging ethical questions at every level of society. However, some of the most acute questions relate to decision making in intensive care. The problem is that a small but significant proportion of patients develop severe viral pneumonitis and respiratory failure. It now seems likely that the number of critically ill patients will overwhelm the capacity of intensive care units within many health systems, including the National Health Service in the UK. The experience (...)
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  6.  11
    What Triage Issues Reveal: Ethics in the COVID-19 Pandemic in Italy and France.Kristina Orfali - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (4):675-679.
    In today’s pandemic, many countries have experienced shortages of medical resources and many healthcare providers have often been faced with dramatic decisions about how to allocate beds, intensive care, or ventilators. Despite recognizing the need for triage, responses are not the same everywhere, and opinions and practices differ around what guidelines should be used, how they should be implemented, and who should ultimately decide. To some extent, triage issues reflect community values, revealing a given society’s moral standards and (...)
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  7. Trolleys, Triage and Covid-19: The Role of Psychological Realism in Sacrificial Dilemmas.Markus Kneer & Ivar R. Hannikainen - 2021 - Cognition and Emotion 8.
    At the height of the Covid-19 pandemic, frontline medical professionals at intensive care units around the world faced gruesome decisions about how to ration life-saving medical resources. These events provided a unique lens through which to understand how the public reasons about real-world dilemmas involving trade-offs between human lives. In three studies (total N = 2298), we examined people’s moral attitudes toward triage of acute coronavirus patients, and found elevated support for utilitarian triage policies. These utilitarian tendencies did (...)
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  8. The Toughest Triage — Allocating Ventilators in a Pandemic.Robert D. Truog, Christine Mitchell & George Q. Daley - 2020 - New England Journal of Medicine.
    The Covid-19 pandemic has led to severe shortages of many essential goods and services, from hand sanitizers and N-95 masks to ICU beds and ventilators. Although rationing is not unprecedented, never before has the American public been faced with the prospect of having to ration medical goods and services on this scale.
     
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  9.  26
    Systemising Triage: COVID-19 Guidelines and Their Underlying Theories of Distributive Justice.Lukas J. Meier - forthcoming - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has been overwhelming public health-care systems around the world. With demand exceeding the availability of medical resources in several regions, hospitals have been forced to invoke triage. To ensure that this difficult task proceeds in a fair and organised manner, governments scrambled experts to draft triage guidelines under enormous time pressure. Although there are similarities between the documents, they vary considerably in how much weight their respective authors place on the different criteria that they propose. (...)
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  10.  5
    Pandemic Triage Criteria by COVID-19: Multiple approaches.Veronica Luzuriaga, Gabriela Rueda, Josue Quiroga, Gitti Montesdeoca & Jose Calahorrano - 2022 - Minerva 3 (7):25-36.
    This paper presents the most relevant criteria considered in the face of a lack of resources and medical infrastructure to prioritize the treatment of patients affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. From a systematic review, points of view have been collected considering the medical and social fields. Multiple divergences were found in these views depending on the countries, resources, religious approaches, and political aspects that have been adapted according to the circumstances of each nation. Keywords: Triage, COVID-19, public health.
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  11.  18
    Recommendations on COVID‐19 Triage: International Comparison and Ethical Analysis.Susanne Jöbges, Rasita Vinay, Valerie A. Luyckx & Nikola Biller‐Andorno - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (9):948-959.
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  12.  45
    Triage and Justice in an Unjust Pandemic: Ethical Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources in the Setting of Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities.Benjamin Tolchin, Sarah C. Hull & Katherine Kraschel - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (3):200-202.
    Shortages of life-saving medical resources caused by COVID-19 have prompted hospitals, healthcare systems, and governmentsto develop crisis standards of care, including 'triage protocols' to potentially ration medical supplies during the public health emergency. At the same time, the pandemic has highlighted and exacerbated racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic health disparities that together constitute a form of structural racism. These disparities pose a critical ethical challenge in developing fair triage systems that will maximize lives saved without perpetuating systemic inequities. Here (...)
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  13. Triage and Equality: An Historical Reassessment of Utilitarian Analyses of Triage.Robert Baker & Martin Strosberg - 1992 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 2 (2):103-123.
  14. A Triage Theory of Grading: The Good, the Bad, and the Middling.William J. Rapaport - 2011 - Teaching Philosophy 34 (4):347–372.
    This essay presents and defends a triage theory of grading: An item to be graded should get full credit if and only if it is clearly or substantially correct, minimal credit if and only if it is clearly or substantially incorrect, and partial credit if and only if it is neither of the above; no other (intermediate) grades should be given. Details on how to implement this are provided, and further issues in the philosophy of grading (reasons for and (...)
