Results for 'Universals'

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  1. In response to ge Moore: A semiotic perspective on.Rg Collevgwood'S. Concrete Universal - forthcoming - Semiotics.
     
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  2. as They Think'in.George‘What Americans Really Believe Bishop & Why Faith Isn’T. As Universal - 1999 - Free Inquiry 19 (3).
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  3.  72
    Essays on Plato and Aristotle. By JL Ackrill. New York: Oxford University Press, Clarendon Press, 1997. Pp. ix, 231. Commonality and Particularity in Ethics. Swansea Studies in Philosophy. By Lilli Alanen, Sara Heinaemaa, and Thomas Wallgren, eds. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997. Pp. x, 493. [REVIEW]Universal Justice - 1997 - Philosophical Review 106 (4).
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  4. Quo Vadis?, Sawtry-New York, Hippocrene-Dedalus, 1993; Quo Vadis, Ziirich.Quo Vadis & Editura Universal Bukuresti - forthcoming - Diogenes.
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  5. Declaración de los Principios de la Cooperación Cultural Internacional.Teniendo En Cuenta la Declaración Universal & la Decla de Derechos Humanos - 1967 - Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad de Costa Rica 6:113.
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  6.  12
    Fórmulas Barcan de segundo orden y universales trascendentes1.Transcendent Universals - 2013 - Ideas Y Valores 62 (152).
  7. List of Contents: Volume 16, Number 6, December 2003.Ettore Minguzzi, Alan Macdonald & Universal One-Way Light Speed - 2004 - Foundations of Physics 34 (3).
    This paper gives two complete and elementary proofs that if the speed of light over closed paths has a universal value c, then it is possible to synchronize clocks in such a way that the one-way speed of light is c. The first proof is an elementary version of a recent proof. The second provides high precision experimental evidence that it is possible to synchronize clocks in such a way that the one-way speed of light has a universal value. We (...)
     
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  8.  52
    Kant's Universal Law and Humanity Formulae.Damian Williams - forthcoming - Forthcoming.
    Kant's formulae ought to effectively produce the same result when applied to the moral validity of any particular maxim; further, no valid maxim produces contradictory results when applied against Kant's Universal Law and Humanity formulae. Where one uses all formulae in the assessment of a maxim, one gains a more complete understanding of the moral law, thereby bridging principles of reason with intuition within the agent who has undertaken to evaluate the morality of a particular action. These formulae command without (...)
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  9.  28
    The Universal Generalization Problem.Carlo Cellucci - 2009 - Logique Et Analyse 52.
    The universal generalization problem is the question: What entitles one to conclude that a property established for an individual object holds for any individual object in the domain? This amounts to the question: Why is the rule of universal generalization justified? In the modern and contemporary age Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Kant, Mill, Gentzen gave alternative solutions of the universal generalization problem. In this paper I consider Locke’s, Berkeley’s and Gentzen’s solutions and argue that they are problematic. Then I consider (...)
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  10. Explaining Universal Social Institutions: A Game-Theoretic Approach.Michael Vlerick - 2016 - Topoi 35 (1):291-300.
    Universal social institutions, such as marriage, commons management and property, have emerged independently in radically different cultures. This requires explanation. As Boyer and Petersen point out ‘in a purely localist framework would have to constitute massively improbable coincidences’ . According to Boyer and Petersen, those institutions emerged naturally out of genetically wired behavioural dispositions, such as marriage out of mating strategies and borders out of territorial behaviour. While I agree with Boyer and Petersen that ‘unnatural’ institutions cannot thrive, this one-sided (...)
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  11. Is Universal Consciousness Fit for Ground?Miri Albahari - 2024 - In Uriah Kriegel (ed.), Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Mind Vol 4. Oxford University Press.
    The Perennial Philosophy centres around what is said to be a recurring mystical insight: that our inherent nature is actually pure, unconditioned consciousness, identical to the ground of all being. Perennial Idealism, the name I give to a metaphysical system I have been building, extrapolates from the Perennial Philosophy to explain how the world could be configured if it were in fact true. Among the most serious challenges faced is that of articulating and defending the very notion that our world (...)
