Results for 'Truth approximation'

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  1.  70
    Truth Approximation, Belief Merging, and Peer Disagreement.Gustavo Cevolani - 2014 - Synthese 191 (11):2383-2401.
    In this paper, we investigate the problem of truth approximation via belief merging, i.e., we ask whether, and under what conditions, a group of inquirers merging together their beliefs makes progress toward the truth about the underlying domain. We answer this question by proving some formal results on how belief merging operators perform with respect to the task of truth approximation, construed as increasing verisimilitude or truthlikeness. Our results shed new light on the issue of (...)
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  2.  27
    Models, Postulates, and Generalized Nomic Truth Approximation.Theo A. F. Kuipers - 2016 - Synthese 193 (10).
    The qualitative theory of nomic truth approximation, presented in Kuipers in his, in which ‘the truth’ concerns the distinction between nomic, e.g. physical, possibilities and impossibilities, rests on a very restrictive assumption, viz. that theories always claim to characterize the boundary between nomic possibilities and impossibilities. Fully recognizing two different functions of theories, viz. excluding and representing, this paper drops this assumption by conceiving theories in development as tuples of postulates and models, where the postulates claim to (...)
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  3. Abduction Aiming at Empirical Progress or Even Truth Approximation Leading to a Challenge for Computational Modelling.Theo A. F. Kuipers - 1999 - Foundations of Science 4 (3):307-323.
    This paper primarily deals with theconceptual prospects for generalizing the aim ofabduction from the standard one of explainingsurprising or anomalous observations to that ofempirical progress or even truth approximation. Itturns out that the main abduction task then becomesthe instrumentalist task of theory revision aiming atan empirically more successful theory, relative to theavailable data, but not necessarily compatible withthem. The rest, that is, genuine empirical progress aswell as observational, referential and theoreticaltruth approximation, is a matter of evaluation andselection, (...)
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  4. Truth Approximation Via Abductive Belief Change.Gustavo Cevolani - 2013 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 21 (6):999-1016.
    We investigate the logical and conceptual connections between abductive reasoning construed as a process of belief change, on the one hand, and truth approximation, construed as increasing (estimated) verisimilitude, on the other. We introduce the notion of ‘(verisimilitude-guided) abductive belief change’ and discuss under what conditions abductively changing our theories or beliefs does lead them closer to the truth, and hence tracks truth approximation conceived as the main aim of inquiry. The consequences of our analysis (...)
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  5.  53
    Basic and Refined Nomic Truth Approximation by Evidence-Guided Belief Revision in AGM-Terms.Theo A. F. Kuipers - 2011 - Erkenntnis 75 (2):223-236.
    Straightforward theory revision, taking into account as effectively as possible the established nomic possibilities and, on their basis induced empirical laws, is conducive for (unstratified) nomic truth approximation. The question this paper asks is: is it possible to reconstruct the relevant theory revision steps, on the basis of incoming evidence, in AGM-terms? A positive answer will be given in two rounds, first for the case in which the initial theory is compatible with the established empirical laws, then for (...)
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  6.  68
    Truth Approximation, Social Epistemology, and Opinion Dynamics.Igor Douven & Christoph Kelp - unknown - Erkenntnis (2):271-283.
    This paper highlights some connections between work on truth approximation and work in social epistemology, in particular work on peer disagreement. In some of the literature on truth approximation, questions have been addressed concerning the efficiency of research strategies for approximating the truth. So far, social aspects of research strategies have not received any attention in this context. Recent findings in the field of opinion dynamics suggest that this is a mistake. How scientists exchange and (...)
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  7.  11
    Empirical Progress and Nomic Truth Approximation Revisited.Theo Kuipers - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 46:64-72.
    In my From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism I have shown how an instrumentalist account of empirical progress can be related to nomic truth approximation. However, it was assumed that a strong notion of nomic theories was needed for that analysis. In this paper it is shown, in terms of truth and falsity content, that the analysis already applies when, in line with scientific common sense, nomic theories are merely assumed to exclude certain conceptual possibilities as nomic possibilities.
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  8.  8
    Confirmation, Empirical Progress and Truth Approximation: Essays in Debate with Theo Kuipers.Roberto Festa, Atocha Aliseda & Jeanne Peijnenburg (eds.) - 2005 - Rodopi.
    Theo AF Kuipers THE THREEFOLD EVALUATION OF THEORIES A SYNOPSIS OF FROM INSTRUMENTALISM TO CONSTRUCTIVE REALISM. ON SOME RELATIONS BETWEEN CONFIRMATION, EMPIRICAL PROGRESS, AND TRUTH APPROXIMATION (2000) ABSTRACT.
