Results for 'Turing machine'

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  1. Computing Machinery and Intelligence.Alan M. Turing - 1950 - Mind 59 (October):433-60.
    I propose to consider the question, "Can machines think?" This should begin with definitions of the meaning of the terms "machine" and "think." The definitions might be framed so as to reflect so far as possible the normal use of the words, but this attitude is dangerous, If the meaning of the words "machine" and "think" are to be found by examining how they are commonly used it is difficult to escape the conclusion that the meaning and the (...)
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  2.  19
    Semantics and Symbol Grounding in Turing Machine Processes.Anna Sarosiek - 2017 - Semina Scientiarum 16:211-223.
    The aim of the paper is to present the underlying reason of the unsolved symbol grounding problem. The Church-Turing Thesis states that a physical problem, for which there is an algorithm of solution, can be solved by a Turing machine, but machine operations neglect the semantic relationship between symbols and their meaning. Symbols are objects that are manipulated on rules based on their shapes. The computations are independent of the context, mental states, emotions, or feelings. The (...)
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  3.  14
    From Symbol to ‘Symbol’, to Abstract Symbol: Response to Copeland and Shagrir on Turing-Machine Realism Versus Turing-Machine Purism.Eli Dresner & Ofra Rechter - 2016 - Minds and Machines 26 (3):253-257.
    In their recent paper “Do Accelerating Turing Machines Compute the Uncomputable?” Copeland and Shagrir draw a distinction between a purist conception of Turing machines, according to which these machines are purely abstract, and Turing machine realism according to which Turing machines are spatio-temporal and causal “notional" machines. In the present response to that paper we concede the realistic aspects of Turing’s own presentation of his machines, pointed out by Copeland and Shagrir, but argue that (...)
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  4. Beyond the Universal Turing Machine.Jack Copeland - 1999 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 77 (1):46-67.
    We describe an emerging field, that of nonclassical computability and nonclassical computing machinery. According to the nonclassicist, the set of well-defined computations is not exhausted by the computations that can be carried out by a Turing machine. We provide an overview of the field and a philosophical defence of its foundations.
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  5. Turing on the Integration of Human and Machine Intelligence.S. G. Sterrett - manuscript
    Abstract Philosophical discussion of Alan Turing’s writings on intelligence has mostly revolved around a single point made in a paper published in the journal Mind in 1950. This is unfortunate, for Turing’s reflections on machine (artificial) intelligence, human intelligence, and the relation between them were more extensive and sophisticated. They are seen to be extremely well-considered and sound in retrospect. Recently, IBM developed a question-answering computer (Watson) that could compete against humans on the game show Jeopardy! There (...)
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  6.  77
    Philosophy and Science, the Darwinian-Evolved Computational Brain, a Non-Recursive Super-Turing Machine & Our Inner-World-Producing Organ.Hermann G. W. Burchard - 2016 - Open Journal of Philosophy 6 (1):13-28.
    Recent advances in neuroscience lead to a wider realm for philosophy to include the science of the Darwinian-evolved computational brain, our inner world producing organ, a non-recursive super- Turing machine combining 100B synapsing-neuron DNA-computers based on the genetic code. The whole system is a logos machine offering a world map for global context, essential for our intentional grasp of opportunities. We start from the observable contrast between the chaotic universe vs. our orderly inner world, the noumenal cosmos. (...)
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  7.  54
    Bringing Up Turing's 'Child-Machine'.Susan G. Sterrett - 2012 - In S. Barry Cooper (ed.), How the World Computes. pp. 703--713.
    Turing wrote that the “guiding principle” of his investigation into the possibility of intelligent machinery was “The analogy [of machinery that might be made to show intelligent behavior] with the human brain.” [10] In his discussion of the investigations that Turing said were guided by this analogy, however, he employs a more far-reaching analogy: he eventually expands the analogy from the human brain out to “the human community as a whole.” Along the way, he takes note of an (...)
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  8. Is the Human Mind a Turing Machine?D. King - 1996 - Synthese 108 (3):379-89.
    In this paper I discuss the topics of mechanism and algorithmicity. I emphasise that a characterisation of algorithmicity such as the Turing machine is iterative; and I argue that if the human mind can solve problems that no Turing machine can, the mind must depend on some non-iterative principle — in fact, Cantor's second principle of generation, a principle of the actual infinite rather than the potential infinite of Turing machines. But as there has been (...)
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  9.  15
    From the Buzzing in Turing’s Head to Machine Intelligence Contests.Huma Shah & Kevin Warwick - 2010 - In TCIT 2010 / AISB 2010 Convention.