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  15.  2
    Triage Criteria: Medically, Ethically or Socially Defined?Kristina Orfali - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (11):77-79.
    While triage protocols share a common goal—maximizing life by selecting patients who would most benefit from critical care—there are many variations in the selection of criterion to respond to situ...
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  16.  2
    Triage: Medical Details and Words Matter.Rosamond Rhodes & Jolion McGreevy - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (11):64-67.
    In a previous paper, Dominic Wilkinson and colleagues argued in support of the British National Health System utility maximizing triage policies that allocate medical resources to ensure the...
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  17.  39
    Memory as Triage: Facing Up to the Hard Question of Memory.Nikola Andonovski - 2021 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 12 (2):227-256.
    The Hard Question of memory is the following: how are memory representations stored and organized so as to be made available for retrieval in the appropriate circumstances and format? In this essay, I argue that philosophical theories of memory should engage with the Hard Question directly and seriously. I propose that declarative memory is a faculty performing a kind of cognitive triage: management of information for a variety of uses under significant computational constraints. In such triage, memory representations (...)
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  18.  2
    Triage of the Elderly in the Period of the COVID-19 Pandemic Crisis as a Bioethical Process.Peter Firment, Štefánia Andraščíková, Zuzana Novotná & Rudolf Novotný - 2021 - Ethics and Bioethics (in Central Europe) 11 (3-4):142-152.
    The paper discusses the problem of triaging the elderly in the period of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis by analyzing the triage process, caused by lack of resources, in Germany, Holland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia. We apply inductive, deductive, and normative bioethical methods, comment on various recommendations for the indication of intensive care during a crisis, and discuss the utilitarianism of benefit maximization. As it follows from the evaluation of the elderly by the frailty parameter, medically inappropriate treatment, as (...)
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  19.  74
    The Turing Triage Test.Robert Sparrow - 2004 - Ethics and Information Technology 6 (4):203-213.
    If, as a number of writers have predicted, the computers of the future will possess intelligence and capacities that exceed our own then it seems as though they will be worthy of a moral respect at least equal to, and perhaps greater than, human beings. In this paper I propose a test to determine when we have reached that point. Inspired by Alan Turing’s (1950) original “Turing test”, which argued that we would be justified in conceding that machines could think (...)
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  20.  4
    Ethical Triage Demands a Better Triage Survivability Score.Matthew K. Wynia & Peter D. Sottile - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (7):75-77.
    Volume 20, Issue 7, July 2020, Page 75-77.
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  21. Beyond Individual Triage: Regional Allocation of Life-Saving Resources such as Ventilators in Public Health Emergencies.Jonathan Pugh, Dominic Wilkinson, Cesar Palacios-Gonzalez & Julian Savulescu - 2021 - Health Care Analysis 29 (4):263-282.
    In the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers in some countries were forced to make distressing triaging decisions about which individual patients should receive potentially life-saving treatment. Much of the ethical discussion prompted by the pandemic has concerned which moral principles should ground our response to these individual triage questions. In this paper we aim to broaden the scope of this discussion by considering the ethics of broader structural allocation decisions raised by the COVID-19 pandemic. More specifically, (...)
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  22.  7
    Reverse Triage and People Whose Disabilities Render Them Dependent on Ventilators.Nathan Emmerich & Pat McConville - 2021 - Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 2:49-61.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has occasioned a great deal of ethical reflection both in general and on the issue of reverse triage; a practice that effectively reallocates resources from one patient to another on the basis of the latter having a more favourable clinical prognosis. This paper addresses a specific concern that has arisen in relation to such proposals: the potential reallocation of ventilators relied upon by disabled or chronically ill patients. This issue is examined via three morally parallel scenarios. (...)
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  23.  20
    Triage and the Patient with Renal Failure.V. Parsons & P. Lock - 1980 - Journal of Medical Ethics 6 (4):173-176.
    The call for 'triage' as a specific policy for the selection of patients presenting with chronic renal failure, in the light of increasingly limited resources prompted us to question nephrologist on their bases for selection. We discovered no absolute criteria for rejection, but a consensus of opinion against those with additional and complicating factors to their renal disease such as age, hepatitis carriers and mental illness-a bias seen throughout the National Health Service. In this paper we discuss the validity (...)
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  24.  29
    Ethical Considerations of Triage Following Natural Disasters: The IDF Experience in Haiti as a Case Study.Efrat Ram-Tiktin - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (4):467-475.
    Natural disasters in populated areas may result in massive casualties and extensive destruction of infrastructure. Humanitarian aid delegations may have to cope with the complicated issue of patient prioritization under conditions of severe resource scarcity. A triage model, consisting of five principles, is proposed for the prioritization of patients, and it is argued that rational and reasonable agents would agree upon them. The Israel Defense Force's humanitarian mission to Haiti following the 2010 earthquake serves as a case study for (...)
