Die Archäologien gelten als junge Wissenschaften, da sie erst vom 19. Jahrhundert an zu universitären Fächern wurden. Die Ur- und Frühgeschichte beruft sich auf die Skandinavier Thomsen und Montelius, die Klassische Archäologie auf Winckelmann. Ältere, als antiquarisch und vorwissenschaftlich bezeichnete Arbeiten schließt man aus der Fachtradition aus. Eine vergleichende europäische Wissenschaftsgeschichte archäologischen Forschens vor dem 19. Jahrhundert ist deshalb ein Desiderat. Die Autorin füllt diese Lücke, indem sie in ihrem zweibändigen Werk Arbeiten mit archäologischem Inhalt aus verschiedenen europäischen Ländern auf (...) ihre grundlegenden Konzepte, Fragestellungen und Methoden hin untersucht. In Studien zu einzelnen Arbeitsschritten geht sie u. a. der Frage nach, inwieweit und unter welchen sozialen und politischen Bedingungen vor der akademischen Fachbildung methodische und konzeptuelle Arbeitsnormen entstanden und sich durchsetzen konnten. Sie kann zeigen, dass archäologische Quellen seit der Antike als wissenschaftliche Beweise dienten, Untersuchungsmethoden zielgerichtet entwickelt wurden und heutige fachliche und nationale Ausprägungen tiefe historische Wurzeln haben. Der zweite Band ist der Zeit von 1630 bis 1852 gewidmet. Sasse erfasst damit die Anfänge der Institutionalisierung, die von der Entwicklung der Grabungsmethodik sowie der Erfindung des heute noch grundlegenden Dreiperiodensystems geprägt sind. Skandinavien, das deutsche Sprachgebiet, England und Frankreich stehen im Fokus. Deutlich wird, dass einige Ergebnisse seit 1660 wesentlich zur europäischen Säkularisierung beitrugen. Erst die Methoden zur Beobachtung und Bearbeitung von Fundkomplexen und die Definition kultureller Kontexte seit 1750 jedoch schufen die Voraussetzung zur Formulierung tragfähiger Fachparadigmen. (shrink)
U članku se nastoji pokazati na koji način francuski filozof Paul Ricœur »prisvaja« neke od Augustinovih koncepcija – prvi grijeh, vrijeme, »nutarnji učitelj« i pamćenje – i uključuje ih u svoje promišljanje o razumijevanju i samorazumijevanju ljudskog »bitka u svijetu« posredstvom interpretacije teksta. Ricœurovo »prisvajanje« tekstova koji hrane i obogaćuju njegovo vlastito promišljanje, kompleksno je i slojevito. Pojedini stručnjaci, međutim, upućuju ovakvom »prisvajanju« kritike. Tako Isabelle Bochet u knjizi Augustin dans la pensée de Paul Ricœur , u preciznoj analizi Augustinova (...) utjecaja na Ricœura, zamjera Ricœuru proizvoljan pristup kakav privilegira jedne, a zanemaruje druge aspekte Augustinove misli. Ona mu, zapravo, prigovara da ne prisvaja teološke argumente Augustinove rasprave, nju samu time lišavajući bitne dimenzije. Da bi se odgovorilo na pitanje: na čemu se ovakva kritika, zapravo, temelji, valjalo bi se ponovno pitati što uopće jest hermeneutičko »prisvajanje« te kakva je priroda veze između teologije i filozofije.Dans cet article on essaye de montrer comment le philosophe français Paul Ricœur « approprie » certaines conceptions d’Augustin – péché originel, temps, « maître interieur », mémoire – et les inclue dans sa propre pensée sur la comphrension et autocomprehension « d’être dans le monde » par intermédiare de l’interprétation. « L’appropriation » des textes qui nourissent et enrichissent la pensée de Ricœur est complexe et elle a plusieurs couches. Certains experts, cependant, adressent à tel « appropriation » ses critiques. Isabelle Bochet , dans son analyse précis de l’influence d’Augustin sur Ricœur, reproche à Ricœur son appropriation provisoire qui privilège les uns et néglige les autres aspects de la pensée d’Augustin. Elle lui rapproche, en effet, qu’il n’aproprie pas les arguments théologiques de la discussion d’Augustin en la dépouillant de sa dimension essentielle. Pour qu’on puisse répondre sur la question: sur quoi se fonde telle critique, il faut se demander de nouveau qu’est que c’est que « l’appropriation » hérméneutique et quelle est la nature da la relation entre la théologie et la philosophie. (shrink)
Hrvatsko filozofsko društvo jedan dio svojih aktivnosti usmjeruje prema filozofiji odgoja i problemima nastave. Najbolji primjer za to jest časopis Metodički ogledi, koji je specijaliziran za filozofiju odgoja. Njegov dijapazon obuhvaća i nastavu filozofije, logike i etike, ali i nastavu drugih predmeta, kako u osnovnom i srednjem školstvu tako i na sveučilištima. Časopisi Filozofska istraživanja i Synthesis philosophica redovito objavljuju radove iz odgojno-obrazovnog područja. Neko je vrijeme u izdanju HFD-a izlazio i časopis Logika, koji se bavio pitanjima nastave logike. U (...) biblioteci »Filozofska istraživanja« izdane su četiri knjige tematski vezane za filozofiju odgoja i nastavu filozofije. HFD je i organizator dva velika znanstvena skupa o toj problematici: Filozofija i obrazovanje i Filozofija i odgoj u suvremenom društvu . Potonji je skup rezultirao zbornikom Filozofija i odgoj u suvremenom društvu, ur. Milan Polić .Posebnu pozornost društvo posvećuje nastavi filozofske grupe predmeta. Osim što su članovi društva sudjelovali u izradi programa gore navedenih predmeta, HFD je suorganizator Natjecanja iz filozofije i logike. Inicijativa o priključenju naših učenika u Međunarodnu filozofsku olimpijadu upravo je krenula od Hrvatskog filozofskog društva.The Croatian Philosophical Society directs a part of its