Results for 'Two Envelopes'

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  1. The Two-Envelope Paradox.Michael Clark & Nicholas Shackel - 2000 - Mind 109 (435):415--442.
    Previous claims to have resolved the two-envelope paradox have been premature. The paradoxical argument has been exposed as manifestly fallacious if there is an upper limit to the amount of money that may be put in an envelope; but the paradoxical cases which can be described if this limitation is removed do not involve mathematical error, nor can they be explained away in terms of the strangeness of infinity. Only by taking account of the partial sums of the infinite series (...)
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  2. The Two Envelope 'Paradox'.Frank Jackson, Peter Menzies & Graham Oppy - 1994 - Analysis 54 (1):43 - 45.
    This paper discusses the finite version of the two envelope paradox. (That is, we treat the paradox against the background assumption that there is only a finite amount of money in the world.).
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  3. The Two Envelope Paradox and Infinite Expectations.Frank Arntzenius & David McCarthy - 1997 - Analysis 57 (1):42–50.
    The two envelope paradox can be dissolved by looking closely at the connection between conditional and unconditional expectation and by being careful when summing an infinite series of positive and negative terms. The two envelope paradox is not another St. Petersburg paradox and that one does not need to ban talk of infinite expectation values in order to dissolve it. The article ends by posing a new puzzle to do with infinite expectations.
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  4. The Two-Envelope Paradox: An Axiomatic Approach.Franz Dietrich & Christian List - 2005 - Mind 114 (454):239-248.
    There has been much discussion on the two-envelope paradox. Clark and Shackel (2000) have proposed a solution to the paradox, which has been refuted by Meacham and Weisberg (2003). Surprisingly, however, the literature still contains no axiomatic justification for the claim that one should be indifferent between the two envelopes before opening one of them. According to Meacham and Weisberg, "decision theory does not rank swapping against sticking [before opening any envelope]" (p. 686). To fill this gap in the (...)
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  5. The Two-Envelope Paradox.John Broome - 1995 - Analysis 55 (1):6 - 11.
  6. The Two-Envelope Paradox: A Complete Analysis?David J. Chalmers - manuscript
    A wealthy eccentric places two envelopes in front of you. She tells you that both envelopes contain money, and that one contains twice as much as the other, but she does not tell you which is which. You are allowed to choose one envelope, and to keep all the money you find inside.
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  7. The Two-Envelope Paradox: Asymmetrical Cases.Chunghyoung Lee - 2013 - Mind 122 (485):1-26.
    In the asymmetrical variant of the two-envelope paradox, the amount in envelope A is determined first, and then the amount in envelope B is determined to be either twice or half the amount in A by flipping a fair coin. Contra the common belief that B is preferable to A in this case, I show that the proposed arguments for this common belief all fail, and argue that B is not preferable to A if the expected values of the amounts (...)
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  8.  64
    The Two-Envelope Paradox, Nonstandard Expected Utility, and the Intensionality of Probability.Terry Horgan - 2000 - Noûs 34 (4):578–603.
  9. The Two Envelope Paradox: The Infinite Case.Paul Castell & Diderik Batens - 1994 - Analysis 54 (1):46 - 49.
  10.  25
    The Two Envelope Paradox and Infinite Expectations.Frank Arntzenius & David McCarthy - 1997 - Analysis 57 (1):42-50.
  11. The Two-Envelope Paradox Resolved.Timothy J. McGrew, David Shier & Harry S. Silverstein - 1997 - Analysis 57 (1):28–33.
  12.  74
    Two Envelope Problems and the Roles of Ignorance.Gary Malinas - 2003 - Acta Analytica 18 (1-2):217-225.
    Four variations on Two Envelope Paradox are stated and compared. The variations are employed to provide a diagnosis and an explanation of what has gone awry in the paradoxical modeling of the decision problem that the paradox poses. The canonical formulation of the paradox underdescribes the ways in which one envelope can have twice the amount that is in the other. Some ways one envelope can have twice the amount that is in the other make it rational to prefer the (...)
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  13.  43
    Two Envelopes.Jordan Howard Sobel - 1994 - Theory and Decision 36 (1):69-96.
  14.  6
    The Two Envelope 'Paradox'.Frank Jackson & Alonso Church - 1994 - Analysis 54 (1):43.
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  15. The Two Envelope Paradox and Using Variables Within the Expectation Formula.Eric Schwitzgebel & Josh Dever - 2008 - Sorites:135-140.