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  9.  24
    Theories Looking for Domains. Fact or Fiction? Reversing Structuralist Truth Approximation.Theo A. F. Kuipers - unknown
    The structuralist theory of truth approximation essen-tially deals with truth approximation by theory revision for a fixed domain. However, variable domains can also be taken into account, where the main changes concern domain extensions and restrictions. In this paper I will present a coherent set of definitions of “more truth-likeness”, “empirical progress” and “truth approximation” due to a revision of the domain of intended applications. This set of definitions seems to be the natural (...)
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  10. The Threefold Evaluation of Theories: A Synopsis of From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism. On Some Relations Between Confirmation, Empirical Progress, and Truth Approximation (2000).Theo A. F. Kuipers - 2005 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 83 (1):23-85.
    Surprisingly enough, modified versions of the confirmation theory of Carnap and Hempel and the truth approximation theory of Popper turn out to be smoothly synthesizable. The glue between confirmation and truth approximation appears to be the instrumentalist methodology, rather than the falsificationist one.By evaluating theories separately and comparatively in terms of their successes and problems (hence even if they are already falsified), the instrumentalist methodology provides – both in theory and in practice – the straight route (...)
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  11.  55
    Empirical Progress and Truth Approximation by the 'Hypothetico-Probabilistic Method'.Theo A. F. Kuipers - 2009 - Erkenntnis 70 (3):313 - 330.
    Three related intuitions are explicated in this paper. The first is the idea that there must be some kind of probabilistic version of the HD-method, a ‘Hypothetico-Probabilistic (HP-) method’, in terms of something like probabilistic consequences, instead of deductive consequences. According to the second intuition, the comparative application of this method should also be functional for some probabilistic kind of empirical progress, and according to the third intuition this should be functional for something like probabilistic truth approximation. In (...)
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  12. Geometry of Logic and Truth Approximation.Thomas Mormann - 2005 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 83 (1):431-454.
    In this paper it is argued that the theory of truth approximation should be pursued in the framework of some kind of geometry of logic. More specifically it is shown that the theory of interval structures provides a general framework for dealing with matters of truth approximation. The qualitative and the quantitative accounts of truthlikeness turn out to be special cases of the interval account. This suggests that there is no principled gap between the qualitative and (...)
     
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  13. The Dual Foundation of Qualitative Truth Approximation.Theo A. F. Kuipers - 1997 - Erkenntnis 47 (2):145-179.
    The main formal notion involved in qualitative truth approximation by the HD-method, viz. ‘more truthlike’, is shown to not only have, by its definition, an intuitively appealing ‘model foundation’, but also, at least partially, a conceptually plausible ‘consequence foundation’. Moreover, combining the relevant parts of both leads to a very appealing ‘dual foundation’, the more so since the relevant methodological notions, viz. ‘more successful’ and its ingredients provided by the HD-method, can be given a similar dual foundation. According (...)
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  14.  40
    Epistemological Positions in the Light of Truth Approximation.Theo A. F. Kuipers - 2001 - The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:79-88.
    I sketch the most important epistemological positions in the instrumentalism-realism debate, viz., instrumentalism, constructive empiricism, referential realism, and theory realism. I order them according to their answers to a number of successive leading questions, where every next question presupposes an affirmative answer to the foregoing one. I include the answer to questions concerning truth, as well as the most plausible answer to questions concerning truth approximation. Restricting my survey to the natural sciences and hence to the natural (...)
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  15.  9
    Empirical Progress and Truth Approximation by the ‘Hypothetico-Probabilistic Method’.Theo A. F. Kuipers - 2009 - Erkenntnis 70 (3):313-330.
    Three related intuitions are explicated in this paper. The first is the idea that there must be some kind of probabilistic version of the HD-method, a 'Hypothetico-Probabilistic method', in terms of something like probabilistic consequences, instead of deductive consequences. According to the second intuition, the comparative application of this method should also be functional for some probabilistic kind of empirical progress, and according to the third intuition this should be functional for something like probabilistic truth approximation. In all (...)
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  16.  20
    Toward a Geometrical Theory of Truth Approximation: Reply to Thomas Mormann.Theo A. F. Kuipers - 2005 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 83 (1):455-457.
    This paper primarily deals with the conceptual prospects for generalizing the aim of abduction from the standard one of explaining surprising or anomalous observations to that of empirical progress or even truth approximation. It turns out that the main abduction task then becomes the instrumentalist task of theory revision aiming at an empirically more successful theory, relative to the available data, but not necessarily compatible with them. The rest, that is, genuine empirical progress as well as observational, referential (...)