activities toward the philosophy of education and the problems of teaching. The instance best illustrating this is journal Metodički ogledi, specialized in the philosophy of education. Its range encompasses the teaching of not only philosophy, logic and ethics, but also other subjects, at primary, secondary or higher education levels. Journals Filozofska istraživanja and Synthesis philosophica publish papers from the field of education on a regular basis. Croatian Philosophical Society used to publish for a while journal named Logika, which dealt with the questions of teaching logic in schools. In the “Filozofska istraživanja” series, four books thematically related to the philosophy of education and philosophy teaching in schools have been published. The Society also organized two significant scientific conferences on the topic: Philosophy and Education and Philosophy and Education in Contemporary Society . The latter resulted in the publication of the collected papers entitled Philosophy and Education in Contemporary Society, ed. Milan Polić .Special attention within the Society is given to teaching philosophical group of subjects . In addition to the fact that society members participated in designing curricula for the aforementioned subjects, the Society is the co-organiser of the regular school competitions in philosophy and logic. Also, the initiative to include Croatian students into the International Philosophical Olympiad had its roots in the Croatian Philosophical Society. (shrink)
In the article of Oleh Shepetyak «Dramatic Theology of K. Barth, H.U. von Balthasar and R. Schwager» the analysis of one of the theological concepts of XX - the beginning of XXI century was performed which was developed by Karl Barth, Gustav Aulén, Gans Urs von Balthasar and got the name «dramatic theology». This way of theological reflection appeared as antithesis to liberal theology developed in the dialogue with the Enlightment philosophy. The contribution of main creators of dramatic theology into (...) the development of this study, its role and meaning in Theological discussions of the Catholic Church after the Second Vatican Council are highlighted in the investigation. (shrink)
In proposing this reflection about the relationship between dogmatic theology and Christian spiritual experience, we want to demonstrate in this article how a great 20 th century theologian, Hans Urs von Balthasar, invites the reader to enter into the reading and understanding of the historical and theological reasons that have guided some options and postures assumed, as well as to recognize the impacts caused both in the theology and in the spiritual experience and yet, more widely, in Christianity and its (...) mission. The path chosen for this study starts from one of his works, L’amour seul est digne de foi, and relies, then, in the impressive intellectual patrimony of the author, by researching in the same the transversality of the theme. We will be, in the present work, vigilant to the threat of disruptions, particularly analyze the conception and the possibility of the Christian spiritual experience by inquiring the Old Testament, the New Testament and the Holy Fathers. What is the hope delineated in this dialogue? It will be possible to infer partial conclusions from the route made. Further researches will be essential in order to reach the understanding of everything that is at stake in the search for intelligibility of the Theology and of the Christian experience itself. (shrink)
Ricœur postavlja interesantnu definiciju utopije i ideologije. Svako društvo, s namjerom da ostane više ili manje stabilno, mora doseći ravnotežu među njima dvjema. Oslanjajući se na njegovu definiciju, pokušat ćemo razvrstati i »školsko« poimanje globalizacije. Traži se odgovor na pitanje radi li se pretežito o ideološkom ili ponajprije utopijskom pristupu aktualnih školskih politika. Od posebnog zanimanja za nas jest pitanje u čijem je interesu sve izraženija unifikacija školstva, stavi li se pod povećalo primjer Bolonjske reforme. Je li ovdje riječ o (...) spletu ekonomskih interesa, ili o potrebi čovjeka kao bića u smislu individue i njezinih prava, naglasimo li u obrazovnom procesu općenitost, jedinstvo, usporedivost te kompetenciju. Je li globalizacija na polju školstva ništa drugo doli izazov vremena, ili se tu pak podilazi zahtjevima određenih ekonomskih interesa izvjesnog složenog kapitalnog sistema? Čini se kako smo iznova razapeti između utopije očekivanja univerzalnog bratstva i ideologije opravdavanja interesa pojedinih skupina. (shrink)
