Results for 'Trond A. Tj��stheim'

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  1.  12
    Intelligence as Accurate Prediction.Trond A. Tjøstheim & Andreas Stephens - 2022 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 13 (2):475-499.
    This paper argues that intelligence can be approximated by the ability to produce accurate predictions. It is further argued that general intelligence can be approximated by context dependent predictive abilities combined with the ability to use working memory to abstract away contextual information. The flexibility associated with general intelligence can be understood as the ability to use selective attention to focus on specific aspects of sensory impressions to identify patterns, which can then be used to predict events in novel situations (...)
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  2.  24
    Intelligence as Accurate Prediction.Trond A. Tjøstheim & Andreas Stephens - 2022 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (2):475-499.
    This paper argues that intelligence can be approximated by the ability to produce accurate predictions. It is further argued that general intelligence can be approximated by context dependent predictive abilities combined with the ability to use working memory to abstract away contextual information. The flexibility associated with general intelligence can be understood as the ability to use selective attention to focus on specific aspects of sensory impressions to identify patterns, which can then be used to predict events in novel situations (...)
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  3.  4
    The Cognitive Philosophy of Communication.Trond A. Tjøstheim, Andreas Stephens, Andrey Anikin & Arthur Schwaninger - 2020 - Philosophies 5 (39):39-0.
    Numerous species use different forms of communication in order to successfully interact in their respective environment. This article seeks to elucidate limitations of the classical conduit metaphor by investigating communication from the perspectives of biology and artificial neural networks. First, communication is a biological natural phenomenon, found to be fruitfully grounded in an organism’s embodied structures and memory system, where specific abilities are tied to procedural, semantic, and episodic long-term memory as well as to working memory. Second, the account explicates (...)
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  4.  4
    The Cognitive Philosophy of Reflection.Andreas Stephens & Trond A. Tjøstheim - 2022 - Erkenntnis 87 (5):2219-2242.
    Hilary Kornblith argues that many traditional philosophical accounts involve problematic views of reflection (understood as second-order mental states). According to Kornblith, reflection does not add reliability, which makes it unfit to underlie a separate form of knowledge. We show that a broader understanding of reflection, encompassing Type 2 processes, working memory, and episodic long-term memory, can provide philosophy with elucidating input that a restricted view misses. We further argue that reflection in fact often does add reliability, through generalizability, flexibility, and (...)
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  5.  7
    A Dynamical Perspective on the Generality Problem.Andreas Stephens, Trond A. Tjøstheim, Maximilian K. Roszko & Erik J. Olsson - 2021 - Acta Analytica 36 (3):409-422.
    The generality problem is commonly considered to be a critical difficulty for reliabilism. In this paper, we present a dynamical perspective on the problem in the spirit of naturalized epistemology. According to this outlook, it is worth investigating how token belief-forming processes instantiate specific types in the biological agent’s cognitive architecture and background experience, consisting in the process of attractor-guided neural activation. While our discussion of the generality problem assigns “scientific types” to token processes, it represents a unified account in (...)
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  6.  4
    The Cognitive Basis of the Conditional Probability Solution to the Value Problem for Reliabilism.Erik J. Olsson, Trond A. Tjøstheim, Andreas Stephens, Arthur Schwaninger & Maximilian Roszko - forthcoming - Acta Analytica:1-22.
    The value problem for knowledge is the problem of explaining why knowledge is more valuable than mere true belief. The problem arises for reliabilism in particular, i.e., the externalist view that knowledge amounts to reliably acquired true belief. Goldman and Olsson argue that knowledge, in this sense, is more valuable than mere true belief due to the higher likelihood of future true beliefs (produced by the same reliable process) in the case of knowledge. They maintain that their solution works given (...)
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  7.  14
    The Missing Link Between Memory and Reinforcement Learning.Christian Balkenius, Trond A. Tjøstheim, Birger Johansson, Annika Wallin & Peter Gärdenfors - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Reinforcement learning systems usually assume that a value function is defined over all states that can immediately give the value of a particular state or action. These values are used by a selection mechanism to decide which action to take. In contrast, when humans and animals make decisions, they collect evidence for different alternatives over time and take action only when sufficient evidence has been accumulated. We have previously developed a model of memory processing that includes semantic, episodic and working (...)
