In this paper, we seek to answer two questions: (1) what does boardroom diversity stand for in the strategic management literature? And, (2) is there a significant relationship between boardroom diversity and corporate social performance. We first clarify the boardroom diversity concept, distinguishing between a structural diversity of boards and a demographic diversity in boards, and then we investigate its possible linkage to social performance in a sample of S&P500 firms. We find a significant relationship between diversity in boards and (...) social performance. This relationship is moderated by diversity of boards. Our results also reveal the effects of the specific variables that make up the diversity of boards and diversity in boards constructs. In particular, gender, and age have a significant effect on corporate social performance. Some important measurement issues are raised and discussed. (shrink)
This study examines attitudes toward bribery in international business and whether such attitudes differ between men and women. Results of surveys of adults studying for careers in international business indicate ambivalent and nuanced attitudes over bribe giving/taking with significant differences by sex with respect to specific hypothetical situations, suggesting a gender gap on matters of bribery. It is recommended that academic curriculum and management development programs stress ethics and legality and focus on the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar antibribery (...) laws so that aspiring managers are properly trained to recognize and manage the challenges prevalent in conducting business internationally. (shrink)
Kur’an, yirmi üç yıllık bir zaman diliminde, tevhid inancına sahip bireylerin oluşturduğu bir toplum inşa etmek üzere nazil olmuştur. Bu süreçte peyderpey gelen her bir vahyin, söz konusu hedefin gerçekleşmesinde önemli bir rolü olmuştur. Bu sebeple farklı zaman ve mekânlarda nazil olan, farklı konularda farklı kitleleri muhatap alan her bir vahiy pasajı ya da her bir sure bir diğeri ile birçok yündKur’ân, yirmi üç yıllık bir zaman diliminde, tevhid inancına sahip birey-lerin oluşturduğu bir toplum inşa etmek üzere nazil olmuştur. Bu (...) süreçte peyderpey gelen her bir vahyin, söz konusu hedefin gerçekleşme-sinde önemli bir rolü olmuştur. Bu sebeple farklı zaman ve mekânlarda nazil olan, farklı konularda farklı kitleleri muhatap alan her bir vahiy pasajı ya da her bir sûre bir diğeri ile birçok yönden bir anlam münâsebeti, bütünlüğü içerisindedir. Bu bağlamda gelişen Münâsebetü’l-Kur’ân ilminin verileri de bu durumun bir ispatı ve örneği olarak değerlendirilebilir. Araştırmada bu husus kısa sûreler üzerinden anlaşılmaya ve ortaya konulmaya çalışıldı. Sonuçta, Mushaf tertibinde farklı dönemlerde nazil olmalarına rağmen Asr sûresinden Nas sûresine kadarki sûrelerden her birinin öncesindeki ve sonrasındaki sûreyle tam bir anlam bütünlüğüne sahip olduğu görülmektedir. Bu durum, bir yandan Mushaf’ın tertibinin tevkifî olduğunun bir delili olarak görülebilir. Fakat sûrelerin tertibinin ictihadî olması halinde de böyle bir anlam bütünlüğünden bahsedebiliriz. Zira Kur’ân, bütünüyle tek bir kaynaktan ve tek bir hedefi gerçekleştirmek üzere gelmiştir. Sûreler arasındaki anlam münâsebeti ve muhteva birliği de, bu durumun bir ifadesi olarak zikredilebilir. en bir anlam münasebeti, bütünlüğü içerisindedir. Bu bağlamda gelişen Münasebetü’l-Kur’an ilminin verileri de bu durumun bir ispatı ve örneği olarak değerlendirilebilir. Bizler de araştırmamızda bu hususu kısa sureler üzerinden anlamaya ve ortaya koymaya çalıştık. Sonuçta, Mushaf tertibinde farklı dönemlerde nazil olmalarına rağmen Asr suresinden Nas suresine kadarki surelerden her birinin öncesindeki ve sonrasındaki sureyle tam bir anlam bütünlüğüne sahip olduğu görülmektedir. Bu durum, bir yandan Mushaf’ın tertibinin tevkifî olduğunun bir delili olarak görülebilir. Fakat surelerin tertibinin ictihadî olması halinde de böyle bir anlam bütünlüğünden bahsedebiliriz. Zira Kur’an bütünüyle tek bir kaynaktan ve tek bir hedefi gerçekleştirmek üzere gelmiştir. Sureler arasındaki anlam münasebeti ve muhteva birliği de, bu durumun bir ifadesi olarak zikredilebilir. (shrink)