La cuestión de si los lenguajes intensionalesson más expresivos que los lenguajes nointensionalessurge en el marco de unaperspect i va semánt i ca de l as t eorí as.Desde esta perspectiva, la cuestión esesta. ¿Hay clases modelo que se puedencaracterizar mediante teorías que usanconceptos intensionales que no se puedencaracterizar mediante teorías que no usanconceptos intensionales? Se sugiere unaformulación precisa de esta cuestión, perono se ofrece una respuesta.Para aproxi marse a est a cuest i ón, seresume la teoría de modelos de (...) primerorden [II] y se revisa el enfoque semánticode las teorías que emplea incrementost eóri cos, no i nt ensi onal es, de pri merorden [III].Los i nc r e me nt os t e ór i c os de pr i me rorden se bosquejan pero no se definenr i g u r o s a me n t e [ I V] . E s t e l e n g u a j ei n t e n s i o n a l pr o po r c i o n a e l a p a r a t op a r a a t r i b u i r u s o d e l l e n g u a j e yact i t udes i nt ens i onal es a i ndi vi duoscuyo comportami ento es el obj eto deinvestigación. También proporciona elaparato para habl ar sobre traducci óndel lenguaj e atribuido al lenguaj e delinvestigador.La cuestión inicial se convierte entoncesen si hay clases modelo que se puedanc a r a c t e r i z a r me d i a n t e i n c r e me n t o sintencionales de lógica de primer ordenq ue n o pue de n s e r c a pt ur a do s po rincrementos teóricos no-intensionales [V].The ques t i on of whet her i nt ens i onallanguages are more expressive than nonintensional languages is raised within the framework of a semantic view of theories. Fromthis perspective, the question isthis. Are there model classes that can becharacterized by theories using intensionalconcepts that cannot be characterizedby theories that do not use intensionalconcepts? A precise formulation of thisquestion is suggested, but no answer isgiven.To approach this question, model theory offirst order theories is summarized [II] andthe semantic approach to theories usingnon-intensional, theoretical augmentationsof first order theories is reviewed [III].I n t e n s i o n a l a u g me n t a t i o n s o f f i r s torder theories are sketched [IV] but notr i gor ous l y de f i ne d. Thi s i nt e ns i onall anguage provi des t he apparat us f orattributing language use and intensionalattitudes to individuals whose behavioris the object investigation. It also providesapparatus for talking about translationf r om t he at t r i but e d l anguage t o t heinvestigator’s language.T h e i n i t i a l q u e s t i o n t h e n b e c o me swhet her t here are model cl asses t hatc a n be c ha r a c t e r i z e d by i nt e ns i ona laugmentations of first order logic thatcannot be captured by non-intensionaltheoretical augmentations [V]. (shrink)
Os tempos contemporâneos evidenciamu ma a s s i n c r o n i a e n t r e a s c u l t u r a spart i cul ares e a nova const i t ui ção deestado global que se instaurou com as oci edade do conheci ment o. Quant omai or a e xpans ão de pos s i bi l i dade stécnico-científicas, menor a influênciaque as concepções morais dos gruposparticulares desempenham no (...) cenáriog l o b a l . To da s a s i nt ui ç õ e s na t ur a i sdo homo f aber são afetadas pel o fazertecnológico que responde muito maisrápida e satisfatoriamente aos anseiose necessi dades dos i ndi ví duos, t ant obi ol ógi c a quant o s oc i al ment e. Des t emodo, a atenção ao fator tecnol ógi coparece suplantar mandamentos moraisque desde outros tempos guiavam a açãoe a convivência social das pessoasContemporary ages showed an asynchronybe t we e n par t i c ul ar c ul t ur e s and t henew constitution of the global state thathas t aken pl ace wi t hi n t he soci et y ofknowledge. The more is the expansion oftechnical and scientific possibilities theless is the influence that moral conceptionsof particular groups play in the globalscene. All natural intuitions of homo faberare affected by technological making thatanswers most rapidly and satisfactorily tothe desires and needs of individuals, bothbiologically and sociologically. Thus, theattention to the technological feature seemsto supplant the moral commandments thatsince ancient times oriented the action andthe social life of persons. (shrink)
Pese a la estricta contextualización de lomágico como demoníaco en el tejido dela narrativa de El asno dorado de Apuleyo,una corriente que se ha descuidado enla academia moderna explora su legadopagano –r et i ene el al cance par a unahi pót esi s fact i bl e en l a forma de unacoalición paradigmática entre su progeniei nevi tabl e, l as bruj as desesperadas aligual que una comunidad distinguida detaumaturgos, los teúrgos, cuya identidaden el discurso intelectual proporciona elejemplo (...) más fino de las formas politeistasde adivinación. En Sobre los misterios deJamblico, se clarifica la representación deotra tipología de magia, la natural, queavala un notable paralelo en una premisacompartida –los niveles de motivación.Deseo proponer, que en tanto arroja luzsobre una clasificación dual de la magiac omo demoní ac a y nat ur al , t ambi énrefleja de manera fascinante los grados deunidad entre las brujas desesperadas ylos teúrgos en cuestión –las operacionesde l os pri meros a menudo sust ent ans us pl a n t e a mi e n t o s pa r a o c ul t a r e lconocimiento y su potencial no es inferiora l as preocupaci ones el evadas de l ossegundos.Despite the strict contextualization ofmagic as demonic within the fabric ofnar r at i ve i n Aput ei us ’ Go l de n As s , aneglected current in modern academia itspagan legacy - retains scope for a feasiblehypothesis in the form of a paradigmaticcoalition between its inevitable progeny,desperate witches as well as a distinguishedc o mmu n i t y o f t h a u ma t a u r g o i , t h etheurgist, whose identity in intellectualdi scour se, chi ef l y t he f i nest possi bl ee x e mpl um of pol yt he i s t i c f or ms ofdi vi nat i on I ambl i chus’ De Myst eri es,clarify their representation of anothertypology of magic, natural, endorsinga striking parallel in a shared premise -levels of motivation. I wish to propose,that in as much as it throws light on twofold classification of magic as demonic andnatural it also fascinatingly reflects degreesof unity, though not without reserve insome areas, between the desperate witchesand theurgists in question - the formerwhose operations often underpin theirclaims to occult knowledge and whosepotential is no less inferior to the elevatedconcerns of the latter. (shrink)