    This paper presents an analysis of three major contests for machine intelligence. We conclude that a new era for Turing’s test requires a fillip in the guise of a committed sponsor, not unlike DARPA, funders of the successful 2007 Urban Challenge.
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  10.  39
    Eventually Infinite Time Turing Machine Degrees: Infinite Time Decidable Reals.P. D. Welch - 2000 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 65 (3):1193-1203.
    We characterise explicitly the decidable predicates on integers of Infinite Time Turing machines, in terms of admissibility theory and the constructible hierarchy. We do this by pinning down ζ, the least ordinal not the length of any eventual output of an Infinite Time Turing machine (halting or otherwise); using this the Infinite Time Turing Degrees are considered, and it is shown how the jump operator coincides with the production of mastercodes for the constructible hierarchy; further that (...)
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  11.  38
    Physical Oracles: The Turing Machine and the Wheatstone Bridge.Edwin J. Beggs, José Félix Costa & John V. Tucker - 2010 - Studia Logica 95 (1-2):279-300.
    Earlier, we have studied computations possible by physical systems and by algorithms combined with physical systems. In particular, we have analysed the idea of using an experiment as an oracle to an abstract computational device, such as the Turing machine. The theory of composite machines of this kind can be used to understand (a) a Turing machine receiving extra computational power from a physical process, or (b) an experimenter modelled as a Turing machine performing (...)
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  12.  32
    Cartesian Dualism, and Universe as Turing Machine.Daniel King - 2003 - Philosophy Today 47 (2):138-146.
    In the field of computability and algorithmicity, there have recently been two essays that are of great interest: Peter Slezak's "Descartes's Diagonal Deduction," and David Deutsch's "Quantum Theory, the Church-Turing Principle and the Universal Quantum Computer." In brief, the former shows that Descartes' Cogito argument is structurally similar to Godel's proof that there are statements true but cannot be proven within a formal system such as Principia Mathematica, while Deutsch provides strong arguments for believing that the universe can be (...)
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  13.  4
    Eventually Infinite Time Turing Machine Degrees: Infinite Time Decidable Reals.P. D. Welch - 2000 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 65 (3):1193-1203.
    We characterise explicitly the decidable predicates on integers of Infinite Time Turing machines, in terms of admissibility theory and the constructible hierarchy. We do this by pinning down $\zeta$, the least ordinal not the length of any eventual output of an Infinite Time Turing machine ; using this the Infinite Time Turing Degrees are considered, and it is shown how the jump operator coincides with the production of mastercodes for the constructible hierarchy; further that the natural (...)
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  14.  53
    The Turing Machine May Not Be the Universal Machine.Matjaz Gams - 2002 - Minds and Machines 12 (1):137-142.
    Can mind be modeled as a Turing machine? If you find such questions irrelevant, e.g. because the subject is already exhausted, then you need not read the book Mind versus Computer (Gams et al., 1991). If, on the other hand, you do find such questions relevant, then perhaps you need not read Dunlop's review of the book (Dunlop, 2000). (...).
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  15. Alan Turing's Systems of Logic: The Princeton Thesis.Alan Mathison Turing - 2012 - Princeton University Press.
  16. The Myth of the Turing Machine: The Failings of Functionalism and Related Theses.Chris Eliasmith - 2002 - Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 14 (1):1-8.
    The properties of Turing’s famous ‘universal machine’ has long sustained functionalist intuitions about the nature of cognition. Here, I show that there is a logical problem with standard functionalist arguments for multiple realizability. These arguments rely essentially on Turing’s powerful insights regarding computation. In addressing a possible reply to this criticism, I further argue that functionalism is not a useful approach for understanding what it is to have a mind. In particular, I show that the difficulties involved (...)
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  17.  70
    What Turing Did After He Invented the Universal Turing Machine.B. Jack Copeland & Diane Proudfoot - 2000 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9 (4):491-509.
    Alan Turing anticipated many areas of current research incomputer and cognitive science. This article outlines his contributionsto Artificial Intelligence, connectionism, hypercomputation, andArtificial Life, and also describes Turing's pioneering role in thedevelopment of electronic stored-program digital computers. It locatesthe origins of Artificial Intelligence in postwar Britain. It examinesthe intellectual connections between the work of Turing and ofWittgenstein in respect of their views on cognition, on machineintelligence, and on the relation between provability and truth. Wecriticise widespread and influential misunderstandings (...)
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  18.  29
    Some Doubts About Turing Machine Arguments.James D. Heffernan - 1978 - Philosophy of Science 45 (December):638-647.
