As business environments become more complex and reliant on information systems, the decisions made by managers affect a growing number of stakeholders. This paper proposes a framework based on the application of normative theories in business ethics to facilitate the evaluation of IS related ethical dilemmas and arrive at fair and consistent decisions. The framework is applied in the context of an information privacy dilemma to demonstrate the decision making process. The ethical dilemma is analyzed using each one of the (...) three normative theories—the stockholder theory, stakeholder theory, and social contract theory. The challenges associated with the application of these theories are also discussed. (shrink)
For decades, policy-makers in government, development banks and foundations, NGOs, researchers and students have struggled with the problem of how to protect people who are displaced from their homes and livelihoods by development projects. This book addresses these concerns and explores how debates often become deadlocked between 'managerial' and 'movementist' perspectives. Using development ethics to determine the rights and responsibilities of various stakeholders, the authors find that displaced people must be empowered so as to share equitably in benefits rather than (...) being victimized. They propose a governance model for development projects that would transform conflict over displacement into a more manageable collective bargaining process and would empower displaced people to achieve equitable results. Their book will be valuable for readers in a wide range of fields including ethics, development studies, politics and international relations as well as policy making, project management and community development. (shrink)
This paper lays out theoretical considerations and first analyses on the giving of and asking for reasons among preschool children age 3–7 in natural child-child play interaction. We attempt to give an integrated, multimodal analysis of the verbal, paraverbal and extraverbal means of these reasoning activities. In our data we find many instances of younger children who are giving reasons during play interaction. Often these reasoning activities do not occur in an open conflict and are not primarily directed at working (...) out a local dissensus. Rather, these interactions seem to foreground the epistemic function of argumentation. We will argue that these practices should be understood and researched as early forms of argumentation. (shrink)
This article elucidates the meaning of Indian nationalism and its connection to religious universalism as a problem of ethics. It engages in that exercise of elucidation by interpreting a few of the key texts by Aurobindo Ghose on the relationship between ethics and politics in the first two decades of the twentieth century. Both secularist and subalternist histories have contributed to misunderstandings of Aurobindo's political thought and shown an inability to comprehend its ethical moorings. The specific failures in fathoming the (...) depths of Aurobindo's thought are related to more general infirmities afflicting the history of political and economic ideas in colonial India. In exploring how best to achieve Indian unity, Aurobindo had shown that Indian nationalism was not condemned to pirating from the gallery of models of states crafted by the West. By reconceptualizing the link between religion and politics, this essay suggests a new way forward in Indian intellectual history. (shrink)
BackgroundStudies on different methods to supplement the traditional informed consent process have generated conflicting results. This study was designed to evaluate whether participants who received group counseling prior to administration of informed consent understood the key components of the study and the consent better than those who received individual counseling, based on the hypothesis that group counseling would foster discussion among potential participants and enhance their understanding of the informed consent.MethodsParents of children participating in a trial of nutritional supplementation were (...) randomized to receive either group counseling or individual counseling prior to administration of the informed consent. To assess the participant's comprehension, a structured questionnaire was administered approximately 48-72 hours afterwards by interviewers who were blinded to the allocation group of the respondents.ResultsA total of 128 parents were recruited and follow up was established with 118 (90.2%) for the study. All respondents were aware of their child's participation in a research study and the details of sample collection. However, their understanding of study purpose, randomization and withdrawal was poor. There was no difference in comprehension of key elements of the informed consent between the intervention and control arm.ConclusionsThe results suggest that the group counseling might not influence the overall comprehension of the informed consent process. Further research is required to devise better ways of improving participants' understanding of randomization in clinical trials.Trial RegistrationClinical Trial Registry - India (CTRI): CTRI/2009/091/000612. (shrink)
I suggest that the representation of cities in Indian cinema — the effects and affects of modernities as well as of ambiguous, multiplicitous sexualities — mark significant change in engagement with modernity ever since independence in 1947. The city in the Indian imaginary has occupied an ambivalent, confrontational as well as contemplative space that signifies ‘modernity’ and its concurrent promise as well as ills. Non-normative sexualities have always occupied a liminal space in socio-political configurations, a site both of empowerment through (...) transgression and containment through regulation. The urban space — newly freed up and as yet un-proscribed — assumes the metonymic equivalence of available sexual freedom (particularly for women), its powers and its dangers. The cinema as a text is especially well-suited to play with the dynamics of this fraught space: often, a film’s contexts and narratives identify the film text itself as a signifier of the liminal spaces that it proposes to explore, enacting both their limitations and their possibilities. (shrink)
In this study, we consider the ways different degrees of dissent are established in interaction, especially in interactions among children. One important aspect in the development of the ability to argue is the framing of interactions as rather cooperative or agonistic. Different framings seem to allow for different forms of argumentative activity. The focus in this paper is on the mediation of degrees of dissensus in argumentation in child-child communication. It is established, we argue, through verbal as well as non-verbal (...) means, and the agonistic and cooperativity can be indicators for the space argumentation has in child-child interaction. (shrink)
This new Bangla book discusses Michel Foucault's political and philosophical thoughts in the last decade of his career. The author argues that this decade was one of his most restless, creative, and fascinating. He discusses and analyses Foucauldian theories, such as sexuality, governmentality, bio-politics, and bio-power, as also his concern with the politics of truth, which includes his thoughts on modernity and critique.