Results for 'Value theory'

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  1.  28
    Value Theory.Francesco Orsi - 2015 - Bloomsbury Academic.
    What is it for a car, a piece of art or a person to be good, bad or better than another? In this first book-length introduction to value theory, Francesco Orsi explores the nature of evaluative concepts used in everyday thinking and speech and in contemporary philosophical discourse. The various dimensions, structures and connections that value concepts express are interrogated with clarity and incision. -/- Orsi provides a systematic survey of both classic texts including Plato, Aristotle, Kant, (...)
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  2.  86
    Epistemic Value Theory and Information Ethics.Don Fallis - 2004 - Minds and Machines 14 (1):101-117.
    Three of the major issues in information ethics – intellectual property, speech regulation, and privacy – concern the morality of restricting people’s access to certain information. Consequently, policies in these areas have a significant impact on the amount and types of knowledge that people acquire. As a result, epistemic considerations are critical to the ethics of information policy decisions (cf. Mill, 1978 [1859]). The fact that information ethics is a part of the philosophy of information highlights this important connection with (...)
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  3. Contrasting Mill and Sidgwick. A Development Analysis of the Value Theory of Classical Utilitarianism.Annette Dufner - 2014 - Allgemeine Zeitschrift für Philosophie 39 (2):173-193.
    This paper points out a number of long-standing objections to Mill’s theory of the good and shows how exactly Sidgwick’s more detailed approach can avoid these pitfalls. In particular, critics have always insisted that (i) Mill’s "proof" of utilitarianism represents a naturalistic fallacy, and that (ii) his qualitative hedonism is inconsistent. Sidgwick’s "ideal element" of the good allows him to avoid these charges, and sheds new light on the assumption that the 'hedonism' of classical utilitarianism is a purely naturalistic (...)
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  4.  49
    The Theory of Value of Christian von Ehrenfels.Barry Smith - 1986 - In R. Fabian (ed.), Christian von Ehrenfels: Leben und Werk. Rodopi. pp. 150.
    Christian von Ehrenfels was a student of both Franz Brentano and Carl Menger and his thinking on value theory was inspired both by Brentano’s descriptive psychology and by the subjective theory of economic value advanced by Menger, the founder of the Austrian school of economics. Value, for Ehrenfels, is a function of desire, and we ascribe value to those things which we either do in fact desire, or would desire if we were not convinced (...)
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  5. Constitutionalism and Value Theory.Andras Szigeti - 2010 - In Andras Sajo & Renata Uitz (eds.), Constitutional Topography: Values and Constitutions. ELEVEN INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING.
    The theory and practice of constitutionalism is tightly interwoven with references and appeals to values. However, these references and appeals frequently remain undertheorized and are seldom connected directly to philosophical theories of value. This chapter outlines some ways in which such connections might be established.
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  6.  98
    Rickert's Value Theory and the Foundations of Weber's Methodology.Guy Oakes - 1988 - Sociological Theory 6 (1):38-51.
    The general area of this essay is an issue left unexplored by the tradition of commentary on Rickert's philosophy and Weber's methodology: the question of the relationship between Rickert's value theory and the validity of Weber's methodological positions. Within this area, the essay focuses on the question of the relationship between Rickert's analysis of the problem of the objectivity of values and Weber's conception of the objectivity of the cultural sciences. The thesis defended is that a solution to (...)
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  7.  15
    Simmel's Legacy for Contemporary Value Theory: A Critical Assessment.Paul Kamolnick - 2001 - Sociological Theory 19 (1):65-85.
    In this essay I critically assess Georg Simmel's legacy for contemporary value theory and provide the rudiments of an alternative approach. My central thesis is that Simmel fails to satisfactorily conceptualize the nature and origin of value because of his devotion to an asocial, Cartesian-Kantian conception of mind, human freedom, and agency. In contrast, I incorporate recent data from neuroscience, social self theory, developmental psychology, and elements of Marx's theory of the commodity form to provide (...)
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  8.  9
    Interactional Value Theory: An Interpretation. [REVIEW]Amarjit S. Sethi - 1986 - Journal of Value Inquiry 20 (3):209-222.