In this paper, we study the existence and nonexistence of solutions to fractional elliptic equations with the Hardy potential −Δsu−λu/x2s=ur−1+δgu,in Ω,ux>0,in Ω,ux=0,in ℝN∖Ω, where Ω⊂ℝN is a bounded Lipschitz domain with 0∈Ω, −Δs is a fractional Laplace operator, s∈0,1, N>2s, δ is a positive number, 2
The early evolutionary history of echinoderms was reconstructed on the basis of structural-functional considerations and application of the quasi-engineering approach of ‘Konstruktions-Morphologie’. According to the presented evolutionary scenario, a bilaterally symmetrical ancestor, such as an enteropneust-like organism, became gradually modified into a pentaradial echinoderm by passing through an intermediate pterobranch-like stage. The arms of a pentaradial echinoderm are identified as hydraulic outgrowths from the central coelomic cavity of the bilateral ancestor which developed due to a shortening of the body in (...) length but widening in the diameter. The resulting pentaradial symmetry is a consequence of mechanical laws that dictate minimal contact surface areas among hydraulic pneumatic entities. These developed in the coelomic cavity (metacoel) in the bilaterally symmetrical ancestor, when from the already U-shaped mesentery with the intestinal tract two additional U-shaped bows developed directly or subsequently. During the subsequent development tensile chords of the mesentery ‘sewed’ the gut with the body wall first in three and secondly in five ‘seams’. During the direct development five ‘seams’ between tensile chords and body wall developed straightly. These internal tensile chords subdivide the body coelom into five hydraulic subsystems (‘pneus’), which eventually arrange in a pentaradial pattern. The body could then enlarge only between the tensile chords, which means that five hydraulic bulges developed. These bulges initially supported the tentacles and finally each of them enclosed the tentacle until only the feather-like appendages of the tentacles projected over the surface. The tentacles with their feathers were transformedinto the ambulacral system, and the bulges become the arms. These morphological transformations were accompanied and partly determined by specific histological modifications, such as the development of mutable connective tissues and skeletal elements that fused to ossicles and provided shape stabilization in form of a calcareous skeleton in the body wall. The organism resulted was an ancestral echinoderm (‘Ur-Echinoderm’) with an enlarged metacoel, stabilized by hydraulic pressure working againsta capsule of mutable connective tissue, skeletal elements and longitudinal muscles. In regard to these reconstructions, the body structure of echinoderms can be understood as a hydraulic skeletal capsule. (shrink)
Como se usa act ual ment e l a pal abr ainglesa “scientism”, es una verdad verbaltrivial que se debe evitar el cientismo –una actitud inapropiadamente deferentehaci a l a ci enci a. Pero const i t uye unacuestión sustancial determinar cuando,y por qué, la deferencia hacia las cienciases inapropiada o exagerada. Este artículot r a t a d e r e s p o n d e r a e s t a c u e s t i ó (...) narticulando “seis signos de cientismo”: eluso honorífico de “ciencia,” etc.; el empleode los símbolos de la ciencia de manerapuramente decorativa; la preocupaciónpor la demarcación; la preocupación porel “método científico”; la búsqueda derespuestas en las ciencias para preguntasque est án más al l á de su al cance; l anegación de la legitimidad o valor dela indagación no-científica o de actividades como escribirpoesía o producir arte.As t he Engl i s h wor d “ s c i e nt i s m” i sc ur r e nt l y us e d, i t i s a t r i vi al ve r baltruth that scientism-an inappropriatelydeferential attitude to science-should beavoided. But it is a substantial questionwhen, and why, deference to the sciencesis inappropriate or exaggerated. This papertries to answer that question by articulating“six signs of scientism”: the honorific useof “science,” etc.; using scientific trappingspur e l y de c o r a t i v e l y ; pr e o c c upa t i o nwith demarcation; preoccupation with“scientific method”; looking to the sciencesfor answers beyond their scope; denyingthe legitimacy or worth of non-scientific inquiry, or of writingpoetry or making art. (shrink)
Excerpt from Wirklichkeiten: Beitrge zum Weltverstndnis Cdie erften hrei 9 uffhe geben eine allgemeine hiftorifche @in eitnng unb gegen -c$nhe he? britten einen turg, en berbiicf her 23e tanfchauung, hie ha' Q3uch naher begrunhen (R)iefe entmi e ich im 8ufammenhange bi' 3um g'man5igften Q bfchnitt. (R)ie Iet3ten ?qftg'e enthalten in freierer ?infniipfung weitere 'j u'fiihrungen einiger chemata, hie, toie ich hoffe, g'ur @rluterung her beruhrten $ragen nicht unmillfommn fein wethen; man mirh ihnen hoher bieﬂeicht nachfehen, haf3 ihre (c)chreibart mehr feuiiietoniftifch (...) gehalten ift; e'5 erfchien mir fein C5ehier, menu hiefeiben (c)runhgehanfen unter berfchiehener Qieleuchtung geaeigt werben. (R)en 2 rtifei ber aufere ?rume habe ich aufgenommen, weil mir hie harin enthaltenen (c)e bfb beobachtungen nicht ohne pfhchoiogifchecs' $ntereffe fchienen. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works. (shrink)