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  12. Universal Human Rights in a World of Difference.Brooke A. Ackerly - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    From the diverse work and often competing insights of women's human rights activists, Brooke Ackerly has written a feminist and a universal theory of human rights that bridges the relativists' concerns about universalizing from particulars and the activists' commitment to justice. Unlike universal theories that rely on shared commitments to divine authority or to an 'enlightened' way of reasoning, Ackerly's theory relies on rigorous methodological attention to difference and disagreement. She sets out human rights as at once a research ethic, (...)
     
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  13.  53
    The universal covering homomorphism in o‐minimal expansions of groups.Mário J. Edmundo & Pantelis E. Eleftheriou - 2007 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 53 (6):571-582.
    Suppose G is a definably connected, definable group in an o-minimal expansion of an ordered group. We show that the o-minimal universal covering homomorphism equation image: equation image→ G is a locally definable covering homomorphism and π1 is isomorphic to the o-minimal fundamental group π of G defined using locally definable covering homomorphisms.
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  14. Universal moral grammar: Theory, evidence, and the future.John Mikhail - 2007 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (4):143 –152.
    Scientists from various disciplines have begun to focus attention on the psychology and biology of human morality. One research program that has recently gained attention is universal moral grammar (UMG). UMG seeks to describe the nature and origin of moral knowledge by using concepts and models similar to those used in Chomsky's program in linguistics. This approach is thought to provide a fruitful perspective from which to investigate moral competence from computational, ontogenetic, behavioral, physiological and phylogenetic perspectives. In this article, (...)
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  15. Universal Biology: Assessing universality from a single example.Carlos Mariscal - 2015 - In The Impact of Discovering Life Beyond Earth. Cambridge, UK: pp. 113-126.
    Is it possible to know anything about life we have not yet encountered? We know of only one example of life: our own. Given this, many scientists are inclined to doubt that any principles of Earth’s biology will generalize to other worlds in which life might exist. Let’s call this the “N = 1 problem.” By comparison, we expect the principles of geometry, mechanics, and chemistry would generalize. Interestingly, each of these has predictable consequences when applied to biology. The surface-to-volume (...)
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  16. Reward-Punishment Symmetric Universal Intelligence.Samuel Allen Alexander & Marcus Hutter - 2021 - In Samuel Allen Alexander & Marcus Hutter (eds.), AGI.
    Can an agent's intelligence level be negative? We extend the Legg-Hutter agent-environment framework to include punishments and argue for an affirmative answer to that question. We show that if the background encodings and Universal Turing Machine (UTM) admit certain Kolmogorov complexity symmetries, then the resulting Legg-Hutter intelligence measure is symmetric about the origin. In particular, this implies reward-ignoring agents have Legg-Hutter intelligence 0 according to such UTMs.
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  17.  5
    The universal law formulas.Richard Galvin - 2009 - In Thomas E. Hill (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Kant's Ethics. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 52–82.
    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Some Common Misunderstandings How Different Are PGW, FUL, and FLN? The Role of the Universal Law Formulas Issues Regarding the Maxim and its Universal Counterpart The Two Hegelian Objections Contradictions in Conception Contradictions in the Will Three Persistent Problems and One Very Modest Proposal Bibliography.
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  18. Universal Core Semantic Layer.Barry Smith, Lowell Vizenor & James Schoening - 2009 - In Ontology for the Intelligence Community: Proceedings of the Third OIC Conference. CEUR, vol. 555. pp. 1-5.
    The Universal Core (UCore) is a central element of the National Information Sharing Strategy that is supported by multiple U.S. Federal Government Departments, by the intelligence community, and by a number of other national and international institutions. The goal of the UCore initiative is to foster information sharing by means of an XML schema providing consensus representations for four groups of universally understood terms under the headings who, what, when, and where. We here describe a project to create an ontology-based (...)
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  19.  12
    The potential for a universal business ethics.S. N. Woodward - 2001 - In Alan R. Malachowski (ed.), Business ethics: critical perspectives on business and management. New York: Routledge. pp. 3--87.