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  17.  3
    Refined Nomic Truth Approximation by Revising Models and Postulates.Theo A. F. Kuipers - forthcoming - Synthese.
    Assuming that the target of theory oriented empirical science in general and of nomic truth approximation in particular is to characterize the boundary or demarcation between nomic possibilities and nomic impossibilities, I have presented, in my article entitled “Models, postulates, and generalized nomic truth approximation”, the ‘basic’ version of generalized nomic truth approximation, starting from ‘two-sided’ theories. Its main claim is that nomic truth approximation can perfectly be achieved by combining two prima (...)
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  18. Confirmation, Empirical Progress, and Truth Approximation: Essays in Debate with Theo Kuipers. Volume 1.Roberto Festa, Atocha Aliseda & Jeanne Peijnenburg - 2005 - Rodopi.
    This book is the first of two volumes devoted to the work of Theo Kuipers, a leading Dutch philosopher of science. Philosophers and scientists from all over the world, thirty seven in all, comment on Kuipers' philosophy, and each of their commentaries is followed by a reply from Kuipers. The present volume focuses on Kuipers' views on confirmation, empirical progress, and truth approximation, as laid down in his From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism. In this book, Kuipers offered a (...)
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  19. From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism: On Some Relations Between Confirmation, Empirical Progress, and Truth Approximation.T. A. F. Kuipers - 2000 - Springer.
  20.  34
    Truth Approximation by Concretization in Capital Structure Theory. Kuipers, Theo A. F., Cools, Kees & Hamminga, Bert - 1994 - In B. Hamminga & N. De Marchi (eds.), Idealization Vi: Idealization in Economics. Rodopi. pp. 205--228.
    This paper supplies a structuralist reconstruction of the Modigliani-Miller theory and shows that the economic literature following their results reports on research with an implicit strategy to come "closer-to-the-truth" in the modern technical sense in philosophy of science.
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  21. Naive and Refined Truth Approximation.Theo A. F. Kuipers - 1992 - Synthese 93 (3):299 - 341.
    The naive structuralist definition of truthlikeness is an idealization in the sense that it assumes that all mistaken models of a theory are equally bad. The natural concretization is a refined definition based on an underlying notion of structurelikeness.In Section 1 the naive definition of truthlikeness of theories is presented, using a new conceptual justification, in terms of instantial and explanatory mistakes.
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  22.  14
    Empirical Progress and Nomic Truth Approximation Revisited.Theo A. F. Kuipers - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 46:64-72.
  23. Progress as Approximation to the Truth: A Defence of the Verisimilitudinarian Approach.Gustavo Cevolani & Luca Tambolo - 2013 - Erkenntnis 78 (4):921-935.
    In this paper we provide a compact presentation of the verisimilitudinarian approach to scientific progress (VS, for short) and defend it against the sustained attack recently mounted by Alexander Bird (2007). Advocated by such authors as Ilkka Niiniluoto and Theo Kuipers, VS is the view that progress can be explained in terms of the increasing verisimilitude (or, equivalently, truthlikeness, or approximation to the truth) of scientific theories. According to Bird, VS overlooks the central issue of the appropriate grounding (...)
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  24. Dovetailing Belief Base Revision with (Basic) Truth Approximation.T. A. F. Kuipers - 2014 - In E. Weber, D. Wouters & J. Meheus (eds.), Logic, Reasoning, and Rationality. Logic, Argumentation & Reasoning (Interdisciplinary Perspectives from the Humanities and Social Sciences), vol 5. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 77-93.
     
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  25. Sommerfeld’s A Tombau : A Case Study in Potential Truth Approximation.Hinne Hettema & Theo A. F. Kuipers - 1995 - In T. Kuipers & A. Mackor (eds.), Cognitive Patterns in Science and Common Sense: Groningen Studies in Philosophy of Science, Logic and Epistemology. Poznan. pp. 273-297.
     
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  26. Theories Looking for Domains. Fact or Fiction? Structuralist Truth Approximation by Revision of the Domain of Intended Applications, to Appear.T. A. F. Kuipers - 2006 - In L. Magnani (ed.), Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Engineering. College Publications.
     
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  27.  78
    From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism: On Some Relations Between Confirmation, Empirical Progress, and Truth Approximation. Theo A. F. Kuipers. [REVIEW]Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2001 - Mind 110 (439):774-777.
