Drawing from research on ethical leadership, psychological capital, and social learning theory, this study investigated the mediating effects of goal congruence and psychological capital in the link between supervisors’ ethical leadership style and followers’ in-role job performance. Data captured from 171 employees and 24 supervisors showed that ethical leadership has a positive effect on followers’ in-role job performance, yet this effect is explained through the role of psychological capital and follower–leader goal congruence, providing evidence of mediation. These findings have significant (...) implications for research and practice. (shrink)
Khalafzai, Rida Usman Female genital mutilation (FGM) is thought to be a custom practiced for the subjugation of women. The significance of FGM for practicing communities, however, is much more profound. The best hope of eradicating this practice lies in the recognition and comprehension of its cultural and social meanings.
This study examines the impact of Islamic Work Ethic on organizational citizenship behaviors and knowledge-sharing behaviors among university employees in Pakistan. A total of 215 respondents from public sector educational institutions participated in this research. The findings suggest that IWE has a positive effect on OCBs. In other words, individuals with high IWE demonstrate more citizenship behaviors than those with low IWE. The findings also suggest a positive effect of IWE on KSBs. Individuals with high IWE exhibit more KSBs than (...) those with low IWE. The paper also discusses the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. (shrink)
A training physician has his first interaction with a pharmaceutical representative during medical school. Medical students are often provided with small gifts such as pens, calendars and books, as well as free lunches as part of drug promotion offers. Ethical impact of these transactions as perceived by young medical students has not been investigated in Pakistan before. This study aimed to assess the association of socio-demographic variables with the attitudes of medical students towards pharmaceutical companies and their incentives.
Continuum of care throughout pregnancy, delivery and post-delivery has proved to be a critical health intervention for improving the health of mothers and their newborn children. Using data from the fourth wave of the National Family Health Survey conducted in 2015–16, this study examined the correlates of utilization of maternal health care services and child immunization following the continuum of care approach in India. The study also assessed whether the continuity in utilizing maternal health care services affects the immunization of (...) children. A total of 33,422 survey women aged 15–49 were included in the analysis of maternal health care indicators, and 8246 children aged 12–23 months for the analysis of child immunization. The results indicated that about 19% of the women had completed the maternal health continuum, i.e. received full antenatal care, had an institutional delivery and received postnatal care. Women with a higher level of education and of higher economic status were more likely to have complete continuum of care. Continuity of maternal health care was found to be associated with an increase in the immunization level of children. It was observed that 76% of the children whose mothers had complete continuum of care were fully immunized. Furthermore, the results from propensity score matching revealed that if mothers received continuum of care, the chance of their child being fully immunized increased by 17 percentage points. The results suggest that promotion of the continuum of maternal health care approach could help reduce not only the burden of maternal deaths in India, but also that of child deaths by increasing the immunization level of children. (shrink)
Using a time-lagged design, we tested the main effects of Islamic Work Ethic (IWE) and perceived organizational justice on turnover intentions, job satisfaction, and job involvement. We also investigated the moderating influence of IWE in justice–outcomes relationship. Analyses using data collected from 182 employees revealed that IWE was positively related to satisfaction and involvement and negatively related to turnover intentions. Distributive fairness was negatively related to turnover intentions, whereas procedural justice was positively related to satisfaction. In addition, procedural justice was (...) positively related to involvement and satisfaction for individuals high on IWE however it was negatively related to both outcomes for individuals low on IWE. For low IWE, procedural justice was positively related to turnover intentions, however it was negatively related to turnover intentions for high IWE. In contrast, distributive justice was negatively related to turnover intentions for low IWE and it was positively related to turnover intentions for high IWE. (shrink)
Presently, there is armed conflict in Darfur, Sudan. Armed conflict has adversely affected the social, economic and educational development of Darfur, Sudan. Purpose of this study is to know the impact of armed conflict on managerial behavior of the principals of secondary schools in Darfur, Sudan. In this study, the impact of armed conflict on performance of the secondary school principals was analyzed in perspective of their managerial behavior. Based on the findings of the study significant impact of armed conflict (...) was found on the managerial behavior of the principals. It was found that principals coordinated with the staff in activities of the school but were frightened and unable to perform their administrative and managerial duties freely and independently. There was communication gap between the principals, teachers and parents. The principals did not possess the skills to maintain school budget & finance properly. It was concluded that the principals need administrative and managerial training. Government of Sudan may establish academies of Educational Administration & Management to impart training to the principals of secondary schools and to take steps to control the existing armed conflict. (shrink)
Khalafzai, Rida Usman Obesity is the bane of modern times. Its ever-rising incidence and the frequent lack of success of conventional weight loss methods, has lead to the evolution of surgical weight loss techniques. Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding (LAGB) is one such procedure aimed at assisting in the loss of weight in obese individuals for whom traditional methods have failed.