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  20.  30
    Universal Logic.Ross Brady - 2006 - CSLI Publications.
    Throughout the twentieth century, the classical logic of Frege and Russell dominated the field of formal logic. But, as Ross Brady argues, a new type of weak relevant logic may prove to be better equipped to present new solutions to persistent paradoxes. _Universal Logic _begins with an overview of classical and relevant logic and discusses the limitations of both in analyzing certain paradoxes. It is the first text to demonstrate how the main set-theoretic and semantic paradoxes can be solved in (...)
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  21. Universal Moral Values for Corporate Codes of Ethics.Mark S. Schwartz - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 59 (1-2):27-44.
    How can one establish if a corporate code of ethics is ethical in terms of its content? One important first step might be the establishment of core universal moral values by which corporate codes of ethics can be ethically constructed and evaluated. Following a review of normative research on corporate codes of ethics, a set of universal moral values is generated by considering three sources: (1) corporate codes of ethics; (2) global codes of ethics; and (3) the business ethics literature. (...)
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  22. Universal Agent Mixtures and the Geometry of Intelligence.Samuel Allen Alexander, David Quarel, Len Du & Marcus Hutter - 2023 - Aistats.
    Inspired by recent progress in multi-agent Reinforcement Learning (RL), in this work we examine the collective intelligent behaviour of theoretical universal agents by introducing a weighted mixture operation. Given a weighted set of agents, their weighted mixture is a new agent whose expected total reward in any environment is the corresponding weighted average of the original agents' expected total rewards in that environment. Thus, if RL agent intelligence is quantified in terms of performance across environments, the weighted mixture's intelligence is (...)
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  23. Willing Universal Law vs. Universally Lawful Willing.Scott Forschler - 2010 - Southwest Philosophy Review 26 (1):141-152.
    Kant's Formula of Universal Law is shown to be an inadequate condition for morality because it uses the wrong scope for a universal qualifier, ranging only over the behavior of a set of agents in a world. If it instead ranges over the behavior of all possible agents, then we arrive at the stronger condition that a maxim is morally acceptable just if we can will, not just that all agents follow it simultaneously, but that any agent in any situation (...)
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  24. The universal density of measurement.Danny Fox & Martin Hackl - 2006 - Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (5):537 - 586.
    The notion of measurement plays a central role in human cognition. We measure people’s height, the weight of physical objects, the length of stretches of time, or the size of various collections of individuals. Measurements of height, weight, and the like are commonly thought of as mappings between objects and dense scales, while measurements of collections of individuals, as implemented for instance in counting, are assumed to involve discrete scales. It is also commonly assumed that natural language makes use of (...)
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  25.  25
    Against Universal Mereological Composition.Crawford Elder - 2008 - Dialectica 62 (4):433-454.
    This paper opposes universal mereological composition. Sider defends it: unless UMC were true, he says, it could be indeterminate how many objects there are in the world. I argue that there is no general connection between how widely composition occurs and how many objects there are in the world. Sider fails to support UMC. I further argue that we should disbelieve in UMC objects. Existing objections against them say that they are radically unlike Aristotelian substances. True, but there is a (...)
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  26.  33
    Universal Ethics: Organized Complexity as an Intrinsic Value.Jean-Paul Delahaye & Clément Vidal - 2019 - In G. Georgiev, C. L. F. Martinez, M. E. Price & J. M. Smart (eds.), Evolution, Development and Complexity: Multiscale Evolutionary Models of Complex Adaptive Systems. Springer. pp. 135-154.
    ABSTRACT: How can we think about a universal ethics that could be adopted by any intelligent being, including the rising population of cyborgs, intelligent machines, intelligent algorithms or even potential extraterrestrial life? We generally give value to complex structures, to objects resulting from a long work, to systems with many elements and with many links finely adjusted. These include living beings, books, works of art or scientific theories. Intuitively, we want to keep, multiply, and share such structures, as well as (...)
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  27. Universal Gravitation and the (Un)Intelligibility of Natural Philosophy.Matias Slavov - 2019 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 101 (1):129-157.