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  8.  36
    Cleeremans, A. 282 Cotman, CW 229 Creary, LG 59 f.(n. 16), 70 (n. 26) Crick, F. 227 Crow, TJ 233.A. A. Abrahamsen, D. M. Armstrong, V. H. Auerbach, R. Avenarius, F. J. Ayala, Ke Von Baer, D. A. Bantz, H. Barlow, E. Buchner & T. Burge - 1992 - In Ansgar Beckermann, H. Flohr & Jaegwon Kim (eds.), Emergence or Reduction?: Essays on the Prospects of Nonreductive Physicalism. W. De Gruyter.
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  9. review of TJ Clark,'Farewell to an Idea: Episodes from a History of Modernism', and OK Werckmeister,'Icons of the Left: Benjamin and Eisenstein, Picasso and Kafka after the Fall of Communism'. [REVIEW]A. Hemingway & P. Jaskot - 2001 - Historical Materialism: Research in Critical Marxist Theory 7:257-280.
     
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  10. Kurtz, P. and Madigan, TJ (eds) for The Academy of Humanism, Challenges to the Enlightenment: In Defense of Reason and Science, Buffalo, Prometheus Books, 1994, 319, US $25.95 (cloth). Lamarque, P. and Olsen, SH, Truth, Fiction, andLiteratare: A PhilosophicalPerspective, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1994, xii, 481, A $130.00 (cloth). [REVIEW]A. Musgrave - 1995 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 73 (2).
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  11.  11
    Alienation in a digitalized world.Trond Haga - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):801-814.
    In this paper, the aim is to study how the work organization in one specific company for one specific trade has changed over time and with these changes, the presence and absence of alienation of employees in this trade. Blauner’s U-shaped alienation development trend has been a reference in discussions on alienation. It displays a connection between the degree of alienation and technological development. The findings from this study verify the trend and the connection in the case company. However, although (...)
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  12.  19
    Orchestration of network instruments: a way to de-emphasize the partition between incremental change and innovation? [REVIEW]Trond Haga - 2009 - AI and Society 23 (1):17-31.
    Incremental change and innovation are often regarded as two separate concepts, with some interconnections. Based on two practical cases that emphasize respectively incremental change and innovation, the article discusses whether a division between these concepts can be maintained. Action research is seen as having a central role, offering an integral working method in industrial networks.
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  13. The Evaluation of a Work of Art: The Problem of Minimalism in Art and Philosophy: Mutual Connections and Inspirations.Tj Diffey - 1988 - Dialectics and Humanism 15 (1-2):79-93.
  14.  17
    Thinking like a mountain: encountering nature as an antidote to Humankind’s Hostility towards the earth.Trond Gansmo Jakobsen - 2018 - Journal of Critical Realism 18 (1):45-55.
    ABSTRACTPatric Baert suggests that ‘encountering difference’, as we might when immersing ourselves in new cultural settings, allows us to redescribe and reconceptualise ourselves, our culture and our surroundings. By so doing, individuals can learn to see themselves, their own culture and their own presuppositions from a different point of view. They can then contrast their interpretations with alternative forms of life; and this is a requirement both for learning about themselves and coming to understand others. There is evidence that such (...)
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  15. A critique of pure vision In C.Churchland Ps Ramachandran Vs Sejnowski Tj - 1994 - In Christof Koch & J. Davis (eds.), Large-Scale Neuronal Theories of the Brain. MIT Press.
     
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  16.  9
    A.P. Bos. De ziel en haar voertuig. Aristoteles’ psychologie geherinterpreteerd en de eenheid van zijn oeuvre gedemonstreerd. Leende, 1999: Damon.144 pp. ISBN 90 5573 060 2. [REVIEW]Tj H. Janssen - 2000 - Philosophia Reformata 65 (2):195-197.