    You are presented with a choice between two envelopes. You know one envelope contains twice as much money as the other, but you don't know which contains more. You arbitrarily choose one envelope -- call it Envelope A -- but don't open it. Call the amount of money in that envelope X. Since your choice was arbitrary, the other envelope (Envelope B) is 50% likely to be the envelope with more and 50% likely to be the envelope with less. (...)
     
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  16.  4
    The Two Envelope Paradox: The Infinite Case.Paul Castell & Alonso Church - 1994 - Analysis 54 (1):46.
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  17. Trying to Resolve the Two-Envelope Problem.Casper J. Albers, Barteld P. Kooi & Willem Schaafsma - 2005 - Synthese 145 (1):89-109.
    After explaining the well-known two-envelope paradox by indicating the fallacy involved, we consider the two-envelope problem of evaluating the factual information provided to us in the form of the value contained by the envelope chosen first. We try to provide a synthesis of contributions from economy, psychology, logic, probability theory (in the form of Bayesian statistics), mathematical statistics (in the form of a decision-theoretic approach) and game theory. We conclude that the two-envelope problem does not allow a satisfactory solution. An (...)
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  18.  92
    A Tale of Two Envelopes.Bernard D. Katz & Doris Olin - 2007 - Mind 116 (464):903-926.
    This paper deals with the two-envelope paradox. Two main formulations of the paradoxical reasoning are distinguished, which differ according to the partition of possibilities employed. We argue that in the first formulation the conditionals required for the utility assignment are problematic; the error is identified as a fallacy of conditional reasoning. We go on to consider the second formulation, where the epistemic status of certain singular propositions becomes relevant; our diagnosis is that the states considered do not exhaust the possibilities. (...)
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  19. The St. Petersburg Two-Envelope Paradox.David J. Chalmers - 2002 - Analysis 62 (2):155–157.
    I reason: (1) For any x, if I knew that A contained x, then the odds are even that B contains either 2x or x/2, so the expected amount in B would be 5x/4. So (2) for all x, if I knew that A contained x, I would have an expected gain in switching to B. So (3) I should switch to B. But this seems clearly wrong, as my information about A and B is symmetrical.
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  20. The Non-Probabilistic Two Envelope Paradox.James Chase - 2002 - Analysis 62 (2):157–160.
    Given a choice between two sealed envelopes, one of which contains twice as much money as the other (and in any case some), you don't know which contains the larger sum and so choose one at random. You are then given the option of taking the other envelope instead. Is it rational to do so? Surely not. but a specious line of reasoning suggests otherwise.
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  21. What’s in the Two Envelope Paradox?Alexander D. Scott & Michael Scott - 1997 - Analysis 57 (1):34–41.
  22.  20
    Two Envelopes and Binding.Casper Storm Hansen - 2018 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 96 (3):508-518.
    This paper describes a way of defending a modification of Eckhardt's [2013] solution to the Two Envelopes Paradox. The defence is based on ideas from Arntzenius, Elga, and Hawthorne [2004].
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  23.  22
    The St. Petersburg Two-Envelope Paradox.D. J. Chalmers - 2002 - Analysis 62 (2):155-157.
  24.  55
    The Non-Probabilistic Two Envelope Paradox.J. Chase - 2002 - Analysis 62 (2):157-160.
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  25.  77
    Opening Two Envelopes.Paul Syverson - 2010 - Acta Analytica 25 (4):479-498.
    In the two-envelope problem, one is offered a choice between two envelopes, one containing twice as much money as the other. After seeing the contents of the chosen envelope, the chooser is offered the opportunity to make an exchange for the other envelope. However, it appears to be advantageous to switch, regardless of what is observed in the chosen envelope. This problem has an extensive literature with connections to probability and decision theory. The literature is roughly divided between those (...)
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  26. Clark and Shackel on the Two‐Envelope Paradox.Jonathan Weisberg & Christopher Meacham - 2003 - Mind 112 (448):685-689.
    Clark and Shackel have recently argued that previous attempts to resolve the two-envelope paradox fail, and that we must look to symmetries of the relevant expected-value calculations for a solution. Clark and Shackel also argue for a novel solution to the peeking case, a variant of the two-envelope scenario in which you are allowed to look in your envelope before deciding whether or not to swap. Whatever the merits of these solutions, they go beyond accepted decision theory, even contradicting it (...)
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  27.  12
    What's in the Two Envelope Paradox?A. D. Scott & M. Scott - 1997 - Analysis 57 (1):34-41.
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  28. The Two Envelope Paradox and the Foundations of Rational Decision Theory.Terry Horgan - unknown
    You are given a choice between two envelopes. You are told, reliably, that each envelope has some money in it—some whole number of dollars, say—and that one envelope contains twice as much money as the other. You don’t know which has the higher amount and which has the lower. You choose one, but are given the opportunity to switch to the other. Here is an argument that it is rationally preferable to switch: Let x be the quantity of money (...)