    This article centers on Hume’s position on the intelligibility of natural philosophy. To that end, the controversy surrounding universal gravitation shall be scrutinized. It is very well-known that Hume sides with the Newtonian experimentalist approach rather than with the Leibnizian demand for intelligibility. However, what is not clear is Hume’s overall position on the intelligibility of natural philosophy. It shall be argued that Hume declines Leibniz’s principle of intelligibility. However, Hume does not eschew intelligibility altogether; his concept of causation itself (...)
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  28. On Universal Roots in Logic.Andrzej K. Rogalski & Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska - 1998 - Dialogue and Universalism 8 (11):143-154.
    The aim of this study is to discuss in what sense one can speak about universal character of logic. The authors argue that the role of logic stands mainly in the generality of its language and its unrestricted applications to any field of knowledge and normal human life. The authors try to precise that universality of logic tends in: (a) general character of inference rules and the possibility of using those rules as a tool of justification of theorems of every (...)
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  29. The Universal Core of Knowledge.Michael Hannon - 2015 - Synthese 192 (3):769-786.
    Many epistemologists think we can derive important theoretical insights by investigating the English word ‘know’ or the concept it expresses. However, fewer than six percent of the world’s population are native English speakers, and some empirical evidence suggests that the concept of knowledge is culturally relative. So why should we think that facts about the word ‘know’ or the concept it expresses have important ramifications for epistemology? This paper argues that the concept of knowledge is universal: it is expressed by (...)
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  30. Universal Biology Does Not Prescribe Planetary Isolationism.Carlos Mariscal - 2017 - Theology and Science 2 (15):150-152.
    Stephen Hawking’s caution against messaging extraterrestrial intelligence is a claim of universal biology and is probably false.
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  31. Inquiring Universal Religion in the Times of Consumer Mythology.Manish Sharma - 2022 - Rabindra Bharati Journal of Philosophy 23 (09):17-24.
    Human beings as self-conscious, aesthetic, sympathetic, and empathetic beings develop various ways to live in this world. They continue to aspire for a better version of themselves and their lives. In this process, they developed certain ethical norms, social practices, and ways to perceive and understand this world. These qualities become the basis for proactive steps of spirituality which in turn become the foundation of religion. In human history, religion has helped individuals to fulfill various human needs irrespective of their (...)
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  32.  84
    Universal Law and Poverty Relief.Oliver Sensen - 2022 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 26 (2):177-190.
    In this article, I examine what Kant’s Formula of Universal Law requires of an individual agent in situations of great need, e.g.: if you can easily help a drowning child, or if you know of a famine situation in another country. I first explain why I do not simply apply the standard interpretation of how one can derive concrete duties from Kant’s Universal Law formulation of the Categorical Imperative. I then glean an alternative procedure from Kant’s texts and give the (...)
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  33.  52
    Universal intuitions of spatial relations in elementary geometry.Ineke J. M. Van der Ham, Yacin Hamami & John Mumma - 2017 - Journal of Cognitive Psychology 29 (3):269-278.
    Spatial relations are central to geometrical thinking. With respect to the classical elementary geometry of Euclid’s Elements, a distinction between co-exact, or qualitative, and exact, or metric, spatial relations has recently been advanced as fundamental. We tested the universality of intuitions of these relations in a group of Senegalese and Dutch participants. Participants performed an odd-one-out task with stimuli that in all but one case display a particular spatial relation between geometric objects. As the exact/co-exact distinction is closely related to (...)
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  34. Universal intelligence: A definition of machine intelligence.Shane Legg & Marcus Hutter - 2007 - Minds and Machines 17 (4):391-444.
    A fundamental problem in artificial intelligence is that nobody really knows what intelligence is. The problem is especially acute when we need to consider artificial systems which are significantly different to humans. In this paper we approach this problem in the following way: we take a number of well known informal definitions of human intelligence that have been given by experts, and extract their essential features. These are then mathematically formalised to produce a general measure of intelligence for arbitrary machines. (...)
