Results for 'Value Theory'

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  1.  69
    Value Theory.Francesco Orsi - 2015 - Bloomsbury Academic.
    What is it for a car, a piece of art or a person to be good, bad or better than another? In this first book-length introduction to value theory, Francesco Orsi explores the nature of evaluative concepts used in everyday thinking and speech and in contemporary philosophical discourse. The various dimensions, structures and connections that value concepts express are interrogated with clarity and incision. -/- Orsi provides a systematic survey of both classic texts including Plato, Aristotle, Kant, (...)
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  2. Value Theory.Mark Schroeder - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The term “value theory” is used in at least three different ways in philosophy. In its broadest sense, “value theory” is a catch-all label used to encompass all branches of moral philosophy, social and political philosophy, aesthetics, and sometimes feminist philosophy and the philosophy of religion — whatever areas of philosophy are deemed to encompass some “evaluative” aspect. In its narrowest sense, “value theory” is used for a relatively narrow area of normative ethical (...) of particular concern to consequentialists. In this narrow sense, “value theory” is roughly synonymous with “axiology”. Axiology can be thought of as primarily concerned with classifying what things are good, and how good they are. For instance, a traditional question of axiology concerns whether the objects of value are subjective psychological states, or objective states of the world. (shrink)
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  3.  69
    Value Theory and the Best Interests Standard1.David Degrazia - 1995 - Bioethics 9 (1):50-61.
    The idea of a patient's best interests raises issues in prudential value theory–the study of what makes up an individual's ultimate good or well‐being. While this connection may strike a philosopher as obvious, the literature on the best interests standard reveals almost no engagement of recent work in value theory. There seems to be a growing sentiment among bioethicists that their work is independent of philosophical theorizing. Is this sentiment wrong in the present case? Does (...) theory make a significant difference in interpreting best interests? In pursuing this question, I begin with a quick sketch of broad kinds of value theories, identifying representatives that are plausible enough to count as contenders. I then explore what each account suggests in neonatal treatment decisions, and decisions for patients in persistent vegetative states. I conclude that while these accounts converge somewhat in their interpretations of best interests, they also have importantly different implications. (shrink)
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  4. Epistemic Value Theory and Information Ethics.Don Fallis - 2004 - Minds and Machines 14 (1):101-117.
    Three of the major issues in information ethics – intellectual property, speech regulation, and privacy – concern the morality of restricting people’s access to certain information. Consequently, policies in these areas have a significant impact on the amount and types of knowledge that people acquire. As a result, epistemic considerations are critical to the ethics of information policy decisions (cf. Mill, 1978 [1859]). The fact that information ethics is a part of the philosophy of information highlights this important connection with (...)
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  5. Epistemic Value Theory and Social Epistemology.Don Fallis - 2006 - Episteme 2 (3):177-188.
    In order to guide the decisions of real people who want to bring about good epistemic outcomes for themselves and others, we need to understand our epistemic values. In Knowledge in a Social World, Alvin Goldman has proposed an epistemic value theory that allows us to say whether one outcome is epistemically better than another. However, it has been suggested that Goldman's theory is not really an epistemic value theory at all because whether one outcome (...)
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  6. Value Theory, Beneficence, and Medical Decision-Making.David DeGrazia - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (3):71-73.
    Volume 20, Issue 3, March 2020, Page 71-73.
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  7. Value Theory.Thomas Hurka - 2006 - In David Copp (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ethical Theory. Oxford University Press. pp. 357--379.
    This chapter surveys a variety of views about which states of affairs are intrinsically good, that is, in themselves or apart from their consequences. It considers the claims to intrinsic value of such states of individuals as pleasure, the fulfillment of desire, knowledge, achievement, moral virtue, and personal relationships; the different ways such goods can be compared and aggregated both within and across individual lives; and the possibility, given a principle of “organic unities,” of goods located in wholes larger (...)
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  8. The Value Theory of Democracy.Corey Brettschneider - 2006 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 5 (3):259-278.
    Liberal political theorists often argue that justice requires limits on policy outcomes, limits delineated by substantive rights. Distinct from this project is a body of literature dedicated to elaborating on the meaning of democracy in procedural terms. In this article, I offer an alternative to the traditional divide between procedural theories of democracy and substantive theories of justice; I call this the ‘value theory of democracy’. I argue that the democratic ideal is fundamentally about a core set of (...)
