Dominant development discourse and policy are based on crucial misconceptions about peasants and their livelihoods. Peasants are viewed as inherently poor and hungry and their farming systems are considered inefficient, of low productivity, and sometimes even environmentally degrading. Consequently, dominant development policies have tried to transform peasants into something else: industrialised commercial farmers, wage labourers, urban workers, etc. This article seeks to deconstruct three key misconceptions about peasants by explaining how and why marginalised peasants around the world face poverty and (...) hunger. An explanation of the process of marginalisation of peasants through the influence of five “mediating factors” is put forward. It is contended that by addressing the mediating factors through policies devised with the active participation of peasants, the marginalisation of peasants would be reduced or eliminated. This would allow peasants to forge an adequate livelihood in rural areas based on their independent farming, and thereby contribute to the achievement of food sovereignty. (shrink)
This paper explores the similarities between the conceptual structure of quantum theory and relational biology as developed within the Rashevsky-Rosen-Louie school of theoretical biology. With this aim, generalized quantum theory and the abstract formalism of (M,R)-systems are briefly presented. In particular, the notion of organizational invariance and relational identity are formalized mathematically and a particular example is given. Several quantum-like attributes of Rosen’s complex systems such as complementarity and nonseparability are discussed. Taken together, this work emphasizes the possible role of (...) self-referentiality and impredicativity in quantum theory. (shrink)
Inventive Machine project is the matter of discussion. The project aims to develop a family of AI systems for intelligent support of all stages of engineering design.Peculiarities of the IM project:deep and comprehensive knowledge base — the theory of inventive problem solving (TIPS)solving complex problems at the level of inventionsapplication in any area of engineeringstructural prediction of engineering system developmentThe systems of the second generation are described in detail.
The article begins with an integrative theory of neurosis and with the notion of the “patriarchal mind,” which I conceive as the psycho-social foundation of what we call “civilisation” and proceed to characterize as a despotic and repressive activity of the father on the mother and on the child in the family, and also of an analogous relation between the intellect on the emotional and on the instinctual sub-selves in the individual mind. Next, I propose that patriarchy entails four interrelated (...) problems: violent authority; the eclipse of caring; the repression of instinct; and the invalidation of intuition; and point out that since these are evident in our well-recognized social problems, these may be traced down to the “patriarchal complex” that in turn defines patriarchal society. Finally, I develop the idea that not only is the patriarchal mind is embodied in each of the known interpersonal or character pathologies, but that each of these pathologies contributes to the systemic and cultural presence of the patriarchal mind. The corollary of this analysis is that the healing of both our interpersonal and social pathologies will depend on the healing of the patriarchal mind, which is conceivably possible to bring about through a specially designed education oriented to the balanced development of “three-brained beings,” in whom a balance has been achieved between the intellectual, emotional, and instinctive sub-selves that constitute our mind. (shrink)
The theory of evolution of complex, including the humans system and algorithm for its constructing are a synthesis of evolutionary epistemology, philosophical anthropology and concrete scientific empirical basis in modern science,. In other words, natural philosophy is regaining the status bar element theoretical science in the era of technology-driven evolution. The co-evolutionary concept of 3-modal stable evolutionary strategy of Homo sapiens is developed. The concept based on the principle of evolutionary complementarity of anthropogenesis: value of evolutionary risk and evolutionary path (...) of human evolution are defined by descriptive (evolutionary efficiency) and creative-teleological (evolutionary correctly) parameters simultaneously, that cannot be instrumental reduced to others ones. Resulting volume of both parameters define the vectors of biological, social, cultural and techno-rationalistic human evolution by two gear mechanism ˗ genetic and cultural co-evolution and techno-humanitarian balance. The resultant each of them can estimated by the ratio of socio-psychological predispositions of humanization/dehumanization in mentality. Explanatory model and methodology of evaluation of creatively teleological evolutionary risk component of NBIC technological complex is proposed. Integral part of the model is evolutionary semantics (time-varying semantic code, the compliance of the biological, socio-cultural and techno-rationalist adaptive modules of human stable evolutionary strategy). (shrink)
Paul Valéry is de dichter die zwijgt; de denker die weigert filosoof te zijn; de schrijver die de taal in staat van beschuldiging stelt; de expert die volhoudt een amateur te zijn; de mysticus die zijn heil zoekt bij de wiskunde; de stamelaar die aan een kwaal van precisie lijdt; de Narcissus die misschien toch liever Orpheus had willen zijn. Hij is de chroniqueur van het denken en de meester van de tegenspraak. Ik probeer me hem voor te stellen. Het (...) is 1894 en hij zit gebogen te schrijven in de schriftjes waarin hij elk ochtend 'entre la lampe et le soleil' zijn denken fileert, een project dat uitmondde in ca. 30.000 bladzijden weerbarstige onvoltooidheid: de Cahiers. (shrink)
Este trabajo se aproxima a la recepción de Descartes en la obra del escritor francés Paul Valéry. Examinando algunos de sus textos sobre el filósofo y las lecturas de autores como Derrida, Benjamin, Löwith o Blumenberg, examinamos algunas de las claves del pensamiento de Valéry. Nuestro objetivo es mostrar cómo la obra en prosa de este poeta resulta fundamental para estudiar la crisis del sujeto y las transformaciones de la filosofía contemporánea.