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  25.  7
    Triaging Ethical Issues in the Coronavirus Pandemic: How to Prioritize Bioethics Research During Public Health Emergencies.David Shaw - 2021 - Bioethics 35 (4):380-384.
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  26.  23
    Triage, Treatment, and Torture: Ethical Challenges for US Military Medicine in Iraq.Christian Enemark - 2008 - Journal of Military Ethics 7 (3):186-201.
  27. Triage and Critical Care of Children.Andrew Griffin & David C. Thomasma - 1983 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 4 (2).
    Critical care as a discipline has become so expensive that some have proposed extensive limitations on the amount of money devoted to it by society. In this paper that issue is examined with respect to pediatric and neonatal intensive care. Initially, a case is presented which includes many of the ethical and economic issues. The neonatal population at present has a tolerable median cost, with a distinctly higher average cost created by many special cases such as the one described with (...)
     
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  28.  9
    Ethicists, Doctors and Triage Decisions: Who Should Decide? And on What Basis?Silvia Camporesi & Maurizio Mori - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):18-18.
    We report here an emerging dispute in Italy concerning triage criteria for critically ill covid-19 patients, and how best to support doctors having to make difficult decisions in a context of insufficient life saving resources. The dispute we present is particularly significant as it juxtaposes two opposite views of who should make triage decisions, and how doctors should best be supported. There are both empirical and normative questions at stake here. The empirical questions pertain to the available level (...)
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  29.  8
    Triage, Consent and Trusting Black Boxes.Kenneth Boyd - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (5):289-290.
    The coronavirus pandemic has brought to public attention a variety of questions long debated in medical ethics, but now given both added urgency and wider publicity. Among these is triage, with its origins in deciding which individual lives are to be saved on a battlefield, but now also concerned with the allocation of scarce resources more generally. On the historical battlefield, decisions about whom to treat first – neither those who would survive without treatment, nor those who would not (...)
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  30.  37
    Triage as a Species Preservation Strategy.David H. Bennett - 1986 - Environmental Ethics 8 (1):47-58.
    In this paper I discuss what triage is and how it might be applied to the preservation of endangered species. I compare the suggested application oftriage to endangered species with its application to wartime military practice, distribution of food aid, and human population control to show that the situation of endangered species is not analogous to these other suggested uses. I argue that, as far as species preservation is concemed, triage starts with the wrong norms and values: it (...)
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  31.  20
    Triage in Response to a Bioterrorist Attack.James F. Childress - 2003 - In Jonathan D. Moreno (ed.), In the Wake of Terror: Medicine and Morality in a Time of Crisis. MIT Press. pp. 77--93.
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  32.  10
    Triage in the ICU.Robert D. Truog - 1992 - Hastings Center Report 22 (3):13-17.
  33. The Other Side of Triage: When Access to Intensive Care Measures May Do More Harm Than Good.Mark D. Siegel, Danish Zaidi & Katherine J. Feder - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (11):79-82.
    During periods of scarcity, or the fear of it, many health systems create or adopt triage protocols to determine how to best allocate limited resources. Interest in such protocols has become acute...
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  34.  6
    Reconceptualizing Triage to Incorporate Principles of Risk and Uncertainty: An Example From Deep Brain Stimulation Patients with Treatment-Resistant Disorders.Lavina Kalwani, Kristin Kostick, Eric A. Storch & Gabriel Lázaro-Muñoz - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (7):207-209.
    Volume 20, Issue 7, July 2020, Page 207-209.
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  35.  10
    Should Age Matter in COVID-19 Triage? A Deliberative Study.Margot N. I. Kuylen, Scott Y. Kim, Alexander Ruck Keene & Gareth S. Owen - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (5):291-295.
    The COVID-19 pandemic put a large burden on many healthcare systems, causing fears about resource scarcity and triage. Several COVID-19 guidelines included age as an explicit factor and practices of both triage and ‘anticipatory triage’ likely limited access to hospital care for elderly patients, especially those in care homes. To ensure the legitimacy of triage guidelines, which affect the public, it is important to engage the public’s moral intuitions. Our study aimed to explore general public views (...)
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  36.  7
    Triage as a Species Preservation Strategy.David H. Bennett - 1986 - Environmental Ethics 8 (1):47-58.
    In this paper I discuss what triage is and how it might be applied to the preservation of endangered species. I compare the suggested application oftriage to endangered species with its application to wartime military practice, distribution of food aid, and human population control to show that the situation of endangered species is not analogous to these other suggested uses. I argue that, as far as species preservation is concemed, triage starts with the wrong norms and values: it (...)