  19.  40
    Hypercomputation: Computing More Than the Turing Machine.Toby Ord - 2002 - Dissertation, University of Melbourne
    In this report I provide an introduction to the burgeoning field of hypercomputation – the study of machines that can compute more than Turing machines. I take an extensive survey of many of the key concepts in the field, tying together the disparate ideas and presenting them in a structure which allows comparisons of the many approaches and results. To this I add several new results and draw out some interesting consequences of hypercomputation for several different disciplines.
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  20. The Demise of the Turing Machine in Complexity Theory.Iain A. Stewart - 1996 - In P. J. R. Millican & A. Clark (eds.), Machines and Thought: The Legacy of Alan Turing, Volume 1. Clarendon Press.
  21. Computational Modeling Vs. Computational Explanation: Is Everything a Turing Machine, and Does It Matter to the Philosophy of Mind?Gualtiero Piccinini - 2007 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 85 (1):93 – 115.
    According to pancomputationalism, everything is a computing system. In this paper, I distinguish between different varieties of pancomputationalism. I find that although some varieties are more plausible than others, only the strongest variety is relevant to the philosophy of mind, but only the most trivial varieties are true. As a side effect of this exercise, I offer a clarified distinction between computational modelling and computational explanation.<br><br>.
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  22.  67
    Beyond the Universal Turing Machine.B. Jack Copeland & Richard Sylvan - 1999 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 77 (1):46-66.
  23. The Human Turing Machine: A Neural Framework for Mental Programs.Ariel Zylberberg, Stanislas Dehaene, Pieter R. Roelfsema & Mariano Sigman - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (7):293-300.
  24. Can a Turing Machine Know That the Gödel Sentence is True?Storrs McCall - 1999 - Journal of Philosophy 96 (10):525-532.
  25.  22
    Shafi Goldwasser, Silvio Micali, and Charles Rackoff. The Knowledge Complexity of Interactive Proof Systems. SIAM Journal on Computing, Vol. 18 , Pp. 186–208. - Oded Goldreich, Silvio Micali, and Avi Wigderson. Proofs That Release Minimum Knowledge. Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science 1986, Proceedings of the 12th Symposium, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, August 25–29, 1986, Edited by J. Gruska, B. Rovan, and J. Wiedermann, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 233, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Etc., 1986, Pp. 639–650. - Oded Goldreich. Randomness, Interactive Proofs, and Zero-Knowledge—a Survey. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988, Pp. 377–405. [REVIEW]Lance Fortnow - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):1092-1094.
  26.  20
    Shannon Claude E.. A Universal Turing Machine with Two Internal States. Automata Studies, Edited by Shannon C. E. And McCarthy J., Annals of Mathematics Studies No. 34, Lithoprinted, Princeton University Press, Princeton 1956, Pp. 157–165. [REVIEW]Patrick C. Fischer - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (3):532.
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  27.  18
    Kleene S. C.. Turing-Machine Computable Functionals of Finite Types I. Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, Proceedings of the 1960 International Congress, Edited by Nagel Ernest, Suppes Patrick, and Tarski Alfred, Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 1962, Pp. 38–45.Kleene S. C.. Turing-Machine Computable Functionals of Finite Types II. Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, Ser. 3 Vol. 12 , Pp. 245–258. [REVIEW]D. A. Clarke - 1970 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (4):588-589.
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  28.  16
    Hartley RogersJr., The Present Theory of Turing Machine Computability. Journal of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Vol. 7 , Pp. 114–130. [REVIEW]C. E. M. Yates - 1966 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 31 (3):513-513.
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  29.  16
    Davis M. D.. A Note on Universal Turing Machines. Automata Studies, Edited by Shannon C. E. And McCarthy J., Annals of Mathematics Studies No. 34, Lithoprinted, Princeton University Press, Princeton 1956, Pp. 167–175.Davis Martin. The Definition of Universal Turing Machine. Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 8 , Pp. 1125–1126. [REVIEW]R. J. Nelson - 1970 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (4):590.
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  30.  16
    Andrew Hodges. Alan Turing and the Turing Machine. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 3–15. - Stephen C. Kleene. Turing's Analysis of Computahility, and Major Applications of It. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 17–54. - Robin Gandy. The Confluence of Ideas in 1936. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 55–111. - Solomon Feferman. Turing in the Land of O. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 113–147. - Martin Davis. Mathematica. [REVIEW]John N. Crossley - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):1089-1090.
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  31.  15
    F. C. Hennie. One-Tape, Off-Line Turing Machine Computations. Information and Control, Vol. 8 , Pp. 553–578.Jiří Bečvář - 1968 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 33 (1):119-120.
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  32.  15
    Philip K. Hooper. The Undecidability of the Turing Machine Immortality Problem. The Journal of Symbolic Logic, Vol. 31 , Pp. 219–234. [REVIEW]Gabor T. Herman - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (1):150-150.
