33 found
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  1.  51
    Origin of the Concept Chemical Compound.Ursula Klein - 1994 - Science in Context 7 (2):163-204.
  2.  23
    A Revolution That Never Happened.Ursula Klein - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 49:80-90.
  3.  36
    Technoscience avant la lettre.Ursula Klein - 2005 - Perspectives on Science 13 (2):226-266.
    I argue and demonstrate in this essay that interconnected systems of science and technology, or technoscience, existed long before the late nineteenth century, and that eighteenth-century chemistry was such an early form of technoscience. Based on recent historical research on the early development of carbon chemistry from the late 1820s until the 1840s—which revealed that early carbon chemistry was an experimental expert culture that was largely detached from the mundane industrial world—I further examine the question of the internal preconditions within (...)
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  4.  15
    The Chemical Workshop Tradition and the Experimental Practice: Discontinuities Within Continuities.Ursula Klein - 1996 - Science in Context 9 (3).
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  5.  7
    Artisanal-Scientific Experts in Eighteenth-Century France and Germany.Ursula Klein - 2012 - Annals of Science 69 (3):303-306.
  6.  35
    Objects of Inquiry in Classical Chemistry: Material Substances. [REVIEW]Ursula Klein - 2012 - Foundations of Chemistry 14 (1):7-23.
    I argue in the paper that classical chemistry is a science predominantly concerned with material substances, both useful materials and pure chemical substances restricted to scientific laboratory studies. The central epistemological and methodological status of material substances corresponds with the material productivity of classical chemistry and its way of producing experimental traces. I further argue that chemist’s ‘pure substances’ have a history, conceptually and materially, and I follow their conceptual history from the Paracelsian concept of purity to the modern concept (...)
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  7.  17
    The Prussian Mining Official Alexander von Humboldt.Ursula Klein - 2012 - Annals of Science 69 (1):27-68.
    Summary From summer 1792 until spring 1797, Alexander von Humboldt was a mining official in the Franconian parts of Prussia. He visited mines, inspected smelting works, calculated budgets, wrote official reports, founded a mining school, performed technological experiments, and invented a miners? lamp and respirator. At the same time he also participated in the Republic of Letters, corresponded with savants in all Europe, and was a member of the Leopoldine Carolinian Academy and the Berlin Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde. He collected minerals, (...)
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  8.  56
    Styles of Experimentation and Alchemical Matter Theory in the Scientific Revolution.Ursula Klein - 2007 - Metascience 16 (2):247-256.
  9.  47
    Berzelian Formulas as Paper Tools in Early Nineteenth-Century Chemistry.Ursula Klein - 2001 - Foundations of Chemistry 3 (1):7-32.
    This paper studies the semiotic,epistemological and historical aspects of Berzelianformulas in early nineteenth-century organicchemistry. I argue that Berzelian formulas wereenormously productive `paper tools' for representingchemical reactions of organic substances, and forcreating different pathways of reactions. Moreover, myanalysis of Jean Dumas's application of Berzelianformulas to model the creation of chloral from alcoholand chlorine exemplifies the role played by chemicalformulas in conceptual development (the concept ofsubstitution). Studying the dialectic of chemists'collectively shared goals and tools, I argue thatpaper tools, like laboratory instruments, areresources (...)
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  10.  21
    Experimental History and Herman Boerhaave’s Chemistry of Plants.Ursula Klein - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 34 (4):533-567.
    In the early eighteenth century, chemistry became the main academic locus where, in Francis Bacon's words, Experimenta lucifera were performed alongside Experimenta fructifera and where natural philosophy was coupled with natural history and 'experimental history' in the Baconian and Boyleian sense of an inventory and exploration of the extant operations of the arts and crafts. The Dutch social and political system and the institutional setting of the university of Leiden endorsed this empiricist, utilitarian orientation toward the sciences, which was forcefully (...)
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  11.  24
    Experiments at the Intersection of Experimental History, Technological Inquiry, and Conceptually Driven Analysis: A Case Study From Early Nineteenth-Century France.Ursula Klein - 2005 - Perspectives on Science 13 (1):1-48.
    The paper examines differences of styles of experimentation in the history of science. It presents arguments for a historization of our historial and philosophical notion of "experimentation," which question the common view that "experimental philosophy" was the only style of experimentation in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. It argues, in particular, that "experimental history" and technological inquiry were accepted styles of academic experimentation at the time. These arguments are corroborated by a careful analysis of a case study, which is (...)
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  12.  1
    The Laboratory Challenge: Some Revisions of the Standard View of Early Modern Experimentation.Ursula Klein - 2008 - Isis 99 (4):769-782.
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  13.  22
    Introduction: Technoscientific Productivity.Ursula Klein - 2005 - Perspectives on Science 13 (2):139-141.
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  14.  3
    Agust Nieto-Galan, Colouring Textiles: A History of Natural Dyestuffs in Industrial Europe. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 217. Dordrecht, Boston and London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Pp. XXV+246. Isbn 0-7923-7022-8. 59.00, $84.00, 97.00. [REVIEW]Ursula Klein - 2004 - British Journal for the History of Science 37 (2):214-215.
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  15. Berichtigung zu Heft 16/1.Ursula Klein - 2008 - NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin 16 (2):277-278.
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  16.  12
    Chemical Combination: A Return to Aristotle? [REVIEW]Ursula Klein - 2003 - Metascience 12 (2):198-200.