    The imperatives of organization, technology, and planning operate similarly in both capitalist and Marxist systems. Differences in behavioural outputs (such as organizational productivity, industrial relations behaviour, or the outcomes of different health services systems) can be explained by adopting a framework of an interactional value theory which accepts convergence of different value systems and points out and analyzes differences in outputs in light of interactions between available “climatic techniques and preferred values”. The interactional approach links together “ethical (...)
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  9.  7
    Value Theory and the "Golden Eggs": Appropriating the Magic of Accumulation.Michael W. Macy - 1988 - Sociological Theory 6 (2):131-152.
    Prominent neo-Marxists have recently acknowledged longstanding criticisms of Marx's labor theory of value as at best a cumbersome and redundant price model but continue to variously defend the doctrine as an interpretation of historically observed class conflict between exploiters and exploited. This essay counters that value theory also fails badly as a "labor theory of exploitation." The fundamental flaw is the canonical premise that labor alone is productive, with normative implications closer to the entrepreneurial work (...)
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  10.  3
    Editorial-Guest Editors' Introduction to a Special Issue on Value Theory.Wlodek Rabinowicz & Kevin Mulligan - 2009 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 12:327-328.
    This is an introduction to a special issue of Ethical Theory and Moral Practice that deals with various aspects of value theory.
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  11. Epistemic Value Theory and Social Epistemology.Don Fallis - 2005 - Episteme 2 (3):177-188.
    In order to guide the decisions of real people who want to bring about good epistemic outcomes for themselves and others, we need to understand our epistemic values. In Knowledge in a Social World, Alvin Goldman has proposed an epistemic value theory that allows us to say whether one outcome is epistemically better than another. However, it has been suggested that Goldman's theory is not really an epistemic value theory at all because whether one outcome (...)
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  12.  43
    Value Theory.Mark Schroeder - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The term “value theory” is used in at least three different ways in philosophy. In its broadest sense, “value theory” is a catch-all label used to encompass all branches of moral philosophy, social and political philosophy, aesthetics, and sometimes feminist philosophy and the philosophy of religion — whatever areas of philosophy are deemed to encompass some “evaluative” aspect. In its narrowest sense, “value theory” is used for a relatively narrow area of normative ethical (...) of particular concern to consequentialists. In this narrow sense, “value theory” is roughly synonymous with “axiology”. Axiology can be thought of as primarily concerned with classifying what things are good, and how good they are. For instance, a traditional question of axiology concerns whether the objects of value are subjective psychological states, or objective states of the world. (shrink)
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  13. Introduction to Value Theory.Nicholas Rescher - 1969 - Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall.
    A reprint of the popular 1969, Prentice-Hall edition, the principal innovation of this philosophical introduction to value theory is its focus upon values as they are dealt with in everyday life situations, and have sometimes been studied by sociologists and social psychologists, rather than upon value as has been standard in the philosophical tradition.
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  14.  32
    Value Theory and the Best Interests Standard.David Degrazia - 1995 - Bioethics 9 (1):50–61.
    The idea of a patient's best interests raises issues in prudential value theory–the study of what makes up an individual's ultimate good or well‐being. While this connection may strike a philosopher as obvious, the literature on the best interests standard reveals almost no engagement of recent work in value theory. There seems to be a growing sentiment among bioethicists that their work is independent of philosophical theorizing. Is this sentiment wrong in the present case? Does (...) theory make a significant difference in interpreting best interests? In pursuing this question, I begin with a quick sketch of broad kinds of value theories, identifying representatives that are plausible enough to count as contenders. I then explore what each account suggests in neonatal treatment decisions, and decisions for patients in persistent vegetative states. I conclude that while these accounts converge somewhat in their interpretations of best interests, they also have importantly different implications. (shrink)
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  15. Value Theory and Ecology in Environmental Ethics: A Comparison of Rolston and Niebuhr.Judith N. Scoville - 1995 - Environmental Ethics 17 (2):115-133.
    The objective of Holmes Rolston, III’s writings has been the development of an “ecologically formed” environmental ethics based both on environmental values and ecological description. I show how recasting Rolston’s value theory in terms of H. Richard Niebuhr’s relational value theory can clarify and strengthen this project. Niebuhr developed a theory of value in which value is found in relationships and value systems are constructed in relation to centers of value. Niebuhr’s (...)
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  16.  83
    The Value Theory of Democracy.Corey Brettschneider - 2006 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 5 (3):259-278.