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  35.  22
    The Universal (In the Realm of the Sensible): Beyond Continental Philosophy.Dorothea Olkowski - 2007 - Columbia University Press.
    _The Universal_ proposes a radically new philosophical system that moves from ontology to ethics. Drawing on the work of De Beauvoir, Sartre, and Le Doeuff, among others, and addressing a range of topics from the Asian sex trade to late capitalism, quantum gravity, and Merleau-Ponty's views on cinema, Dorothea Olkowski stretches the mathematical, political, epistemological, and aesthetic limits of continental philosophy and introduces a new perspective on political structures. Straddling a course between formalism and conventionalism, Olkowski develops the concept of (...)
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  36.  17
    The Universal Machine.Fred Moten - 2018 - Duke University Press.
    "Taken as a trilogy, _consent not to be a single being_ is a monumental accomplishment: a brilliant theoretical intervention that might be best described as a powerful case for blackness as a category of analysis."—Brent Hayes Edwards, author of _Epistrophies: Jazz and the Literary Imagination_ In _The Universal Machine_—the concluding volume to his landmark trilogy _consent not to be a single being_—Fred Moten presents a suite of three essays on Emmanuel Levinas, Hannah Arendt, and Frantz Fanon in which he explores (...)
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  37.  23
    Universal Etiology, Multifactorial Diseases and the Constitutive Model of Disease Classification.Jonathan Fuller - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 67:8-15.
    In this article, I will reconstruct the monocausal model and argue that modern 'multifactorial diseases' are not monocausal by definition. 'Multifactorial diseases' are instead defined according to a constitutive disease model. On closer analysis, infectious diseases are also defined using the constitutive model rather than the monocausal model. As a result, our classification models alone cannot explain why infectious diseases have a universal etiology while chronic and noncommunicable diseases lack one. The explanation is instead provided by the nineteenth-century germ theorists.
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  38.  60
    Financing Universal Basic Income: Eliminating Poverty and Bolstering the Middle Class While Addressing Inequality, Economic Rents, and Climate Change.Drew Riedl - 2020 - Basic Income Studies 15 (2).
    Universal Basic Income (UBI) can serve as a beneficial public policy to reduce poverty and inequality, yet a great challenge is how to fund it. This article offers a roadmap for fully funding UBI in a manner that: eliminates poverty; bolsters the middle-class; eliminates the stigma and government bureaucracy of social welfare programs; reduces ever-expanding inequality; initiates a path to meeting climate change goals; reduces speculation; and increases fairness and opportunity in the tax code. As stand-alone policies, these revenue proposals (...)
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  39. Universal History and the Emergence of Species Being.Brown Haines - manuscript
    This paper seeks to recover the function of universal history, which was to place particulars into relation with universals. By the 20th century universal history was largely discredited because of an idealism that served to lend epistemic coherence to the overwhelming complexity arising from universal history's comprehensive scope. Idealism also attempted to account for history's being "open"--for the human ability to transcend circumstance. The paper attempts to recover these virtues without the idealism by defining universal history not by its (...)
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  40. The Universal and the Local in Quantum Theory.Tim Maudlin - 2015 - Topoi 34 (2):349-358.
    Any empirical physical theory must have implications for observable events at the scale of everyday life, even though that scale plays no special role in the basic ontology of the theory itself. The fundamental physical scales are microscopic for the “local beables” of the theory and universal scale for the non-local beables. This situation creates strong demands for any precise quantum theory. This paper examines those constraints, and illustrates some ways in which they can be met.
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  41. Universal graphs at the successor of a singular cardinal.Mirna Džamonja & Saharon Shelah - 2003 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 68 (2):366-388.
    The paper is concerned with the existence of a universal graph at the successor of a strong limit singular μ of cofinality ℵ0. Starting from the assumption of the existence of a supercompact cardinal, a model is built in which for some such μ there are $\mu^{++}$ graphs on μ+ that taken jointly are universal for the graphs on μ+, while $2^{\mu^+} \gg \mu^{++}$ . The paper also addresses the general problem of obtaining a framework for consistency results at the (...)
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  42.  20
    Universal Structures.Saharon Shelah - 2017 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 58 (2):159-177.