Khalafzai, Rida Usman The legalization of egg donation for medical research has resulted in the use of assisted reproductive techniques for the creation of embryos for research. This carries significant risks for the women undergoing these procedures and has brought humankind to a major ethical and moral crossroads.
Khalafzai, Rida Usman The prevalence of eating disorders is increasing. This article provides an overview of these disorders and explores the biological and social conditions that influence their development.
Khalafzai, Rida Usman; Hameed, Imran Obstetric fistula is the most devastating complication of parturition. The impact of this ailment extends beyond physical morbidity, with immense social repercussions for the women who suffer from it.
Khalafzai, Rida Usman In this era, health has been redefined. The emphasis has shifted from the individual-focussed bio-medical model to a preventative model of collective health. This model of public health often challenges the concept of individual autonomy, the basis of human rights, in the name of the greater good. This article explores the relationship between public health and human rights, and the need for a public health ethic based on the principles of human rights.
Khalafzai, Rida Usman Harms of alcohol consumption are not limited to the consumer. For women, it poses a significant threat to their unborn child. This article discusses one type of alcohol-related harm to the fetus: the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD).
Khalafzai, Rida Usman There is currently much debate about the medical and ethical issues related to male circumcision. This article explores this controversial subject in the light of current research.
Drawing from research on person–organization fit, work engagement, and emotional intelligence, this study investigates the mediating role of work engagement in the link between goal congruence and organizational deviance, as well as how this mediating effect might be moderated by emotional intelligence. Data captured from 272 employees of four IT companies show that the goal congruence between employees and their supervisor negatively affects the former’s organizational deviance, though this effect disappears when controlling for the intermediate role of work engagement. Further, (...) emotional intelligence moderates both the positive relationship between goal congruence and work engagement and the negative relationship between work engagement and organizational deviance, such that these relationships become invigorated at higher levels of emotional intelligence. The findings also reveal that the indirect effect of goal congruence on organizational deviance through work engagement is more pronounced at higher levels of emotional intelligence, which offers evidence of moderated mediation. These findings have significant implications for research and practice. (shrink)
The University of Michigan conference “Where Religion, Policy, and Bioethics Meet: An Interdisciplinary Conference on Islamic Bioethics and End-of-Life Care” in April 2011 addressed the issue of brain death as the prototype for a discourse that would reflect the emergence of Islamic bioethics as a formal field of study. In considering the issue of brain death, various Muslim legal experts have raised concerns over the lack of certainty in the scientific criteria as applied to the definition and diagnosis of brain (...) death by the medical community. In contrast, the medical community at large has not required absolute certainty in its process, but has sought to eliminate doubt through cumulative diagnostic modalities and supportive scientific evidence. This has recently become a principal model, with increased interest in data analysis and evidence-based medicine with the intent to analyze and ultimately improve outcomes. Islamic law has also long employed a systematic methodology with the goal of eliminating doubt from rulings regarding the question of certainty. While ample criticism of the scientific criteria of brain death (Harvard criteria) by traditional legal sources now exists, an analysis of the legal process in assessing brain death, geared toward informing the clinician’s perspective on the issue, is lacking. In this article, we explore the role of certainty in the diagnostic modalities used to establish diagnoses of brain death in current medical practice. We further examine the Islamic jurisprudential approach vis-à-vis the concept of certainty (yaqīn). Finally, we contrast the two at times divergent philosophies and consider what each perspective may contribute to the global discourse on brain death, understanding that the interdependence that exists between the theological, juridical, ethical, and medical/scientific fields necessitates an open discussion and active collaboration between all parties. We hope that this article serves to continue the discourse that was successfully begun by this initial interdisciplinary endeavor at the University of Michigan. (shrink)