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  17.  13
    The ecclesiology of communion: On the church as a vertically grounded, socially directed and ecumenically committed fellowship.1.Ola Tjørhom - 2010 - Heythrop Journal 51 (5):893-900.
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  18. God's Knowledge of Future Contingent Singulars: A Reply.Tj Kondoleon - 1992 - The Thomist 56 (1):117-139.
     
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  19. Unexpected desolation+ a review article on books by Clark, tj, Kinsley, David , Lipton, Eunice and Stella, Frank.Ph Salus - 1989 - Semiotica 75 (3-4):357-363.
     
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  20. Konrad Lorenz as Evolutionary Epistemologist: The Problem of Intentionality in Naturalistic Epistemology: A Symposium of Two Decades.Tj Kalikow - 1987 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 100:113-144.
  21.  26
    Centre and Periphery of Nano—A Norwegian Context.Kåre Nolde Nielsen, Trond Grønli Åm & Rune Nydal - 2011 - NanoEthics 5 (1):87-98.
    This work describes the nano field in Norway as currently emerging in the dynamics between two forms of nano research activities described along a centre-periphery axis. 1) There are strategic research initiatives committed to redeem the envisioned potential of the field by means of social and material reorganisation of existing research activities. This activity is seen as central as it is one of our premises that the standard circulating nano vision implies such a work of reorganisation. The fact that nano (...)
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  22.  14
    Achieving concrete utopia through knowledge, ethics and transformative learning.Trond Gansmo Jakobsen - 2018 - Journal of Critical Realism 17 (3):282-296.
    ABSTRACTRoy Bhaskar's concrete utopianism assumes that a key role for intellectuals, given the current precarious situation of humanity, is the envisaging of alternative possible futures, coherently grounded in the deep structure of what already exists, which includes what people already know and have. Without this grounding, people will not be able to make a persuasive case for change. With this grounding, and by combining the realism of the intellect with the optimism of the will, they may be able to usher (...)
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  23. On the concept of freedom in the'I Ching', a deconstructionist view of self-cultivation.Lj Schulz & Tj Cunningham - 1990 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 17 (3):301-313.
  24.  30
    Action research and innovation in networks, dilemmas and challenges: two cases. [REVIEW]Trond Haga - 2005 - AI and Society 19 (4):362-383.
    Innovation plays a central role in economic development, at regional and national level. The paper takes a practical approach to innovation and the support of entrepreneurship, based on experience of facilitating two contrasting networks of enterprises. Action research is seen as having a central role, but with different approaches according to the innovation process concerned, and the part of the process.
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  25.  24
    Embodied Faith: Reflections on a Materialist Spirituality. By Ola Tjørhom. Pp. xii, 202, Cambridge/Grand Rapids, MI, Eerdmans, 2009, $8.72. [REVIEW]Luke Penkett - 2014 - Heythrop Journal 55 (3):524-525.
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  26.  12
    ""Helping staff help a" hateful" patient: the case of TJ.Joy D. Skeel & Kristi S. Williams - 2005 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 16 (3):202.
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  27.  4
    Embodied Faith: Reflections on a Materialist Spirituality. By Ola Tjørhom. Pp. xii, 202, Cambridge/Grand Rapids, MI, Eerdmans, 2009, $8.72. [REVIEW]Luke Penkett - 2017 - Heythrop Journal 58 (5):836-836.
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  28.  4
    Ineluctably us: early hominid discoveries, mass media, and the reification of human ancestors.Tj Gundling - 2020 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 42 (3):1-27.
    Even as paleoanthropology becomes increasingly sophisticated in revealing both the broad contours and the details of the deep evolutionary history of Homo sapiens, it continues to be informed by lingering pre-evolutionary residues. Specifically, the goal of prior research was to demonstrate that the influence of the ancient Scala Naturae as an organizing principle significantly contributed to the scientific community’s delayed acceptance of Australopithecus as a plesiomorphic member of the Hominidae. The present study extends this research through a selective examination of (...)