Valéry’s conceptions of mind, literature and even philosophy often stress the importance of an effort against heterogeneity that should be led in the name of what the author himself calls pureté. On the other hand, the theories that Valéry develops about composition - which is intended both as an aesthetic and a theoretical concept - show the importance of complexity in his representation of the esprit and allows to compare Valéry’s descriptions of the self with the way he represents creative (...) process and even draws the structure of his own works. (shrink)
Sensibilité is in Valéry’s theory the name of a large grasp of functions, involving both perception and creation, and involved both in art and in experience. So far, this key word of Valéry’s aesthetics can be read as the bridge between his conceptions of art and his idea of the self in order to understand the way this author writes and conceives what philosophy can aim to.
In this contribution, we shall examine how Valéry leaves Descartes, and the paradigm of sight, in favor of the dancer Athiktè, typical of the paradigm of hearing and touch. If Descartes offers the pattern of an analytic mapping, that method reveals itself irrelevant to take into account what Valéry calls the C.E.M (Corps Esprit Monde). On the other side, a dancer, like Athiktè appears as the model of poiesis, showing the natura naturans in progress.
Contrary to the prevailing view, there is not one, but at least two poetic theories in Paul Valéry: the intellectual, formalist and technical poetics Valéry is usually associated to conflicts with another poetics, which highlights sensitivity, lyricism and subjectivity. The constitutive duplicity of Valéry’s literary theory has probably something to do with the ambiguity of his relationship with Stéphane Mallarmé.
Body, sensibility and experience: Paul Valéry’s reflection and pragmatist aesthetic The pragmatist aesthetic of Dewey and Shusterman can be useful to understand the complexity of the Valéry’s thought: this paper aims to highlight a pragmatist attitude on the Valéry’s aesthetic through the links of the triad Corps, Esprit, Monde and underline the crucial role that the body and the senses play in experience.
This paper aims to outline the importance of Valéry with respect to some cornerstones of Adorno’s aesthetic theory as a negative-dialectical thought. Adorno’s concept of aesthetic experience finds in Valéry as an “Artist” (not simply as a “Künstler”) a sort of lieutenant: he helps to specify notions like “apparition”, “form”, “configuration”, and above all the idea of the aesthetic as a relation by which something happens in the field of human experience without being a determinate, or determinable, content of it.
In his Cahiers , Valéry says that writing two of his major dialogues, Eupalinos and L’âme et la danse , was an antidote to his ravaging mood: literature and spirituality are the remedy generated by a necessary and not eliminable evil, particularly the one that shows itself as ‘rage’ in love. The essay investigates thoroughly this contradictory logic and focuses on the problem of sensitiveness in Valéry’s work, pointing out a twofold presence of the ‘body’. Preserving these two presences, the (...) writing incessantly tries to make up “une fureur intelligente et expérimentale” and to give a new form, without deleting it, to sensitiveness’ acute pain. (shrink)
Subject of this essay is the relationship between Celan’s and Valéry’s theory on language, aesthetic and history. Resorting to the importance of some passages of Valéry’s Cahiers for the conception of Celan’s theoretical doctrine of the poetry, the author underwrites the centrality of this philosophical heritage for the explanation and the justification of Celan’s linguistic choices and of their historical and political meaning.