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  9. Introduction to Value Theory.Nicholas Rescher - 1969 - Upa.
    A reprint of the popular 1969, Prentice-Hall edition, the principal innovation of this philosophical introduction to value theory is its focus upon values as they are dealt with in everyday life situations, and have sometimes been studied by sociologists and social psychologists, rather than upon value as has been standard in the philosophical tradition.
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  10.  76
    Epistemic Value Theory and Judgment Aggregation.Don Fallis - 2005 - Episteme 2 (1):39-55.
    The doctrinal paradox shows that aggregating individual judgments by taking a majority vote does not always yield a consistent set of collective judgments. Philip Pettit, Luc Bovens, and Wlodek Rabinowicz have recently argued for the epistemic superiority of an aggregation procedure that always yields a consistent set of judgments. This paper identifies several additional epistemic advantages of their consistency maintaining procedure. However, this paper also shows that there are some circumstances where the majority vote procedure is epistemically superior. The epistemic (...)
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  11. The Oxford Handbook of Value Theory.Iwao Hirose & Jonas Olson (eds.) - 2015 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Value theory, or axiology, looks at what things are good or bad, how good or bad they are, and, most fundamentally, what it is for a thing to be good or bad. Questions about value and about what is valuable are important to moral philosophers, since most moral theories hold that we ought to promote the good. This Handbook focuses on value theory as it pertains to ethics, broadly construed, and provides a comprehensive overview of (...)
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  12. The Oxford Handbook of Value Theory.Iwao Hirose & Jonas Olson (eds.) - 2015 - Oxford University Press.
    Value theory, or axiology, looks at what things are good or bad, how good or bad they are, and, most fundamentally, what it is for a thing to be good or bad. Questions about value and about what is valuable are important to moral philosophers, since most moral theories hold that we ought to promote the good. This Handbook focuses on value theory as it pertains to ethics, broadly construed, and provides a comprehensive overview of (...)
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  13.  25
    Interactional Value Theory: An Interpretation. [REVIEW]Amarjit S. Sethi - 1986 - Journal of Value Inquiry 20 (3):209-222.
    The imperatives of organization, technology, and planning operate similarly in both capitalist and Marxist systems. Differences in behavioural outputs (such as organizational productivity, industrial relations behaviour, or the outcomes of different health services systems) can be explained by adopting a framework of an interactional value theory which accepts convergence of different value systems and points out and analyzes differences in outputs in light of interactions between available “climatic techniques and preferred values”. The interactional approach links together “ethical (...)
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  14. Non-Anthropocentric Value Theory and Environmental Ethics.J. Baird Callicott - 1984 - American Philosophical Quarterly 21 (4):299 - 309.
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  15.  57
    The Developmental Self-Valuing Theory: A Practical Approach for Business Ethics. [REVIEW]Larry C. Jensen & Steven A. Wygant - 1990 - Journal of Business Ethics 9 (3):215 - 225.
    Ethics in business has been an increasingly controversial and important topic of discussion over the last decade. Debate continues about whether ethics should be a part of business, but also includes how business can implement ethical theory in day-to-day operations. Most discussions focus on either traditional moral philosophy, which offers little of practical value for the business community, or psychological theories of moral reasoning, which have been shown to be flawed and incomplete. The theory presented here is (...)
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  16.  49
    An Epistemic Value Theory.Dennis Whitcomb - 2007 - Dissertation, Rutgers
    For any normative domain, we can theorize about what is good in that domain. Such theories include utilitarianism, a view about what is good morally. But there are many domains other than the moral; these include the prudential, the aesthetic, and the intellectual or epistemic. In this last domain, it is good to be knowledgeable and bad to ignore evidence, quite apart from the morality, prudence, and aesthetics of these things. This dissertation builds a theory that stands to the (...)
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  17.  15
    Value Theory and Dialectics.Tony Smith - 1998 - Science and Society 62 (3):460 - 470.
    If Capital is read as a work in systematic dialectics, early and later stages of the work do not relate externally as model and concrete reality. Both are instead different conceptualizations of the same totality. On this reading standard objections to the so-called "transformation problem" dissipate. An appreciation of dialectics also enables a deeper comprehension of Marx's key notions of "value" and "abstract labor.".