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  29.  9
    Measuring Social Performance in Social Enterprises: A Global Study of Microfinance Institutions.Leif Atle Beisland, Kwame Ohene Djan, Roy Mersland & Trond Randøy - 2021 - Journal of Business Ethics 171 (1):51-71.
    Social enterprises in the microfinance industry need to adhere to both financial and social demands. Critics argue that there is a mission drift away from the social mission, and this has motivated the introduction of social rating agencies to strengthen the business ethics of microfinance institutions. Using a global dataset of 204 socially rated MFIs from 58 countries, we assess the factors that drive the social performance ratings of MFIs. Overall our results show that social ratings of MFIs are significantly (...)
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  30.  49
    The case against atheism.Tj Mawson - 2013 - In Stephen Bullivant & Michael Ruse (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Atheism. Oxford University Press. pp. 22.
    This essay begins by remarking that the broad understanding of atheism is not a position that theism per se commits one to claiming is unreasonable. The essay then, however, proceeds to present an argument against atheism being reasonable. This constitutes a variant of the fine-tuning version of the Design Argument, and contends that both the universe’s fine-tuning to us, and our fine-tuning to the universe, are better explained by the ‘God hypothesis’ than by a range of alternatives. While admitting that (...)
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  31.  10
    A final note to Gilkey.Tore Lindholm, Nils Chr Stenseth & Audfinn Tjønneland - 1988 - Biology and Philosophy 3 (4):497-499.
  32.  89
    Trust in Nanotechnology? On Trust as Analytical Tool in Social Research on Emerging Technologies.Trond Grønli Åm - 2011 - NanoEthics 5 (1):15-28.
    Trust has become an important aspect of evaluating the relationship between lay public and technology implementation. Experiences have shown that a focus on trust provides a richer understanding of reasons for backlashes of technology in society than a mere focus of public understanding of risks and science communication. Therefore, trust is also widely used as a key concept for understanding and predicting trust or distrust in emerging technologies. But whereas trust broadens the scope for understanding established technologies with well-defined questions (...)
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  33.  6
    Social Psychology of Coronavirus Disease 2019: Do Fatalism and Comparative Optimism Affect Attitudes and Adherence to Sanitary Protocols?Trond Nordfjaern, Milad Mehdizadeh & Mohsen Fallah Zavareh - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    The potential of mitigating the spreading rate and consequences of the coronavirus disease 2019 currently depends on adherence to sanitary protocols. The current study aimed to investigate the role of fatalism and comparative optimism for adherence to COVID-19 protocols. We also tested whether these factors are directly associated with adherence or associated through attitudinal mediation. The results were based on a web survey conducted among university students in Tehran, Iran. The respondents completed a multidimensional measure of fatalism and measures of (...)
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  34.  24
    Praying for outcomes one knows would be bad.Tj Mawson - 2013 - Religious Studies 49 (4):551-560.
    In this article, I consider what states of knowledge of the value of outcomes are consistent with a classical theist's praying to God that He bring about those outcomes. I proceed from a consideration of the cases which seem least problematic (the theist knows these outcomes to be ones which would be, at least after they've been prayed for, best or at least good), through a consideration of cases where the outcomes prayed for are ones the goodness and badness of (...)
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  35.  3
    Gender Differences in Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms after a Terrorist Attack: A Network Approach.Marianne S. Birkeland, Ines Blix, Øivind Solberg & Trond Heir - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  36.  8
    The Cognitive Philosophy of Reflection.Andreas Stephens & Trond Arild Tjöstheim - 2020 - Erkenntnis:1-24.
    Hilary Kornblith argues that many traditional philosophical accounts involve problematic views of reflection. According to Kornblith, reflection does not add reliability, which makes it unfit to underlie a separate form of knowledge. We show that a broader understanding of reflection, encompassing Type 2 processes, working memory, and episodic long-term memory, can provide philosophy with elucidating input that a restricted view misses. We further argue that reflection in fact often does add reliability, through generalizability, flexibility, and creativity that is helpful in (...)
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  37.  5
    Sustainability, interdisciplinarity and transformative change: a critical realist response to the crisis system.Lene Nyhus, Eirin Annamo & Trond Gansmo Jakobsen - 2019 - Journal of Critical Realism 18 (4):347-351.