The aim of this research was to explore the correlates of Turnover Intention. The correlates included Organization-based Self-esteem, Job Stress, Emotional Intelligence, and Health Risk Behaviour among Rescue 1122 Workers. The study also aimed to explore Emotional Intelligence as a predictor of Turnover Intention ; Organizationbased Self-esteem, Job Stress and Health Risk Behaviour among Rescue 1122 Workers. The sample of the study consisted of 200 male Rescue 1122 Workers of Lahore city. Systematic Random Sampling was employed to gather data from (...) participants. Correlational Research Design was used. The major tools of this study included Turnover Intention Scale, Organization based Self-esteem Scale, The Subjective Job Stress Scale, Emotional Intelligence Scale and Health Risk Behaviour Questionnaire. These above mentioned tools were used after taking consent from the participants. Correlation and Regression Analysis were applied on the data. The results showed that there was significant positive relationship between Turnover Intention and Job Stress. Furthermore there was significant negative relationship between Turnover Intention and OBSE. Moreover Emotional Intelligence was a significant predictor of OBSE, Job Stress, and Health Risk Behaviour. (shrink)
Ismat Chughtai is undoubtedly one of the biggest names in Urdu Literature. The following research paper intends to analyse the appearance of social issues such as informal social control over women in a patriarchal structure, portrayal of a female body in the advertisement, relationship pattern of men and women, notions of women as inferior being of society, in the selected writings of Ismat Chughtai, in relation to symbolic-interaction paradigm. The core idea of Symbolic-interaction is that social realities are based on (...) the social experiences, cognition and perception of an individual. The social understanding of an individual varies from situation to situation and depends on his/her experiences. Ismat Chughtai experienced society in her own way, which is portrayed in her fictional works, “Dil Ki Dunya”, a novel, “Khareed Lo”, “Paisha”, “Baykaar” and “Tera Haath”, the short stories and a non-fictional essay, “Aurat” which are chosen for the analysis of above-mentioned social issues in relation with the theory. It is concluded that Ismat’s writings are valuable, meaning full and relevant in as well in Sociology as in Psychology or Philosophy, in relation to Symbolic Interaction. Documents for analysis were chosen through Purposive sampling, the nature of research is inductive. (shrink)
Topological index is a mathematical coding of the molecular graphs that predicts the physicochemical, biological, toxicological, and structural properties of the chemical compounds that are directly associated with the molecular graphs. The Zagreb connection indices are one of the TIs of the molecular graphs depending upon the connection number appeared in 1972 to compute the total electron energy of the alternant hydrocarbons. But after that, for a long period, these are not studied by researchers. Recently, Ali and Trinajstic Mol. Inform. (...) 372018,1−7 restudied the Zagreb connection indices and reported that the Zagreb connection indices comparatively to the classical Zagreb indices provide the better absolute value of the correlation coefficient for the thirteen physicochemical properties of the octane isomers. In this paper, we compute the general results in the form of exact formulae & upper bounds of the second Zagreb connection index and modified first Zagreb connection index for the resultant graphs which are obtained by applying operations of corona, Cartesian, and lexicographic product. At the end, some applications of the obtained results for particular chemical structures such as alkanes, cycloalkanes, linear polynomial chain, carbon nanotubes, fence, and closed fence are presented. In addition, a comparison between exact and computed values of the aforesaid Zagreb indices is also included. (shrink)
This research aims to explore the factors of electronic media affecting the buying behavior of consumers especially the females in Pakistan. It is generally believed that females build their buying behavior from print and electronic media specifically while taking impression from related news, television dramas, showbiz activities, commercials, advertisements, celebrities, and other tools. This study is an effort to measure the impact of effects of advertising aired on electronic media on women’s buying behavior in Karachi City. Overall, advertising has a (...) great role in buying behavior. This quantitative research employs survey study as data collection tool from Karachi through random sampling. The researchers distributed 2000 questionnaires among females of academic departments of universities, housewives, journalists, teachers and students from various localities of Karachi. The results of the study showed that majority of the population was strongly affected by the commercials of various products aired on electronic media in Pakistan. A large number of females also opinionated that electronic media exploited their consumer and privacy rights and negatively led them to buy products which were not actually as per their requirements. The study was limited to the City of Karachi alone due to multiple factors including limited timeframe, however, this study may open new phenomena pertaining to this arena. (shrink)