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  29.  69
    Two Envelope Problems.Gary Malinas - 2006 - The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 9:153-158.
    When decision makers have more to gain than to lose by changing their minds, and that is the only relevant fact, they thereby have a reason to change their minds. While this is sage advice, it is silent on when one stands more to gain than to lose. The two envelope paradox provides a case where the appearance of advantage in changing your mind is resilient despite being a chimera. Setups that are unproblematically modeled by decision tables that are used (...)
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  30.  81
    The Epoch of Incredulity: A Response to Katz and Olin's 'A Tale of Two Envelopes'.P. A. Sutton - 2010 - Mind 119 (473):159-169.
    When David Lewis ( 1986 ) told us that possible worlds were a ‘paradise for philosophers’, he neglected to add that they are a minefield for decision theorists. Possibilities — be they nomological, metaphysical, or epistemic possibilities — have little to do with subjective probabilities, and it is these latter that matter most to decision theory. Bernard Katz and Doris Olin ( 2007 ) have tried to solve the two-envelope problem by appealing to possible worlds and counterfactual conditionals. In this (...)
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  31.  62
    A Note on the Two Envelopes Problem.P. Rawling - 1994 - Theory and Decision 36 (1):97-102.
  32.  43
    The Nonidentity Problem and the Two Envelope Problem: When is One Act Better for a Person Than Another?Melinda A. Roberts - 2009 - In David Wasserman & Melinda Roberts (eds.), Harming Future Persons. Springer. pp. 201--228.
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  33.  41
    Keep or Trade? Effects of Pay-Off Range on Decisions with the Two-Envelopes Problem.Raymond S. Nickerson, Susan F. Butler, Nathaniel Delaney-Busch & Michael Carlin - 2014 - Thinking and Reasoning 20 (4):472-499.
    The "two-envelopes" problem has stimulated much discussion on probabilistic reasoning, but relatively little experimentation. The problem specifies two identical envelopes, one of which contains twice as much money as the other. You are given one of the envelopes and the option of keeping it or trading for the other envelope. Variables of interest include the possible amounts of money involved, what is known about the process by which the amounts of money were assigned to the envelopes, (...)
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  34.  47
    Misadventures in Conditional Expectation: The Two-Envelope Problem. [REVIEW]Carl G. Wagner - 1999 - Erkenntnis 51 (2-3):233-241.
    Several fallacies of conditionalization are illustrated, using the two-envelope problem as a case in point.
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  35.  44
    Probabilistic Reasoning in the Two-Envelope Problem.Bruce D. Burns - 2015 - Thinking and Reasoning 21 (3):295-316.
    In the two-envelope problem, a reasoner is offered two envelopes, one containing exactly twice the money in the other. After observing the amount in one envelope, it can be traded for the unseen contents of the other. It appears that it should not matter whether the envelope is traded, but recent mathematical analyses have shown that gains could be made if trading was a probabilistic function of amount observed. As a problem with a purely probabilistic solution, it provides a (...)
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  36. Repeated St Petersburg Two-Envelope Trials and Expected Value.Jeremy Gwiazda - 2012 - The Reasoner 6 (3).
    It is commonly believed that when a finite value is received in a game that has an infinite expected value, it is in one’s interest to redo the game. We have argued against this belief, at least in the repeated St Petersburg two-envelope case. We also show a case where repeatedly opting for a higher expected value leads to a worse outcome.
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  37.  73
    Conditionals and a Two-Envelope Paradox.Byeong-Uk Yi - 2013 - Journal of Philosophy 110 (5):233-257.
    C onsider two contrary conditionals 1 about two envelopes, Ali and Baba: (a) If Ali has more money than Baba, the difference between the amounts in them is $5. (b) If Ali has more money than Baba, the difference between the amounts in them is $10. Can these both be true? The answer is a resounding yes on the standard account of conditionals, which identifies indicative con- ditionals with material conditionals. It is not the same with many other contemporary (...)
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  38.  33
    Getting Clear on the Two-Envelope Paradox.Monte Cook - 2002 - Southwest Philosophy Review 18 (1):45-51.
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  39.  35
    Taking the Two Envelope Paradox to the Limit.Don Fallis - 2009 - Southwest Philosophy Review 25 (2):95-111.
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  40. A Three-Step Solution to the Two-Envelope Paradox.Igor Douven - 2007 - Logique Et Analyse 50 (200):359.