    We deal with the existence of universal members in a given cardinality for several classes. First, we deal with classes of abelian groups, specifically with the existence of universal members in cardinalities which are strong limit singular of countable cofinality or λ=λℵ0. We use versions of being reduced—replacing Q by a subring —and get quite accurate results for the existence of universals in a cardinal, for embeddings and for pure embeddings. Second, we deal with the oak property, a property (...)
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  43.  72
    On universal Free Choice items.Paula Menéndez-Benito - 2010 - Natural Language Semantics 18 (1):33-64.
    This paper deals with the interpretation and distribution of universal Free Choice (FC) items, such as English FC any or Spanish cualquiera. Crosslinguistically, universal FC items can be characterized as follows. First, they have a restricted distribution. Second, they express freedom of choice: the sentence You can take any card conveys the information that the addressee is free to pick whichever card she chooses. Under standard assumptions, the truth conditions of sentences like You can take any card are taken to (...)
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  44. Nature, nurture, and universal grammar.Stephen Crain & Paul M. Pietroski - 2001 - Linguistics and Philosophy 24 (2):139-186.
    In just a few years, children achieve a stable state of linguistic competence, making them effectively adults with respect to: understanding novel sentences, discerning relations of paraphrase and entailment, acceptability judgments, etc. One familiar account of the language acquisition process treats it as an induction problem of the sort that arises in any domain where the knowledge achieved is logically underdetermined by experience. This view highlights the cues that are available in the input to children, as well as childrens skills (...)
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  45.  13
    Universal Hinduism: towards a new vision of Sanatana Dharma.David Frawley - 2010 - New Delhi: Voice of India.
  46.  9
    Universal temporal structures in human information processing: a neural principle and psychophysical evidence.Raul Kompass - 2004 - In Christian Kaernbach, Erich Schröger & Hermann Müller (eds.), Psychophysics Beyond Sensation: Laws and Invariants of Human Cognition. Psychology Press. pp. 451--480.
  47. Fictional Universal Realism.Jeffrey Goodman - 2022 - Metaphysica 23 (2):177-192.
    Certain realists about properties and relations identify them with universals. Furthermore, some hold that for a wide range of meaningful predicates, the semantic contribution to the propositions expressed by the sentences in which those predicates figure is the universal expressed by the predicate. I here address ontological issues raised by predicates first introduced to us via works of fiction and whether the universal realist should accept that any such predicates express universals. After assessing arguments by Braun, D. and (...)
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  48.  51
    Universal laws and economic phenomena.Austin Gerig - 2011 - Complexity 17 (1):9-12.
    Despite the idiosyncratic behavior of individuals, empirical regularities exist in social and economic systems. These regularities often arise from simple underlying mechanisms which, analogous to the natural sciences, can be expressed as universal principles or laws. In this essay, I discuss the similarities between economic and natural phenomena and argue that it is advantageous for economists to adopt methods from the natural sciences to discover “universal laws” in economic systems.
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  49.  31
    Universal Consideration: An Epistemological Map of the Terrain.Jim Cheney - 1998 - Environmental Ethics 20 (3):265-277.
    I offer an epistemologically grounded revisioning of Tom Birch’s ethical principle of universal consideration, suggesting that epistemologies have ethical dimensions and hence that universal moral consideration is intrinsic to the epistemological enterprise. I contrast epistemologies of domination with epistemologies in part constituted by the generosity of spirit that is the hallmark of Birch’s notion of universal consideration.
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  50. Impersonal Value, Universal Value, and the Scope of Cultural Heritage.Erich Hatala Matthes - 2015 - Ethics 125 (4):999-1027.
    Philosophers have used the terms 'impersonal' and 'personal value' to refer to, among others things, whether something's value is universal or particular to an individual. In this paper, I propose an account of impersonal value that, I argue, better captures the intuitive distinction than potential alternatives, while providing conceptual resources for moving beyond the traditional stark dichotomy. I illustrate the practical importance of my theoretical account with reference to debate over the evaluative scope of cultural heritage.
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