Undergraduate Research provides deeper experiential learning opportunities for students while increasing their self-efficacy, academic success and motivation to pursue graduate studies. Many real-world problems require an integrated solution and collaboration across different disciplines; therefore, it is important that students develop skills to work across disciplines on challenging research problems. As types and complexity of UR increase, Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Research has become more prevalent, but little is known about it. We define IDUR as “student-faculty collaboration to examine, increase, and share new (...) knowledge or works relevant to research questions the investigation of which necessitates an interdisciplinary approach”. From the faculty perspective, and based on the results of a national sample of higher learning institutions in the U.S., we outline the enablers of and barriers to IDUR and provide quantitative and qualitative insights. Survey results show that, irrespective of the size of the institution at which they work, faculty members value mentoring students conducting IDUR although it brings with it some challenges. Our findings may help institutions better facilitate IDUR projects and inform faculty development opportunities that deepen student learning and retention via enhanced curricula in which IDUR is embedded. (shrink)
continent. 1.2 (2011): 136-140. In early 2011, Cow Heavy Books published The Official Catalog of the Library of Potential Literature , a compendium of catalog 'blurbs' for non-existent desired or ideal texts. Along with Erinrose Mager, I edited the project, in a process that was more like curation as it mainly entailed asking a range of contemporary writers, theorists, and text-makers to send us an entry. What resulted was a creative/critical hybrid anthology, a small book in which each page opens (...) to a new iteration of textual desire. These texts explore the material possibilities of the book. Somewhat parallel to the call of N. Katherine Hayles who, in her book Writing Machines , urges literary theorists to take up the practice of Medium Specific Analysis (to account for the way the medium in which it is presented conditions or at least bears on a literary text). I see in the imagined works of The Official Catalog a call for the innovative writers of today to become Medium-Responsive. This would mean thinking through the specific (materially constrained) possibilities offered by the media in which texts are presented, and in thinking of the literary text as a kind of art in the greater context of other arts and the book as a medium situated within the context of many other media. In doing so, the contemporary writer refutes the chorus of critics who lament the death of the book by consistently reinvigorating literary innovation. The following are selections from The Official Catalog of the Library of Potential Literature that show possible paths for (thinking about) new writing that engages with its medium. —Ben Segal, Editor THE CUBE Even the most radical non-linear texts have tended to exploit or subvert only the sequential possibilities of print—from the continuous loop of Joyce's Finnegans Wake to the shuffled cards of Marc Saporta's Composition No. 1 —but The Cube takes such multiplicities to an entirely new level. Set in a grid, the book's words can be read conventionally, across the page, as well as down each column—with either route making complete grammatical sense. But they can also be read as stacked strata and mined like lexical core samples through the layered pages of the book. Each path tells the same story from a different perspective (the narrative, naturally, hinges on the potential outcomes of a throw of cubed dice). By opening up the z-axis to reading in this way, The Cube recognizes the book as a three-dimensional sculptural space. Taking its lead from Armand Schwerner's (If Personal) and Raymond Queneau's Cent mille milliards de poèmes , The Cube reads like a experiment by Christian Bök precision printed by Emily McVarish. Craig Dworkin is the editor, most recently, of The Consequence of Innovation: 21st Century Poetics (Roof Books, 2008), The Sound of Poetry/The Poetry of Sound , with Marjorie Perloff (U. Chicago Press, 2009), and Against Expression: An Anthology of Conceptual Writing , with Kenneth Goldsmith (Northwestern UP, 2010). He teaches at the University of Utah. HE GOES In He Goes , we read notes, letters and e-mails from a scholar father to his novelist daughter. We read of the father's musings on Beckett, on Pinter, on Anne Frank; his description of a woman hanging laundry from a line. We read about his journey toward dying, followed by a brief, third person account of his death, and his obituary. Then a long series of blank pages that demand to be read in real time, non-sentence by non-sentence, blank page by blank page. Finally—and it is here that this peculiar little book begins to soar—the dead father writes to his as-of-yet-still-living daughter. He does not write from