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  17.  16
    Die Anfänge der neuzeitlichen Chemie in der Pharmazie und Metallurgie. Zu E.F. Geoffroys tabelle stofflicher Beziehungen. [REVIEW]Ursula Klein - 1995 - NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin 3 (1):167-191.
    E.F. Geoffroy's table of different relations ( rapports ) between different chemical substances is mainly based on empirical knowledge accumulated in 16th and 17th century metallurgy and pharmacy. The substances listed in the left half of the table were basic for the formation of salts which were produced for medical ends in the chemical-pharmaceutical practice of the 17th century. The right half of the table refers to substances and operations of metallurgy which had already been described in the metallurgical writings (...)
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  18. Donald Gillies.Ursula Klein - 2003 - In M. C. Galavotti (ed.), Observation and Experiment in the Natural and Social Sciences. Springer Verlag. pp. 232--199.
     
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  19.  4
    David Philip Miller.Discovering Water: James Watt, Henry Cavendish, and the Nineteenth‐Century “Water Controversy.” . 330 Pp., Illus., Bibl., Index. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate, 2004. $ 114.95. [REVIEW]Ursula Klein - 2007 - Isis 98 (3):653-654.
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  20.  2
    Die technowissenschaftlichen Laboratorien der Frühen Neuzeit.Ursula Klein - 2008 - NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin 16 (1):5-38.
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  21. Ein Bergrat, zwei Minister und sechs Lehrende: Versuche der Gründung einer Bergakademie in Berlin um 1770.Ursula Klein - 2010 - NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin 18 (4):437-468.
    After the Seven Years War, the Prussian administration launched a campaign for useful knowledge and scientific education of state officials. This essay scrutinizes efforts undertaken around 1770 by the Central Prussian Administration for Mining and Smelting Works to establish the “mining sciences” and a mining school in the city of Berlin. As a result, from October 1770 on this Administration supported the public teaching in Berlin of mathematics, mechanics, mineralogy, metallurgy, chemistry and other areas of knowledge that constituted the “mining (...)
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  22.  2
    Experimental History and Herman Boerhaave’s Chemistry of Plants.Ursula Klein - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 34 (4):533-567.
  23. Experiment, Spiritus und okkulte Qualitäten in der Philosophie Francis Bacons.Ursula Klein - 1996 - Philosophia Naturalis 33 (2):289-315.
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  24.  7
    Experimentelle Wissenschaften und Werkstättentradition.Ursula Klein - 2005 - In Gereon Wolters & Martin Carrier (eds.), Homo Sapiens Und Homo Faber. De Gruyter. pp. 113.
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  25.  6
    Hasok Chang and Catherine Jackson , An Element of Controversy: The Life of Chlorine in Science, Medicine, Technology and War. BSHS Monograph Series, Vol. 13. London: British Society for the History of Science, 2007. Pp. Ix+407. ISBN 978-0-906450-01-7. £15.00. [REVIEW]Ursula Klein - 2009 - British Journal for the History of Science 42 (1):128.
  26. Robert Boyle―Der Begründer der neuzeitlichen Chemie?Ursula Klein - 1994 - Philosophia Naturalis 31 (1):63-106.
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  27.  3
    Robert Siegfried, From Elements to Atoms: A History of Chemical Composition. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 92 . Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 2002. Pp. X+278. Isbn 0-87169-924-9. No Price Given. [REVIEW]Ursula Klein - 2005 - British Journal for the History of Science 38 (2):221-222.
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  28.  7
    Science, Industry, and the German Bildungsbürgertum.Ursula Klein - 2020 - Annals of Science 77 (3):366-376.
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  29.  7
    Steffens Mineralogie.Ursula Klein - 2018 - In Leon Miodoński & Sarah Schmidt (eds.), System Und Subversion: Friedrich Schleiermacher Und Henrik Steffens. De Gruyter. pp. 145-154.
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  30.  4
    Savant Officials in the Prussian Mining Administration.Ursula Klein - 2012 - Annals of Science 69 (3):349-374.
    Summary In the second half of the eighteenth century, the Prussian State supported savants who combined learned inquiry into nature with technical work. Members of the physical and mathematical classes of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences were involved in State projects such as surveying for the construction of canals, chemical analysis of Silesian iron, production of porcelain and of beet sugar. Some of these men were truly ?hybrid? experts living both in the worlds of State-directed manufacture and academic natural (...)
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  31.  10
    Sacha Tomic. Aux Origines de la Chimie Organique: Méthodes Et Pratiques des Pharmaciens Et des Chimistes . 322 Pp., Illus., Tables, App., Bibl., Index. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2010. €20. [REVIEW]Ursula Klein - 2011 - Isis 102 (4):791-793.
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  32.  41
    Technoscience.Ursula Klein - 2005 - Perspectives on Science 13 (2):139-141.
    : I argue and demonstrate in this essay that interconnected systems of science and technology, or technoscience, existed long before the late nineteenth century, and that eighteenth-century chemistry was such an early form of technoscience. Based on recent historical research on the early development of carbon chemistry from the late 1820s until the 1840s—which revealed that early carbon chemistry was an experimental expert culture that was largely detached from the mundane industrial world—I further examine the question of the internal preconditions (...)
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  33.  9
    The Artificial and the Natural: An Evolving Polarity - Edited by Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent and William R. Newman.Ursula Klein - 2008 - Centaurus 50 (4):330-332.
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