    Liberal political theorists often argue that justice requires limits on policy outcomes, limits delineated by substantive rights. Distinct from this project is a body of literature dedicated to elaborating on the meaning of democracy in procedural terms. In this article, I offer an alternative to the traditional divide between procedural theories of democracy and substantive theories of justice; I call this the ‘value theory of democracy’. I argue that the democratic ideal is fundamentally about a core set of (...)
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  17.  29
    Phenomenology and Ethics: From Value Theory to an Ethics of Responsibility.Zeynep Direk - 2014 - Studia Phaenomenologica 14:371-393.
    There seems to be a shift in phenomenology in the 20th century from an ethics based on value theory to an ethics based on responsibility. This essay attempts to show the path marks of this transition. It begins with the historical development that led Husserl to address the question of ethical objectivity in terms of value theory, with a focus on Kant, Hegel, and Nietzsche. It then explains Husserl’s phenomenology of ethics as grounded in value (...)
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  18.  56
    Technology and Value Theory.Carol Ann Smith - 1980 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:481 - 490.
    A rough categorization of issues in the field of Technology and Society Studies is provided and the kinds of values and value issues under discussion are examined. It is argued that value theory is not sufficiently well-developed to address some of the value issues that arise. Three approaches to values with which the author disagrees are discussed: the atomistic view of values; the ordinary language approach; and, an approach the author calls the "rationality approach". Under the (...)
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  19.  20
    A Defence of the Potential Future of Value Theory.D. Marquis - 2002 - Journal of Medical Ethics 28 (3):198-201.
    In this issue of the journal Mark Brown has offered a new argument against my potential future of value theory. I argue that even though the premises of this new argument are far more defensible than the premises of his old argument, the new argument does not show that the potential future of value theory of the wrongness of killing is false. If the considerations to which Brown appeals are used, not to show that the potential (...)
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  20.  16
    Production Vs. Realisation in Marx's Theory of Value: A Reply to Kincaid.Ben Fine & Alfredo Saad-Filho - 2008 - Historical Materialism 16 (4):167-180.
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  21. Integration of Schwartz's Value Theory and Scheler's Concept of Value in Research on the Development of the Structure of Values During Adolescence.Jan Cieciuch - 2011 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 42 (4):205-214.
    Integration of Schwartz's value theory and Scheler's concept of value in research on the development of the structure of values during adolescence A proposal is presented in the article of integrating Schwartz's circular model of values with Scheler's concept of values. The main research goals were: 1) empirical verification of the attempt to include the values of Scheler into the circle of Schwartz's values; 2) use of the concept and measurement of Scheler's values to describe the development (...)
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  22. Value Theory and the Best Interests Standard1.Degrazia David - 1995 - Bioethics 9 (1):50-61.
    The idea of a patient's best interests raises issues in prudential value theory–the study of what makes up an individual's ultimate good or well‐being. While this connection may strike a philosopher as obvious, the literature on the best interests standard reveals almost no engagement of recent work in value theory. There seems to be a growing sentiment among bioethicists that their work is independent of philosophical theorizing. Is this sentiment wrong in the present case? Does (...) theory make a significant difference in interpreting best interests? In pursuing this question, I begin with a quick sketch of broad kinds of value theories, identifying representatives that are plausible enough to count as contenders. I then explore what each account suggests in neonatal treatment decisions, and decisions for patients in persistent vegetative states. I conclude that while these accounts converge somewhat in their interpretations of best interests, they also have importantly different implications. (shrink)
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  23. The Oxford Handbook of Value Theory.Hirose Iwao & Olson Jonas (eds.) - 2015 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Value theory, or axiology, looks at what things are good or bad, how good or bad they are, and, most fundamentally, what it is for a thing to be good or bad. Questions about value and about what is valuable are important to moral philosophers, since most moral theories hold that we ought to promote the good. This Handbook focuses on value theory as it pertains to ethics, broadly construed, and provides a comprehensive overview of (...)
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  24. Introduction to Value Theory.Nicholas Rescher - 1969 - Upa.
    A reprint of the popular 1969, Prentice-Hall edition, the principal innovation of this philosophical introduction to value theory is its focus upon values as they are dealt with in everyday life situations, and have sometimes been studied by sociologists and social psychologists, rather than upon value as has been standard in the philosophical tradition.