    Volume 18, Issue 4, August 2019, Page 347-351.
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  38.  4
    ‘I think in some way you’re afraid to lose your dignity maybe’: Exploring Danish girls’ concerns in relation to sexual activity.Tine Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Bodil Maria Pedersen & Katrine Bindesbøl Holm Johansen - 2020 - European Journal of Women's Studies 27 (2):166-180.
    This article explores the issue of girls’ concerns about sexual activity in a liberal Nordic context. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork among young people in Denmark, the article identifies three types of concerns girls can have about sexual activity: social expectations, relational expectations and dignity. Whilst contemporary research has tended to focus on the influence different sexual morality discourses have in shaping different expectations and concerns about these, little attention seems to be paid to girls’ normative concerns about sex related to (...)
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  39. Social Signs and Natural Bodies: On TJ Clark's Farewell to an Idea: Episodes from a History of Modernism.J. Bernstein - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  40.  4
    Does Wealth Matter for Responsible Investment? Experimental Evidence on the Weighing of Financial and Moral Arguments.Lars Jacob Tynes Pedersen & Trond Døskeland - 2021 - Business and Society 60 (3):650-683.
    Responsible investment is increasingly prevalent, and both financial and moral concerns can drive such investment. In this article, we investigate how responsible investors of different wealth weigh financial and moral arguments. Prior research on different factors that may codetermine responsible investment behavior yield competing predictions about the influence of personal wealth on investment. We conduct a large-scale natural field experiment on responsible investment, wherein we treat investors with financial, moral, and no arguments. We find that there is a statistically and (...)
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  41.  2
    ‘Will God condemn me because I love boxing?’ Narratives of young female immigrant Muslim boxers in Norway.Jorid Hovden & Anne Tjønndal - 2021 - European Journal of Women's Studies 28 (4):455-470.
    This article examines the religious and gendered identities of female immigrant Muslim boxers. We aim to investigate the power relations, dominant ideologies and prejudices that are underpinning the life stories of these women boxers, as well as the moments of joy, freedom and transformation that their sport participation may include. The data are derived from life story interviews with two young female immigrant Muslim boxers in Norway. The theoretical framework is based on intersectionality and sociological theories of sport as a (...)
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  42.  19
    Is learning involved in plasticity in nociceptive regulation?Kjell Hole, Frode Svendsen & Arne Tjølsen - 1997 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):452-453.
    Plastic changes in spinal cord function like neuronal wind-up and increased receptive field are too short-lived to explain chronic pain without structural changes. It is possible that learning could be a mechanism for longlasting changes in nociceptive regulation. A learning process localized to the spinal cord has been shown to be important for the development of tolerance to the analgetic effect of ethanol, suggesting that nociceptive control systems may be changed by learning. Long term potentiation (LTP) is regarded as a (...)
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  43.  21
    Aligning Semantic Graphs for Textual Inference and Machine Reading.Marie-Catherine de Marneffe, Trond Grenager, Bill MacCartney, Daniel Cer, Daniel Ramage, Chloe Kiddon & Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    This paper presents our work on textual inference and situates it within the context of the larger goals of machine reading. The textual inference task is to determine if the meaning of one text can be inferred from the meaning of another and from background knowledge. Our system generates semantic graphs as a representation of the meaning of a text. This paper presents new results for aligning pairs of semantic graphs, and proposes the application of natural logic to derive inference (...)
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  44.  19
    Resistance to Change in the Corporate Elite: Female Directors’ Appointments onto Nordic Boards.Aleksandra Gregorič, Lars Oxelheim, Trond Randøy & Steen Thomsen - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 141 (2):267-287.
    In this empirical study, we investigate the variation in firms’ response to institutional pressure for gender-balanced boards, focusing specifically on the preservation of prevailing practices of director selection and its impact on the representation of women on the board of directors. Using 8 years of data from publicly listed Nordic corporations, we show societal pressure to be one of the determinants of female directorship. Moreover, in some corporations, the director selection process may work to maintain “a traditional type of board”. (...)