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  18. Infinite Value and Finitely Additive Value Theory.Peter Vallentyne & Shelly Kagan - 1997 - Journal of Philosophy 94 (1):5-26.
    000000001. Introduction Call a theory of the good—be it moral or prudential—aggregative just in case (1) it recognizes local (or location-relative) goodness, and (2) the goodness of states of affairs is based on some aggregation of local goodness. The locations for local goodness might be points or regions in time, space, or space-time; or they might be people, or states of nature.1 Any method of aggregation is allowed: totaling, averaging, measuring the equality of the distribution, measuring the minimum, etc.. (...)
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  19.  13
    The Value-Theory of C. I. Lewis.Lester Meckler - 1950 - Journal of Philosophy 47 (20):565-579.
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  20.  48
    Political Marxism and Value Theory: Bridging the Gap Between Theory and History.Samuel Knafo - 2007 - Historical Materialism 15 (2):75-104.
  21.  16
    Integration of Schwartz's Value Theory and Scheler's Concept of Value in Research on the Development of the Structure of Values During Adolescence.Jan Cieciuch - 2011 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 42 (4):205-214.
    Integration of Schwartz's value theory and Scheler's concept of value in research on the development of the structure of values during adolescence A proposal is presented in the article of integrating Schwartz's circular model of values with Scheler's concept of values. The main research goals were: 1) empirical verification of the attempt to include the values of Scheler into the circle of Schwartz's values; 2) use of the concept and measurement of Scheler's values to describe the development (...)
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  22.  35
    Distilling a Value Theory of Ideology From Volume Three of Capital.Beverley Best - 2015 - Historical Materialism 23 (3):101-141.
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  23.  3
    On Value Theory, by Way of the Commonplace.Joseph Margolis - 1956 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 17 (4):504-515.
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  24.  23
    Systems of Ethics and Value Theory.William S. Sahakian - 1963 - New York: Philosophical Library.
    In the extensive study, Systems of Ethics and Value Theory, author William S. Sahakian deconstructs these two complex philosophical systems for a scholarly audience.
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  25.  31
    Brentano's Value Theory: Beauty, Goodness, and the Concept of Correct Emotion.Wilhelm Baumgartner & Lynn Pasquerella - 2004 - In Dale Jacquette (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Brentano. Cambridge University Press. pp. 220.
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  26. Rickert's Value Theory and the Foundations of Weber's Methodology.Guy Oakes - 1988 - Sociological Theory 6 (1):38-51.
    The general area of this essay is an issue left unexplored by the tradition of commentary on Rickert's philosophy and Weber's methodology: the question of the relationship between Rickert's value theory and the validity of Weber's methodological positions. Within this area, the essay focuses on the question of the relationship between Rickert's analysis of the problem of the objectivity of values and Weber's conception of the objectivity of the cultural sciences. The thesis defended is that a solution to (...)
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  27.  46
    Psychological Foundations of Value Theory: B. F. Skinners Science of Values.William A. Rottschaefer - 1982 - Zygon 17 (3):293-301.
  28.  31
    The Necessity of Value Theory: Brenner's Analysis of the 'Long Downturn' and Marx's Theory of Crisis.Murray Smith - 1999 - Historical Materialism 4 (1):149-169.
    The publication last year in New Left Review of Robert Brenner's book-length essay ‘Uneven Development and the Long Downturn: The Advanced Capitalist Economies from Boom to Stagnation, 1950-1998’ has already provoked more discussion and controversy on the socialist Left than any other political-economic analysis in recent memory. Predictably, it has also elicited a number of highly critical response from proponents of Marx's theories of labour value and economic crisis. Amongst other things, Brenner has been charged with a one-sided preoccupation (...)
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  29.  1
    Values and Intentions: A Study in Value-Theory and Philosophy of Mind.J. N. Findlay - 1961 - New York: Macmillan.
    Professor Findlay in this book, originally published in 1961, set out to justify, and to some extent carry out, a ‘material value-ethic’, ie. A systematic setting forth of the ends of rational action. The book is in the tradition of Moore, Rashfall, Ross, Scheler and Hartmann though it avoids altogether dogmatic intuitive methods. It argues that an organised framework of ends of action follows from the attitude underlying our moral pronouncements, and that this framework, while allowing personal elaboration, is (...)