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  28.  25
    The Refined Qualitative Theory of Truth Approximation Does Not Deliver: Remark on Kuipers. [REVIEW]Thomas Mormann - 1997 - Erkenntnis 47 (2):181-185.
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  29. Realism and Truth Approximation in Economic Theory.J. C. Garcia-Bermejo Ochoa - 1997 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 61:167-204.
  30. Sommerfeld's Atombau: A Case of Potential Truth Approximation.Hinne Hettema & Theo A. F. Kuipers - 1995 - In Cognitive Patterns in Science and Common Sense: Groningen Studies in Philosophy of Science, Logic and Epistemology.
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  31.  17
    Truth Approximation by Empirical and Aesthetic Criteria: Reply to David Miller.Theo A. F. Kuipers - 2005 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 83 (1):356-360.
    Polish version, see Kuipers (2002) "O dwóch rodzajach idealizcji I konkretyzacki. Przypadek aproksymacji prawdy".
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  32. Confirmation, Empirical Progress and Truth Approximation.Roberto Festa, Atocha Aliseda & Jeanne Peijnenburg (eds.) - 2004 - Rodopi.
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  33.  2
    Nomic Truth Approximation Revisited.Theo A. F. Kuipers - 2019 - Springer Verlag.
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  34.  42
    Why Adding Truths Is Not Enough: A Reply to Mizrahi on Progress as Approximation to the Truth.Gustavo Cevolani & Luca Tambolo - 2019 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 32 (2):129-135.
    ABSTRACTIn a recent paper in this journal, entitled ‘Scientific Progress: Why Getting Closer to Truth is Not Enough’, Moti Mizrahi argues that the view of progress as approximation to the truth or increasing verisimilitude is plainly false. The key premise of his argument is that on such a view of progress, in order to get closer to the truth one only needs to arbitrarily add a true disjunct to a hypothesis or theory. Since quite clearly scientific (...)
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  35.  37
    Pragmatic Truth and Approximation to Truth.Mikenberg Irene, C. A. Da Costa Newton & Chuaqui Rolando - 1986 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 51 (1):201 - 221.
    There are several conceptions of truth, such as the classical correspondence conception, the coherence conception and the pragmatic conception. The classical correspondence conception, or Aristotelian conception, received a mathematical treatment in the hands of Tarski (cf. Tarski [1935] and [1944]), which was the starting point of a great progress in logic and in mathematics. In effect, Tarski's semantic ideas, especially his semantic characterization of truth, have exerted a major influence on various disciplines, besides logic and mathematics; for instance, (...)
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  36. Pragmatic Truth and Approximation to Truth.Irene Mikenberg, Newton C. A. Costa & Rolando Chuaqui - 1986 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 51 (1):201-221.
  37.  8
    Pragmatic Truth and Approximation to Truth.Irene Mikenberg, Newton C. A. da Costa & Rolando Chuaqui - 1986 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 51 (1):201-221.
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  38. Idealization Iii: Approximation and Truth.Jerzy Brzezinski & Leszek Nowak - 1992 - Rodopi.
     
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  39.  44
    Construction of Truth Predicates: Approximation Versus Revision.Juan Barba - 1998 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 4 (4):399-417.
  40.  12
    Galileo's Law of Fall: Absolute Truth or Approximation.R. H. Naylor - 1982 - Annals of Science 39 (4):384-389.
  41. The Whole Truth About Linda: Probability, Verisimilitude and a Paradox of Conjunction.Gustavo Cevolani, Vincenzo Crupi & Roberto Festa - 2010 - In Marcello D'Agostino, Federico Laudisa, Giulio Giorello, Telmo Pievani & Corrado Sinigaglia (eds.), New Essays in Logic and Philosophy of Science. College Publications. pp. 603--615.
    We provide a 'verisimilitudinarian' analysis of the well-known Linda paradox or conjunction fallacy, i.e., the fact that most people judge the probability of the conjunctive statement "Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement" (B & F) as more probable than the isolated statement "Linda is a bank teller" (B), contrary to an uncontroversial principle of probability theory. The basic idea is that experimental participants may judge B & F a better hypothesis about Linda as compared (...)
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  42.  82
    Understanding, Truth, and Epistemic Goals.Kareem Khalifa - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science.
    Several argue that truth cannot be science’s sole epistemic goal, for it would fail to do justice to several scientific practices that advance understanding. I challenge these arguments, but only after making a small concession: science’s sole epistemic goal is not truth as such; rather, its goal is finding true answers to relevant questions. Using examples from the natural and social sciences, I then show that scientific understanding’s epistemically valuable features are either true answers to relevant questions or (...)