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  33.  13
    Boris Trakhtenbrot. Comparing the Church and Turing Approaches: Two Prophetical Messages. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unversagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988, Pp. 603–630. [REVIEW]Giuseppe Longo - 1994 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 59 (4):1434-1436.
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  34.  11
    Michael O. Rabin and Hao Wang. Words in the History of a Turing Machine with a Fixed Input. Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery, Vol. 10 , Pp. 526–527. [REVIEW]Joyce Friedman - 1969 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 34 (3):508.
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  35.  10
    Allen H. Brady. The Busy Beaver Game and the Meaning of Life. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 259–277. [REVIEW]Arnold Oberschelp - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):1091-1091.
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  36.  9
    Uwe Schöning. Complexity Theory and Interaction. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 561–580. [REVIEW]Steven Lindell - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):1091-1092.
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  37.  30
    Enumeration of Recursive Sets By Turing Machine.E. K. Blum - 1965 - Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 11 (3):197-201.
  38.  25
    Hartmanis J.. Context-Free Languages and Turing Machine Computations. Mathematical Aspects of Computer Science, Proceedings of Symposia in Applied Mathematics, Vol. 19, American Mathematical Society, Providence 1967, Pp. 42–51. [REVIEW]S. Ginsburg - 1972 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (4):759-759.
  39.  24
    Lin Shen and Rado Tibor. Computer Studies of Turing Machine Problems. Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery, Vol. 12 , Pp. 196–212.Brady Allen H.. The Conjectured Highest Scoring Machines for Rado's Σ for the Value K = 4. IEEE Transactions on Electronic Computers, Vol. EC-15 , Pp. 802–803.Green Milton W.. A Lower Bound on Rado's Sigma Function for Binary Turing Machines. Switching Circuit Theory and Logical Design, Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Symposium, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J., November 11-13, 1964, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York 1964, Pp. 91–94. [REVIEW]H. B. Enderton - 1975 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 40 (4):617-617.
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  40.  21
    The Undecidability of the Turing Machine Immortality Problem.Philip K. Hooper - 1966 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 31 (2):219-234.
  41.  5
    Michael J. Beeson. Computerizing Mathematics: Logic and Computation. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 191–225. [REVIEW]J. C. Shepherdson - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):1090-1091.
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  42.  14
    Computer Studies of Turing Machine Problems.Shen Lin, Tibor Rado, Allen H. Brady & Milton W. Green - 1975 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 40 (4):617-617.
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  43.  24
    Review: J. Hartmanis, Context-Free Languages and Turing Machine Computations. [REVIEW]S. Ginsburg - 1972 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (4):759-759.
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  44.  13
    Alan Turing and the Turing Machine.Turing's Analysis of Computability, and Major Applications of It.The Confluence of Ideas in 1936.Turing in the Land of O.Mathematical Logic and the Origin of Modern Computers. [REVIEW]John N. Crossley, Andrew Hodges, Rolf Herken, Stephen C. Kleene, Robin Gandy, Solomon Feferman, Martin Davis & Esther R. Phillips - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):1089.
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  45.  13
    Rolf Herken . The Universal Turing Machine: A Half-Century Survey. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988. Pp. Xiv + 661. ISBN 0-19-853741-7. £55.00. [REVIEW]Steve Russ - 1989 - British Journal for the History of Science 22 (4):451-452.
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  46.  15
    Review: S. C. Kleene, Ernest Nagel, Patrick Suppes, Alfred Tarski, Turing-Machine Computable Functionals of Finite Types I; S. C. Kleene, Turing-Machine Computable Functionals of Finite Types II. [REVIEW]D. A. Clarke - 1970 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (4):588-589.
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  47.  5
    The Present Theory of Turing Machine Computability.C. E. M. Yates & Hartley Rogers - 1966 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 31 (3):513.
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  48. Why I Am Not a Turing Machine: Godel's Theorem and the Philosophy of Mind.Thomas Tymoczko - 1991 - In Jay L. Garfield (ed.), Foundations of Cognitive Science. Paragon House.
     
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  49.  16
    Review: Shen Lin, Tibor Rado, Computer Studies of Turing Machine Problems; Allen H. Brady, The Conjectured Highest Scoring Machines for Rado's $Sum(K)$ for the Value $K = 4$; Milton W. Green, A Lower Bound on Rado's Sigma Function for Binary Turing Machines. [REVIEW]H. B. Enderton - 1975 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 40 (4):617-617.
  50.  13
    Turing-Machine Computable Functionals of Finite Types I.S. C. Kleene, Ernest Nagel, Patrick Suppes & Alfred Tarski - 1970 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (4):588-589.
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