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  45.  4
    Reflections on philosophy of nanoscience from nanoscience practitioners.Fern Wickson, Raymond Nepstad, Trond Åm & Mathias Winkler - 2008 - Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 2 (2):73-92.
    In this paper we present findings from an experiment involving both scientists working at the nanoscale and philosophers interested in this emerging field of research. Early career scientists working at the nanoscale were asked to read, discuss and debate two examples of philosophy of science that had been written with a specific focus on nanoscale science and technology. The papers that our participating scientists were asked to read were one by Jan Schmidt and one by George Khushf. These papers are (...)
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  46.  54
    Learning Alignments and Leveraging Natural Logic.Nathanael Chambers, Daniel Cer, Trond Grenager, David Hall, Chloe Kiddon, Bill MacCartney, Marie-Catherine de Marneffe, Daniel Ramage, Eric Yeh & Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    We describe an approach to textual inference that improves alignments at both the typed dependency level and at a deeper semantic level. We present a machine learning approach to alignment scoring, a stochastic search procedure, and a new tool that finds deeper semantic alignments, allowing rapid development of semantic features over the aligned graphs. Further, we describe a complementary semantic component based on natural logic, which shows an added gain of 3.13% accuracy on the RTE3 test set.
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  47. Towards a minimal conception of transitional justice.Valentina Gentile & Megan Foster - 2021 - International Theory 12 (1).
    Transitional Justice (TJ) focuses on the processes of dealing with the legacy of large-scale past abuses (in the aftermath of traumatic experiences such as war or authoritarianism) with the aim of fostering domestic justice and creating the basis for a sustainable peace. TJ however also entails the problem of how a torn society may be able to become a self-determining member of a just international order. This paper presents a minimal conception of TJ, which departs from Rawls' conception of normative (...)
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  48.  26
    A Poggean passport for fairness? Why Rawls’ Theory of Justice did not become global.Shmuel Nili - 2010 - Ethics and Global Politics 3 (4):277-301.
    Thomas Pogge has been challenging liberal thinking on global politics, often through critical engagement with John Rawls’ work. Pogge presents both normative and empirical arguments against Rawls: normatively, Rawls’ domestic Theory of Justice and global Law of Peoples are incompatible ideal theories; empirically, LP is too removed from the actual world to guide the foreign policy of liberal societies. My main purpose here is to contest the first, ideal theory criticism in order to direct more attention to the second, non-ideal (...)
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  49. Zjawisko a rzeczywistość – wpływ poglądów Bertranda Russella na koncepcję wielości rzeczywistości Leona Chwistka.Tomasz Femiak - 2022 - Studia Philosophiae Christianae 58 (1):47-72.
    W artykule omówione zostały główne publikacje Bertranda Russella z lat 1905-1921 jako stanowiące inspirację dla powstania teorii wielości rzeczywistości Leona Chwistka. W ten sposób ukazano tło historyczne, tj. wpływ podnoszonych przez Russella zagadnień na postawę badawczą Chwistka. Artykuł zawiera także zestawienie poglądów obu filozofów oraz ocenę podobieństw i różnic między nimi. ----------------------- Zgłoszono: 28/03/2022. Zrecenzowano: 03/05/2022. Zaakceptowano do publikacji: 11/06/2022.
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  50. Vztah Anaximandrovy zoogonie a antropogonie.Bronislav Stupňánek - 2010 - Pro-Fil 11 (1):37-54.
    Studie pomocí segmentové analýzy pěti existujících zlomků Anaximandrovy zoogonie a antropogonie ukazuje, že Aetiův zlomek o zoogonii, dosud téměř všeobecně považovaný za nejspolehlivější, je složený ze segmentů spadajících do oblasti antropogonie – tj. že ve skutečnosti o Anaximandrově zoogonii nepřináší téměř žádné informace. Komplikovaný problém vztahu Anaximandrovy zoogonie a antropogonie je tím paradoxně vyřešen: o zoogonii bez Aetiova zlomku máme naprostý nedostatek zpráv.
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