death. He does not write from life. The words unprint, unstamp, unkindle. Still, they require no translation. The father "writes" (for lack of a better word) about the serendipitous, the commonplace; he recommends another book. He jokes. He asks his daughter how her stomach is. He says forget about presence in absence, darling; screw words as memorial and the guys in garbage cans and loss as redemption and I can't go on I must go on. He goes, "Love, Fodder." He goes, "incidentally." He goes, "I thought you might like to know." Elizabeth Graver is the author of a story collection, Have You Seen Me? , and three novels: Unravelling ; The Honey Thief ; and Awake . Her work has been anthologized in Best American Short Stories , Best American Essays , and Prize Stories: the O. Henry Awards . She teaches at Boston College. THE PAPER ARCHIVIST A stunning package and a triumph of imagination, The Paper Archivist at times looks to be less a book than an abstract expressionist painting. Softly bound, its contents unfold to a single sheet of uneven thickness and texture—a canvas splattered with colored lines, stickers, broken sentences, and nonsense pictographs. But by following the directions to fold, dip, smell, rub, scratch, and tear the sheet according to the contingencies of the weather and using only the objects at hand, the reader slowly brings the forces hidden in the noise into a glorious sculptural convergence, processing a different story and shape each time. This is the rare book that continues to stir, whirl, and pop on every new reading. Sean Higgins blogs at BOMBlog where he is responsible for the column Volumes and Territories, as well as Ghost Island , a fledgling collaborative intellectual collective. THE SLOW BOOK The Slow Book , written by an anonymous author at the dawn of literacy, on a minor planet (otherwise notable only as the source of that exceptionally hardy, not very tasty grain called “shef” sowed on hostile planets as an early step to colonization), and encoded into a series of punctures on a strip of copper coiled inside a clever device, something between a player piano and an old-fashioned film projector, is being released into print, as was the author’s intention, at a rate of one word per century (local time). Each word is, across the Forty Galaxies, agreed to be uncannily apt for the century in which it appears—even “of,” in a century during which the highest value was attached to fidelity, whether to ideals, worlds, or romantic love; even “the,” which governed two centuries, one extraordinarily materialistic, during which advances in propulsion and navigation accelerated the exchange of exceptional objects between the remotest planets of the Forty, and one in which the central concern, both of philosophers and the common man, was whether, in an age of rapidly proliferating hypothetical worlds, anyone or anything concretely existed at all. Even those words published long before interstellar contact can be seen in retrospect to have transgalactic pertinence. As a result, attempts to abstract the machine from its publishers, Hobson & Hui, in order to “predict the future” for insight or gain by “fast- forwarding” the copper strip have been many and ingenious. While, in centuries of skepticism (“maybe”), or of unrest (“go”) the book has been nearly forgotten, in others it seems to haunt every thought, every deed, despite the fact that the subject of The Slow Book is still unclear. So far only a few sentences exist in print; everyone knows them, can quote them, offer the standard exegeses and assorted heresies; yet certainties are the stuff of adolescence; mature readers are forced to acknowledge that these sentences are probably only a preamble to the main argument. They contain no proper nouns, nor can we identify any definite theme. There is even disagreement about their tone, whether coolly ironic, as some insist, or ardent. The appearance of an unusual grammatical case, sometimes called the future pluperfect continuous, used to describe events that at some future point will have always been true (but are not yet)—hitherto known to appear only in the synthetic dogmas of the Thanatographical Society, and in certain highly circumscribed religious contexts—has suggested to some scholars that the Slow Book was originally intended for ritual use, but the proximity of the usage to a term designating a small hand plow that, as Pott and Mielcke have convincingly shown, would have borne a distinctly obscene double meaning in its culture of origin in the author’s time, argues otherwise. It is likewise unclear whether the situation that seems to be—with teasing incompleteness—sketched out in these few lines is intended as an illustration of general principles, a case study, a dramatic scene, or an extended metaphor. In short, we have no idea what The Slow Book is about. In our own time, we believe that it is almost certainly a work of fiction, but that may be because we live in the century of “if”. In each age, perhaps, we see the book we most need to read. Some have dared to suggest that the metal strip is blank until, with millennial fanfare, it advances into its new position, that no ur-text exists, that the book itself is brought into being—written—by our need. But that is exactly the sort of thing we would believe, in 7645. Shelley Jackson is the