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  43. A Tale of Three Theories: Feyerabend and Popper on Progress and the Aim of Science.Luca Tambolo - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 51:33-41.
    In this paper, three theories of progress and the aim of science are discussed: the theory of progress as increasing explanatory power, advocated by Popper in The logic of scientific discovery ; the theory of progress as approximation to the truth, introduced by Popper in Conjectures and refutations ; the theory of progress as a steady increase of competing alternatives, which Feyerabend put forward in the essay “Reply to criticism. Comments on Smart, Sellars and Putnam” and defended as (...)
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  44. Scientific Progress: Why Getting Closer to Truth Is Not Enough.Moti Mizrahi - 2017 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 31 (4):415-419.
    ABSTRACTThis discussion note aims to contribute to the ongoing debate over the nature of scientific progress. I argue against the semantic view of scientific progress, according to which scientific progress consists in approximation to truth or increasing verisimilitude. If the semantic view of scientific progress were correct, then scientists would make scientific progress simply by arbitrarily adding true disjuncts to their hypotheses or theories. Given that it is not the case that scientists could make scientific progress simply by (...)
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  45.  16
    The Psychology of Uncertainty and Three-Valued Truth Tables.Jean Baratgin, Guy Politzer, David E. Over & Tatsuji Takahashi - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
    Psychological research on people’s understanding of natural language connectives has traditionally used truth table tasks, in which participants evaluate the truth or falsity of a compound sentence given the truth or falsity of its components in the framework of propositional logic. One perplexing result concerned the indicative conditional if A then C which was often evaluated as true when A and C are true, false when A is true and C is false but irrelevant“ (devoid of value) (...)
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  46. Beauty, a Road to the Truth.Theo A. F. Kuipers - 2002 - Synthese 131 (3):291-328.
    In this article I give a naturalistic-cum-formal analysis of therelation between beauty, empirical success, and truth. The analysis is based on the onehand on a hypothetical variant of the so-called `mere-exposure effect'' which has been more orless established in experimental psychology regarding exposure-affect relationshipsin general and aesthetic appreciation in particular (Zajonc 1968; Temme 1983; Bornstein 1989;Ye 2000). On the other hand it is based on the formal theory of truthlikeness andtruth approximation as presented in my From Instrumentalism to (...)
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  47.  23
    Truth-Seeking by Abduction.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2004 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 11:57-82.
    In a seminar with the title “Deduction and Induction in the Sciences”, it is intriguing to ask the following questions: Is there a third type of inference besides deduction and induction? Does this third type of inference play a significant role within scientific inquiry? A positive answer to both of these questions was advocated by Charles S. Peirce throughout his career, even though his opinions changed in important ways during the fifty years between 1865 and 1914. Peirce called the third (...)
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  48.  97
    Approaching Descriptive and Theoretical Truth.Theo A. F. Kuipers - 1982 - Erkenntnis 18 (3):343 - 378.
    In this article I give a naturalistic-cum-formal analysis of the relation between beauty, empirical success, and truth. The analysis is based on the one hand on a hypothetical variant of the so-called 'mere-exposure effect' which has been more or less established in experimental psychology regarding exposure-affect relationships in general and aesthetic appreciation in particular (Zajonc 1968; Temme 1983; Bornstein 1989; (Ye 2000). On the other hand it is based on the formal theory of truthlikeness and truth approximation (...)
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  49.  15
    Beauty, A Road To The Truth.Theo A. F. Kuipers - 2002 - Synthese 131 (3):291-328.
    In this article I give a naturalistic-cum-formal analysis of the relation between beauty, empirical success, and truth. The analysis is based on the one hand on a hypothetical variant of the so-called 'mere-exposure effect' which has been more or less established in experimental psychology regarding exposure-affect relationships in general and aesthetic appreciation in particular. On the other hand it is based on the formal theory of truthlikeness and truth approximation as presented in my "From Instrumentalism to Constructive (...)
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  50. Beauty, a Road to the Truth?David Miller - 2005 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 83 (1):341-355.
    Calling into service the theory of truth approximation of his (1997) and (2000), Kuipers defends the view that "beauty can be a road to the truth" and endorses the general conclusions of McAllister (1996) that aesthetic criteria reasonably play a role in theory selection in science. My comments pertain first to the general adequacy of Kuipers's theory of truth approximation; secondly to its methodological aspects; thirdly to the aetiolated role that aesthetic factors turn out to (...)
     
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