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  37. Moral Triage.Janet Fleetwood - 1985 - Dissertation, University of Southern California
    The problem of allocation of health care is a special case of the issue of the proper distribution of society's resources. Health care is often treated as a problem of social justice for society as a whole. In contrast, I argue that it rests on a moral argument about what is rightfully owed to individuals. This has wide implications because, by using health care as a model, "Moral Triage" establishes guidelines for the scope of societal duties. ;"Moral Triage" (...)
     
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  38.  18
    Triage and Justice: The Ethics of Rationing Life-Saving Medical Resources Gerald R. Winslow Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982. Pp. 240. $19.95. [REVIEW]Abbyann Lynch - 1983 - Dialogue 22 (4):754-756.
  39.  7
    Triage of Two Cultures.Kaveh Danesh - 2019 - Journal of Medical Humanities 40 (4):625-625.
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  40.  13
    IRB Triage of Projects That Involve Medical Record Review.Robert Amdur, Marjorie A. Speers & Elizabeth Bankert - 2000 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 22 (1):4.
  41.  54
    Veralltäglichung der Triage?Shortage of Resources in Disaster Medicine and in Everyday Medicine – A Study on the Transferability of Triage Principles to Problems of Rationing.Weyma Lübbe - 2001 - Ethik in der Medizin 13 (3):148-160.
    Definition of the problem: In disaster medicine, allocation of scarce resources to patients (triage) is oriented towards maximizing the number of survivors. In everyday medicine, rationing according to this principle is less accepted and may even be scandalized because it discriminates against ”expensive” patients. How is the difference to be accounted for, and will it remain stable? Arguments: It is argued that utilitarian aggregation (be it of pain or of deaths) is not morally respectable as such. Acceptance of (...) in disaster medicine is due to the fact that in advance of the disaster everybody’s own interest lies in a procedure which maximizes survivors (ex ante-consensus). A general transfer of this idea to everyday medicine is not plausible because in this area there is much more ex ante-knowledge as to who will be the winner or the loser when the maximizing rule is adopted. Other factors which, in addition, help to assess the status of the maximizing rule are also discussed. Conclusion: It is not to be expected (and it is not justifiable) that under increasing cost pressure, the maximizing rule will become a general and uncontested ethical principle for rationing in everyday medicine. (shrink)
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  42.  73
    Triage and Justice: The Ethics of Rationing Life-Saving Medical Resources. [REVIEW]Peter Singer - 1983 - Ethics 94 (1):142-143.
  43. Triage in Social Policy.Mikko A. Salo - 2001 - Acta Philosophica Fennica 68:155-172.
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  44.  10
    A Critique of the Use of the Clinical Frailty Scale in Triage.Sunit Das & Chloë G. K. Atkins - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (11):67-68.
    We read with interest Dominic Wilkinson’s article “Frailty Triage: Is Rationing Intensive Medical Treatment on the Grounds of Frailty Ethical?” on the utility of the Clinical Frailty Score in...
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  45. Triage-III.Cj Brainerd - 1990 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (6):526-526.
     
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  46. Triage Education: From Experience to Practice Standards.Stephen McNally - forthcoming - Philosophy.
     
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  47.  15
    Triage and Justice: The Ethics of Rationing Life-Saving Medical Resources. [REVIEW]Elizabeth Telfer - 1986 - International Studies in Philosophy 18 (3):112-113.
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  48. Can Machines Be People? Reflections on the Turing Triage Test.Robert Sparrow - 2012 - In Patrick Lin, Keith Abney & George Bekey (eds.), Robot Ethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Robotics. MIT Press. pp. 301-315.
    In, “The Turing Triage Test”, published in Ethics and Information Technology, I described a hypothetical scenario, modelled on the famous Turing Test for machine intelligence, which might serve as means of testing whether or not machines had achieved the moral standing of people. In this paper, I: (1) explain why the Turing Triage Test is of vital interest in the context of contemporary debates about the ethics of AI; (2) address some issues that complexify the application of this (...)
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  49.  30
    COVID-19 Vaccination Status Should Not Be Used in Triage Tie-Breaking.Olivia Schuman, Joelle Robertson-Preidler & Trevor M. Bibler - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics:1-3.
    This article discusses the triage response to the COVID-19 delta variant surge of 2021. One issue that distinguishes the delta wave from earlier surges is that by the time it became the predominant strain in the USA in July 2021, safe and effective vaccines against COVID-19 had been available for all US adults for several months. We consider whether healthcare professionals and triage committees would have been justified in prioritising patients with COVID-19 who are vaccinated above those who (...)
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  50.  15
    Triage and Justice: The Ethics of Rationing Life-Saving Medical Resources.Elizabeth Telfer - 1986 - International Studies in Philosophy 18 (3):112-113.
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