author of the story collection The Melancholy of Anatomy , the novel Half Life , and hypertexts including Patchwork Girl . The recipient of a Howard Foundation grant, a Pushcart Prize, and the 2006 James Tiptree Jr Award, she has also written and illustrated several children's books, including The Old Woman and the Wave ; Sophia, the Alchemist's Dog ; and Mimi's Dada Catifesto . Her stories and essays have appeared in Conjunctions , McSweeney's , The Paris Review , and Cabinet Magazine . In 2004 she launched her project SKIN , a story published in tattoos on 2095 volunteers. THE BOOK OF SOUNDS The Book of Sounds is just that: a book of sounds made when letters are construed in new ways to bring forth out of the alphabet new forms of speech. A book meant to be read out loud, The Book of Sounds is not unlike Laurie Anderson's O Superman or Brian Eno's Music for Airports in its attempt to make music out of the most primary and simplest of methods. It breaks language down to its barest bones and makes out of the page a drum that has never before been beaten upon. Peter Markus is the author of a novel, Bob, or Man on Boat (Dzanc Books) as well as two books of short fiction, Good, Brother and The Singing Fish , both of which were published by Calamari Press. A new collection of stories, We Make Mud , is now available from Dzanc Books. PARADISE OF THE BLIND by Celan Solen Although the reclusive Celan Solen published his first and only book in 1963—paying out-of-pocket for a limited edition of the slim collection No One May Have the Same Knowledge Again —he remained in American obscurity for almost three decades. In 1992 a micro-press in Istanbul brought out No One in Turkish. A German translation followed in 1995. Soon it became clear in literary circles Solen was a world-class (if highly unclassifiable) artist—lyrical, dense, enigmatic—who could undo the conventional short story in 397 words by inventing impossible worlds housed in impossible whirls (in “Small Sadnesses,” a single chartreuse tree frog in Borneo unknowingly holds time together by its very presence in the universe, while each letter of its tale refers, not to itself, but to the one preceding it in the alphabet). By his disappearance last year, Solen was considered master by a generation of writers and critics (except, alas, for those gentlemen in the Swedish Academy). Imagine, then, that generation’s delight at the discovery, locked away in the author’s safe-deposit box, of his second and final composition. Had Lynch’s Lost Highway been book instead of film, and had it been penned by Beckett at his least certain, revised by Barthelme at his most formally deranged, and typeset by Derrida at his most semiotically catastrophic, the result might have been something like Paradise of the Blind : interlacing narratives of a man composed of borrowed organs (whose most cheerless and difficult to locate, god, could only have been invented by an empty heart), a nonexistent medieval painting blamed for the ruin of future hope, and the spread of a philosophy that holds earth a mistake constantly recurring in the dream of a fish lying on the floor of the Atlantic (if the fish wakes, our world winks off)—all contained in a text packed with typed-over passages, torn postcards, poems that can be deciphered only when held up to a mirror, pages ornamented with trompe-l'œil paperclips and coffee stains and buzzing houseflies, some busy with illegible runes that dissolve when exposed to light, three that smell like roses or lemons (depending on whether a man or woman is reading), two that stain with the bloody fingerprints of the those who handle them, one that ignites when brushed with breath, thirteen sewn from baby skin, one that moans when touched, and one that screams—yet all without mass, unimaginable, and invisible. Lance Olsen is author of more than 20 books of and about innovative fiction, including, most recently, the novels Calendar of Regrets (2010) and Head in Flames (2009). He teaches experimental narrative theory and practice at the University of Utah. SUPERSTRUCTURE! by Barbara D'Albi As soon as I opened the third drawer of Barbara D'Albi's wooden novel, everything became hopeless. Now in Ithaca, there was no going back. And it wasn't just the intricate series of shelves, hinged doors and locked drawers which D'Albi layered into the book, no, lo, I was constructed anew by the story. Who else but D'Albi to imagine a God who becomes a carpenter and gets killed?! And makes it good! You want stories? D'Albi is a skyscraper, built with planes and levers. Momentarily I wondered where I could shelve this book, and then I thought: no matter; I couldn't put it down. Adam Robinson lives in Baltimore, where he runs Publishing Genius. He is the author of Adam Robison and Other Poems and Say, Poem. 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La basilique du Sacré-Cœur de Montmartre est liée dans la mémoire des Français à la politique et à la guerre puisque les grandes heures de l'histoire nationale et parisienne ont leur résonance dans la basilique même (Te Deum en 1919, cérémonie dans l'espoir de la victoire du 31 mai 1940…). Elle est liée également au Vœu national qui permit la construction de la basilique et l'organisation d'une adoration perpétuelle du Saint Sacrement. La construction, entreprise après 1870, ..