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  30.  30
    Value Theory and the "Golden Eggs": Appropriating the Magic of Accumulation.Michael W. Macy - 1988 - Sociological Theory 6 (2):131-152.
    Prominent neo-Marxists have recently acknowledged longstanding criticisms of Marx's labor theory of value as at best a cumbersome and redundant price model but continue to variously defend the doctrine as an interpretation of historically observed class conflict between exploiters and exploited. This essay counters that value theory also fails badly as a "labor theory of exploitation." The fundamental flaw is the canonical premise that labor alone is productive, with normative implications closer to the entrepreneurial work (...)
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  31.  58
    The Logical Construction of Value-Theory: More on Fine and Saad-Filho.Jim Kincaid - 2009 - Historical Materialism 17 (3):208-220.
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  32. Peirce and Value Theory: On Peircean Ethics and Aesthetics.Herman Parret - 1996 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 32 (2):339-349.
     
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  33.  14
    Value Theory and the Behavioral Sciences.Rollo Handy - 1969 - Springfield, Ill., Thomas.
  34.  16
    Semantical Foundations for Value Theory.R. Routley & V. Routley - 1983 - Noûs 17 (3):441-456.
  35.  6
    Biology and Value Theory.Robert McShea & Daniel McShea - 1999 - In Michael Ruse & Jane Maienschein (eds.), Biology and the Foundation of Ethics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 307--327.
  36.  3
    Value Theory in Soviet Philosophy.Richard T. De George - 1963 - Memorias Del XIII Congreso Internacional de Filosofía 4:133-143.
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  37. Polish Value Theory: Five Lectures with Texts.Czesław Porębski - 1996 - Jagiellonian University Press.
  38.  32
    Ecology and Value Theory.E. M. Adams - 1972 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 10 (1):3-6.
  39.  37
    Between Values and the World: Studies in Second-Order Value Theory.Andrés Garcia - 2018 - Dissertation, Lund
    Value is an inescapable part of the human experience and what life must be like for a conscious and feeling person. Philosophical questions about value are therefore naturally invited: What sort of thing would value be if it were part of the furniture of the world? How should we understand the relations that value is thought to stand in to other things? In a broad sense, these are formal questions calling for philosophical studies into the understanding (...)
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  40.  48
    Value Theory and Aesthetics.Wilbur M. Urban - 1926 - The Monist 36 (4):605-626.
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  41. The Value-Based Theory of Reasons.Barry Maguire - 2016 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 3.
    This paper develops the Value-Based Theory of Reasons in some detail. The central part of the paper introduces a number of theoretically puzzling features of normative reasons. These include weight, transmission, overlap, and the promiscuity of reasons. It is argued that the Value-Based Theory of Reasons elegantly accounts for these features. This paper is programmatic. Its goal is to put the promising but surprisingly overlooked Value-Based Theory of Reasons on the table in discussions of (...)
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  42.  10
    Ecology and Value Theory.E. M. Adams - 1972 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 10 (1):3-6.
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  43.  24
    Comparative Value Theory.Robert Edgar Carter - 1979 - Journal of Value Inquiry 13 (1):33-56.
  44.  41
    Stoic Value Theory.Daniel C. Russell - 2004 - Southwest Philosophy Review 20 (1):125-137.
  45.  13
    Stoic Value Theory: Indifferent Things and Conditional Goods.Daniel C. Russell - 2004 - Southwest Philosophy Review 20 (1):125-137.
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  46.  18
    Value Theory and Capital Accumulation.Paul Mattick - 1959 - Science and Society 23 (1):27 - 51.
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  47.  8
    Value Theory in Twentieth-Century Russian Philosophy.Sergey F. Anisimov - 1996 - Journal of Value Inquiry 30 (1-2):91-100.
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  48. Value, Theory Of.Abraham Edel - 1992 - In Lawrence C. Becker & Charlotte B. Becker (eds.), The Encyclopedia of Ethics. Garland Publishing.
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  49. Value Theory and Theology.H. Richard Niebuhr - 1937 - In Eugene Garrett Bewkes, Julius Seelye Bixler & Douglas Clyde Macintosh (eds.), The Nature of Religious Experience. London: Harper & Brothers.
     
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  50.  32
    The Value Theory of V. P. Tugarinov.James J. O'Rourke - 1984 - Studies in East European Thought 28 (2):109-116.
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