In order to make strategic decisions and improve their firm’s performance, top management teams must have information on the competitive context in general, and the firm’s competitors in particular. During the decision-making process, top managers can have access to “privileged information”—i.e., information of a confidential and potentially strategic nature that could ultimately confer a decisional advantage over competing parties. However, obtaining and using privileged information in a business context is often illegal—and if not, is usually deemed unethical or “against the (...) rules.” Using a quasi-experimental design, this study explores the reasons why an individual might engage in such unethical behavior. We assess the extent to which managers use privileged information with respect to perceived team cohesion and peers’ ethicality. More specifically, our results show that the use of privileged information is predicted by the decision-maker’s perceptions of their team cohesion and their peers’ ethicality. Moreover, we find that team performance, as a group-level nonself-reported factor, moderates the relationship between cohesion and the use of privileged information. The relationship between cohesion, ethical behavior, and team performance is also discussed. We draw on these findings to make some practical suggestions on how to incorporate practices that could better prevent the unethical use of privileged information in strategic decision-making processes. (shrink)
The framework of cognitive linguistics can be an efficient tool to represent the conceptual scope of meaning extension in reduced lexicons of pidgins and creoles. Image-schema based metaphors underlie the usage of English straight and its Tok Pisin counterpart stret, but the creole employs the concept in more contexts than English. The resultant variation in the scope of metaphor takes the form of a particular source domain being used to conceptualize more target domains than in the lexifier language. Functioning mainly (...) as a compensation strategy, the variation is the effect of strong influence of English on the conceptual system of the creole. (shrink)
Robots that can communicate with people are one of the goals reached by the technology developed for automation in work life. Experts aim to improve the communication skills of these robots further in the near future. Besides, various studies emphasize that people may interact with robots in a similar way as they interact with other people. In line of this idea, this study examines the possible causal chain in which the social anxiety affects the robot anxiety which in turn affects (...) the attitude toward interacting with robots. Data obtained from university students were analyzed in a simple and parallel mediation model. The results showed that robot anxiety and in particular two of its sub-dimensions mediate the relationship between social anxiety and negative attitudes toward interaction with robots. Researchers should carry out new studies about the common structural characteristics of the anxiety felt by people due to interacting with humans and robots. (shrink)
For millennia, knowledge has eluded a precise definition. The industrialization of knowledge (IoK) and the associated proliferation of the so-called knowledge communities in the last few decades caused this state of affairs to deteriorate, namely by creating a trio composed of data, knowledge, and information (DIK) that is not unlike the aporia of the trinity in philosophy. This calls for a general theory of knowledge (ToK) that can work as a foundation for a science of knowledge (SoK) and additionally distinguishes (...) knowledge from both data and information. In this paper, I attempt to sketch this generality via the establishing of both knowledge structures and knowledge systems that can then be adopted/adapted by the diverse communities for the respective knowledge technologies and practices. This is achieved by means of a formal–indeed, mathematical–approach to epistemological matters a.k.a. formal epistemology. The corresponding application focus is on knowledge systems implementable as computer programs. (shrink)
In L. Frank Baum's story, Ozma of Oz , which is a sequel to Baum's much more famous story, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz , Dorothy and her companion come upon a wound-down mechanical man bearing a label on which are printed the following words: Smith and Tinker's Patent Double-Action, Extra-Responsive, Thought-Creating Perfect-Talking MECHANICAL MAN Fitted with our Special Clock-Work Attachment Thinks, Speaks, Acts, and Does Everything but Live As Dorothy and her companion are made to discover when they wind (...) up this man , he is indeed capable of doing all the things of which his label boasts—acting, speaking and even thinking. But as Tik-Tok himself insists, and no one in the story casts doubt on the matter, he is not alive. (shrink)