Conditionalization is a widely endorsed rule for updating one’s beliefs. But a sea of complaints have been raised about it, including worries regarding how the rule handles error correction, changing desiderata of theory choice, evidence loss, self-locating beliefs, learning about new theories, and confirmation. In light of such worries, a number of authors have suggested replacing Conditionalization with a different rule — one that appeals to what I’ll call “ur-priors”. But different authors have understood the rule in different ways, and (...) these different understandings solve different problems. In this paper, I aim to map out the terrain regarding these issues. I survey the different problems that might motivate the adoption of such a rule, flesh out the different understandings of the rule that have been proposed, and assess their pros and cons. I conclude by suggesting that one particular batch of proposals, proposals that appeal to what I’ll call “loaded evidential standards”, are especially promising. (shrink)
The purpose of this study is to propose the structural outline and conceptual framework of a Ricœurian translation theory. Following a discussion on the ambiguities around situating Ricœur in translation theory, three major interlinked components of the theory are explored. First, the metaphysics of meaning and translation is established based on Ricœur’s hermeneutics of infinitude. Then, the language-processing component is constructed through an incorporation of Ricœur’s narrative theory. Finally, the ethics and politics of translation, particularly in globalization, are founded based (...) on Ricœur’s “age of hermeneutics theory.”. (shrink)
Although Paul Ricœur never wrote a book on acting and suffering, the essay focuses on Ricœur’s engagement with this topic. It was one of Ricœur’s abiding interests that consistently appeared over the years in a number of his works. Given his compassionate affirmation of life in this world, he was vitally concerned about human beings’ inhumanity, in the form of inflicting unmerited suffering on their fellow beings. His distress on this issue was clearly evident. This essay is an overview of (...) Ricœur’s endeavors to try and alleviate such injustice by a commitment to an ethically grounded approach that aimed at “the good life with and for others, in just institutions.”. (shrink)
This is the one and only book by the pioneer of the identity theory of mind. The collection focuses on Place's philosophy of mind and his contributions to neighboring issues in metaphysics and epistemology. It includes an autobiographical essay as well as a recent paper on the function and neural location of consciousness.
The term ur-emotion is proposed to replace basic emotion as a name for the aspects of emotion that underlie perceived similarities of emotion types across cultures and species. The ur- prefix is borrowed from the German on analogy to similar borrowings in textual criticism and musicology. The proposed term ur-emotion is less likely to be interpreted as referring to the entirety of an emotional state than is the term basic emotion. Ur-emotion avoids reductionism by indicating an abstract underlying structure that (...) accounts for similarities between emotions without implying that the differences are unimportant. This article is dedicated to the memory of Bob Solomon, and is framed in terms of his decades-long analysis and critique of the concept of basic emotions. (shrink)
In Oneself as Another, Ricœur famously writes of the ethical intention as “aiming at the ‘good life’ with and for others, in just institutions.” This article explores the potential meaning of “just institutions,” a theme underdeveloped in Ricœur’s work. While many have argued that institutions necessarily reify and so cannot aim toward just ends, the article draws on Ricœur’s differentiation between objectification and reification to show why this need not be the case. While reification destroys human value and meaning because (...) it reduces human activity to a thing, objectification characterizes the positive externalization of ourselves in objects—in words, deeds, structures, and institutions. Institutions such as the law are structures that can positively objectify our just aspirations, even if we must continually guard against these structures’ reified reduction. Ricœur shows us how objectification, including objectification of values in institutions, can be something not only positive but necessary in order for values to flourish. (shrink)
The differences between the "habits of the heart" in German and U.S.-American corporations can be described by analyzing the way corporations deal with norms and values within their organizations. Whereas many U.S. corporations have introduced formal business ethics programs, German companies are very reluctant to address normative questions publicly. This can be explained by the different cultural backgrounds in both countries. By defining these different "habits of the heart" underlying German and American business ethics it is possible to show the (...) problems and questions within the intercultural management of values, but also the possible solutions. (shrink)
Comparison of human and animal emotions reveals a fuzzy yet discernible boundary. Their undeniable similarities are more aptly described as ur-emotions than as basic emotions. This article describes how the concept of ur-emotion can be useful to animal researchers as well as to social constructionists by making sense of emotional variation both across species and across cultures.