En quel sens l’expérience esthétique peut-elle être subjective et profondément individuelle sans pour autant être arbitraire ? Le texte suivant essaie de répondre à cette question en tentant de considérer l’expérience esthétique comme le lieu d’une reconduction de la subjectivité individuelle aux éléments symboliques déterminants qui composent la substance de notre vie comme existence finie. C’est en suivant les réflexions de Valéry sur le pouvoir d’émission de la sensibilité formelle que nous visons cette problématique et tentons de dégager les aspects (...) de sa pensée poïétique contribuant à une herméneutique de l’expérience esthétique individuelle pour laquelle la subjectivité se sent irréductiblement concernée en elle-même comme finitude.In what sense can aesthetic experience be subjective and profoundly individual without being arbitrary ? The following paper tries to respond to this question by considering the aesthetic experience as the place where the individual subject is confronted with the symbolic elements composing the substance of his life as finitude. We want to develop this problematic by following the reflections of Valéry on what he calls the formal sensibility and their aesthetic solicitations. Our objective is to present how different aspects of his poetic conception can contribute to the elaboration of a hermeneutic of the aesthetic experience in which the individual subject feels itself to be concerned as a finite being. (shrink)
Le but de cette contribution c'est d'analyser la lecture derridienne du Monsieur Teste de Valéry afin de montrer que, par cette figure énigmatique, Derrida a voulu proposer une déconstruction double : une déconstruction de l’égologie souveraine au moyen de l’hétérologie contre-souveraine et vice-versa.
This article studies Paul Valéry's personal reflection on photography, as it appears in his essay ?Le Discours du Centenaire de la Photographie,? based on a speech given at the Sorbonne in 1939 to members of the French Academy. It stresses the relationship between this essay and the French poet's writings on painting and aesthetics, in particular his work on Corot. Moreover, it analyzes the synthetic character of Valéry's critical approach, which attempts to bring together the language of poetry, philosophy and (...) science when dealing with this utterly modern visual language. Photography is celebrated here as a unique art form that can at the same time imitate and reproduce nature perfectly, while allowing mankind to create a cosmological vision of life and the universe. In other words, the poet underlines in this text the utmost modernity of photography, at a time when many in France were still reluctant to acknowledge its artistic identity. (shrink)
In response to Paul Valéry's claim that “philosophy is poetry,” Simone Weil set out to examine the nature of philosophical thinking. She argues that it is above all concerned with value. In the course of her argument, she lays out the grammatical differences between thinking about value, and other epistemological endeavours. These differences mean that inconsistencies are not to be avoided in philosophy, and that philosophy is not a matter of system building. In the end, she also believes that thinking (...) philosophically requires one to possess the value of detachment, and hence a readiness to be transformed. (shrink)
When Introduction à la méthode de Léonard de Vinci was published, Valéry was not yet twenty-four. The period during which he wrote this work, as well as Soirée avec M. Teste, which appeared a year later, was extremely important in his biography, for it defined the principal trends of his thought for decades to come. After a twenty-year period of silence and retirement, there appeared his small volume La Jeune Parque, the collection Charmes, Album de vers anciens, and his Socratic (...) dialogues, all of which won him fame. The reader became aware of a brilliant stylist producing essays most abundant in number and themes, an acute analyst of culture in crisis, of the human community, mind, and morals, and the author of notebooks kept for many years in which he appears, as, among other things, a forerunner of the most diverse ideas in the realm of linguistics, psychology, information theory, aesthetic theory, and the like. Finally, there was to be the posthumous publication of Mon Faust, which, in the mind of the more perceptive reader, markedly emphasizes and sharpens the tragic aspects of Valéry's personality and consciousness of the world, for he is still today sometimes presented as a kind of causeur of high society, a cold master of "manufactured" poetry, an overly brilliant dilettante blinded by science or, at the very best, an utterly academic classicist in the category of those who are as dead as Bossuet or Boileau. All that was still in the future. However, it was precisely in these early works that, with all the fire of youth and maximalism of thought, he formulated ideas that must be central to the attention of those who wish to discover the system of Paul Valéry. (shrink)
Este artículo busca demostrar que el pensamiento de Paul Valéry desarrolla un análisis crítico de las condiciones en que el arte establece su relación con el sistema económico moderno. Para validar dicha hipótesis, inicialmente es presentada la noción de “máquina económica”, con la que es descrita la teoría de la economía, y son definidas las características de los objetos útiles e inútiles que componen el mercado. A su turno, el artículo detalla el proceso histórico de la mercantilización del arte en (...) la época moderna, y aclara las razones por las cuales los productores y consumidores de obras artísticas asumen una forma de apropiación diferente hacia estas. Se prueba que, debido a la primacía de la naturaleza simbólica de la obra artística, la generación y actualización de su valor cuantitativo y cualitativo se enfrenta a un alto grado de indeterminabilidad. También se demuestra la existencia de una teoría estética argumentada con la que el autor francés propone la apreciación del valor de la obra. Por último, es descrito el papel que debe asumir la crítica ante la producción artística destinada para el consumo social. (shrink)