     
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  41.  9
    The Classical and Maximin Versions of the Two-Envelope Paradox.Bruce Langtry - 2004 - Australasian Journal of Logic 2:30-43.
    The Two-Envelope Paradox is classically presented as a problem in decision theory that turns on the use of probabilities in calculating expected utilities. I formulate a Maximin Version of the paradox, one that is decision-theoretic but omits considerations of probability. I investigate the source of the error in this new argument, and apply the insights thereby gained to the analysis of the classical version.
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  42.  45
    Conditionals, Probabilities, and Utilities: More on Two Envelopes.B. D. Katz & D. Olin - 2010 - Mind 119 (473):171-183.
    Sutton ( 2010 ) claims that on our analysis (2007), the problem in the two-envelope paradox is an error in counterfactual reasoning. In fact, we distinguish two formulations of the paradox, only one of which, on our account, involves an error in conditional reasoning. According to Sutton, it is conditional probabilities rather than subjunctive conditionals that are essential to the problem. We argue, however, that his strategy for assigning utilities on the basis of conditional probabilities leads to absurdity. In addition, (...)
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  43.  21
    A Simple Solution to the Two Envelope Problem.Ned Markosian - 2011 - Logos and Episteme 2 (3):347-357.
    Various proposals have been made for solving The Two Envelope Problem. But even though the problem itself is easily stated and quite simple, the proposedsolutions have not been. Some involve calculus, some involve considerations about infinite values, and some are complicated in other ways. Moreover, there is not yet any one solution that is widely accepted as correct. In addition to being notable for its simplicity and its lack of a generally agreed-upon solution, The Two Envelope Problem is also notable (...)
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  44. Summer 1991: The "Monty Hall" Problem; Fall 1993: The Two Envelopes Puzzle; And Now: Doomsday.Arthur Falk - 1993 - Proceedings of the Heraclitean Society 17:64.
  45.  25
    A Commentary on Cook’s “Getting Clear on the Two-Envelope Paradox”.William L. Vanderburgh - 2002 - Southwest Philosophy Review 18 (2):95-99.
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  46. Casper J. Albers, Barteld P. Kooi and Willem Schaafsma/Trying to Resolve the Two-Envelope Problem Edwin H.-C. Hung/Projective Explanation: How Theories Explain Empirical Data in Spite of Theory. [REVIEW]Fc Boogerd, Fj Bruggeman & Rc Richardson - 2005 - Synthese 145 (1):499-500.
     
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  47. Envelopes and Indifference.Graham Priest & Greg Restall - unknown
    Consider this situation: Here are two envelopes. You have one of them. Each envelope contains some quantity of money, which can be of any positive real magnitude. One contains twice the amount of money that the other contains, but you do not know which one. You can keep the money in your envelope, whose numerical value you do not know at this stage, or you can exchange envelopes and have the money in the other. You wish to maximise (...)
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  48.  57
    Perspectives on a Pair of Envelopes.Piers Rawling - 1997 - Theory and Decision 43 (3):253-277.
    The two envelopes problem has generated a significant number of publications (I have benefitted from reading many of them, only some of which I cite; see the epilogue for a historical note). Part of my purpose here is to provide a review of previous results (with somewhat simpler demonstrations). In addition, I hope to clear up what I see as some misconceptions concerning the problem. Within a countably additive probability framework, the problem illustrates a breakdown of dominance with respect (...)
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  49.  14
    Envelopes, Indicators and Conservativeness.Andrés Cordón-Franco, Alejandro Fernández-Margarit & F. Félix Lara-Martín - 2006 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 52 (1):51-70.
    A well known theorem proved by J. Paris and H. Friedman states that BΣn +1 is a Πn +2-conservative extension of IΣn . In this paper, as a continuation of our previous work on collection schemes for Δn +1-formulas , we study a general version of this theorem and characterize theories T such that T + BΣn +1 is a Πn +2-conservative extension of T . We prove that this conservativeness property is equivalent to a model-theoretic property relating Πn-envelopes (...)
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  50.  51
    Building a Socially Responsible Equity Portfolio Using Data Envelopment Analysis.Karl W. Einolf - 2007 - Philosophica 80:71-103.
    This paper uses two techniques to build a socially responsible portfolio of U.S. equities and examines prospective performance using publicly available data. The first technique eliminates stocks from consideration using categorical exclusions with a restrictive Environment, Social and Governance screen. The paper shows that stocks surviving the screen have a significantly higher average projected Value Line alpha and are more likely to have a Morningstar 5-star rating. Using categorical exclusions, however, introduces a sector bias in that the ESG screen is (...)
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