In L. Frank Baum's story, Ozma of Oz, which is a sequel to Baum's much more famous story, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, Dorothy and her companion come upon a wound-down mechanical man bearing a label on which are printed the following words: Smith and Tinker's Patent Double-Action, Extra-Responsive, Thought-Creating Perfect-Talking MECHANICAL MAN Fitted with our Special Clock-Work Attachment Thinks, Speaks, Acts, and Does Everything but Live As Dorothy and her companion are made to discover when they wind up this (...) man, he is indeed capable of doing all the things of which his label boasts—acting, speaking and even thinking. But as Tik-Tok himself insists, and no one in the story casts doubt on the matter, he is not alive. (shrink)
Descartes argumentował, wychodząc od swej słynnej tezy „Myślę, więc jestem”, o której sądził, że jest jedynym twierdzeniem niepowątpiewalnym, że udowodnił istnienie jedynie dwóch substancji: materialnej i duchowej, które są całkowicie różne, odrębne i autonomiczne w swych działaniach. Od czasu, gdy pisał swoje Medytacje o pierwszej filozofii, żywił głębokie przekonanie, że może także udowodnić nieśmiertelność duszy ludzkiej na mocy tezy o jej substancjalnej odrębności. Jednakże w trakcie pisania Medytacji, a szczególnie w rezultacie dyskusji ze swymi oponentami, przekonał się, że na gruncie (...) jego filozofii taki dowód jest po prostu niemożliwy. W artykule ukazuje się tok myślenia Descartes’a oraz proces zastępowania metafizycznego punktu widzenia etycznym punktem widzenia. (shrink)
This book has been designed specifically to support the student through the IB Diploma Programme in Mathematical Studies. It includes worked examples and numerous opportunities for practice. In addition the book will provide students with features integrated with study and learning approaches, TOK and the IB learner profile. Examples and activities drawn from around the world will encourage students to develop an international perspective.
This Course Companion supports the new syllabus for 2009 and includes all options. It promotes cross-cultural links and connections to TOK, international-mindedness and the IB learner profile. Written by two experienced IB examiners and teachers, it contains historical information alongside data from the latest research. Students are stimulated by a wealth of engaging activities and features. They are encouraged to think critically and relate ideas to other subjects and to world issues. There is an emphasis on research and research methods, (...) as well as advice on internal and external assessment. (shrink)
This book has been specifically designed to support the student of the IB Diploma Programme in Theory of Knowledge. It will stimulate students to think about learning and knowledge from their own and from others' perspectives in a way that crosses disciplines and cultures. It will encourage reflection, discussion, critical thinking, and awareness of the ways in which knowledge is constructed, and will lead students to recognize the implications of knowledge for issues of global concern. The book is rooted in (...) classroom experience and provides class activities and supporting material for the whole of the TOK course. (shrink)
Build confident critical thinkers who can process and articulate complex ideas in relevant, real-life contexts. The inquiry-based approach actively drives independent thought and helps learners connect ideas and frameworks while pushing them above and beyond typical TOK boundaries. This online course book is completely mapped to the 2013 syllabus.
This paper discusses resort design with an adoption of vernacular style in Langkawi, Malaysia. Resort refers to building or a group of buildings designed in a particular setting to cater for both relax and recreational activities. The resort sites may front beaches, lagoons, hill slopes or lakes or provide elevated views with convenient access to the waterfront activities. Vernacular style becomes increasingly popular for the design of resort hotels. Langkawi Island since 1990 has been gazetted as the national tourist’s destination (...) due to its pristine beaches, scenic beauty, richness of cultural heritage and preserved tropical environments. The resort development shows that Langkawi has a potential as an attractive tourist destination from around the world. Three vernacular resorts are selected for the case study based on their different designs and locations, which are Berjaya Langkawi Beach and Spa Resort (modern vernacular style), Pelangi Beach Resort (post modern vernacular style) and Kampung Tok Senik Resort (old traditional vernacular style). The study finds that Kampung Tok Senik Resort is the best design for vernacular style’s resort. This study is also able to indicate several critical factors in the analysis for improvement of the resort design in the future. (shrink)