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  25.  14
    Systems of Ethics and Value Theory.William S. Sahakian - 1963 - New York: Philosophical Library.
    In the extensive study, Systems of Ethics and Value Theory, author William S. Sahakian deconstructs these two complex philosophical systems for a scholarly audience.
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  26.  11
    An Epistemic Value Theory.Dennis Whitcomb - 2007 - Dissertation, Rutgers
    For any normative domain, we can theorize about what is good in that domain. Such theories include utilitarianism, a view about what is good morally. But there are many domains other than the moral; these include the prudential, the aesthetic, and the intellectual or epistemic. In this last domain, it is good to be knowledgeable and bad to ignore evidence, quite apart from the morality, prudence, and aesthetics of these things. This dissertation builds a theory that stands to the (...)
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  27. Infinite Value and Finitely Additive Value Theory.Peter Vallentyne & Shelly Kagan - 1997 - Journal of Philosophy 94 (1):5-26.
    000000001. Introduction Call a theory of the good—be it moral or prudential—aggregative just in case (1) it recognizes local (or location-relative) goodness, and (2) the goodness of states of affairs is based on some aggregation of local goodness. The locations for local goodness might be points or regions in time, space, or space-time; or they might be people, or states of nature.1 Any method of aggregation is allowed: totaling, averaging, measuring the equality of the distribution, measuring the minimum, etc.. (...)
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  28.  92
    Value Maximization, Stakeholder Theory, and the Corporate Objective Function.Michael C. Jensen - 2002 - Business Ethics Quarterly 12 (2):235-256.
    Abstract: In this article, I offer a proposal to clarify what I believe is the proper relation between value maximization and stakeholder theory, which I call enlightened value maximization. Enlightened value maximization utilizes much of the structure of stakeholder theory but accepts maximization of the long-run value of the firm as the criterion for making the requisite tradeoffs among its stakeholders, and specifies long-term value maximization or value seeking as the firm’s objective. (...)
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  29.  73
    Inegalitarian Biocentric Consequentialism, the Minimax Implication and Multidimensional Value Theory: A Brief Proposal for a New Direction in Environmental Ethics.Alan Carter - 2005 - Utilitas 17 (1):62-84.
    Perhaps the most impressive environmental ethic developed to date in any detail is Robin Attfield's biocentric consequentialism. Indeed, on first study, it appears sufficiently impressive that, before presenting any alternative theoretical approach, one would first need to establish why one should not simply embrace Attfield's. After outlining a seemingly decisive flaw in his theory, and then criticizing his response to it, this article adumbrates a very different theoretical basis for an environmental ethic: namely, a value-pluralist one. In so (...)
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  30.  22
    Value as Richness: Toward a Value Theory for the Expanded Naturalism in Environmental Ethics.Peter Miller - 1982 - Environmental Ethics 4 (2):101-114.
    There is a widespread conviction amongst nature lovers, environmental activists, and many writers on environmental ethics that the value of the natural world is not restricted to its utility to humankind, but contains an independent intrinsic worth as weIl. Most contemporary value theories, however, are psychologically based and thus ill-suited to characterize such natural intrinsic value. The theory of “value asrichness” presented in this paper attempts to articulate a plausible nonpsychological theory of value (...)
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  31.  64
    Transcendental Ethics: Hyperintensional Foundations of Value Theory.Hasen Khudairi - 2017 - https://archive.org.
    This book concerns the modal and hyperintensional foundations of ethics. The book provides three metaphysical frameworks in which to examine the nature of ethical value, obligation, cognition, consciousness, and divinity. The first framework is an algebraic semantics, and provides support for the claim that truths about modality are metaphysically fundamental. The second framework is a multi-dimensional hyperintensional semantics, and is shown to provide a natural setting in which to address issues both in decision theory and which concern intentional (...)
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  32. Desirable Versus Desired: Different Insulations From Observability: An Evolutionary Step in Value Theory.K. Varga - 2008 - Journal of Human Values 14 (2):129-140.
    The subject of this study, the step forward—which the author felt to be ‘of evolutionary value’—was occasioned by a Delphi discussion. The debate was opened by Varga's contrastive exposition of diagnoses of present history with respect to Hungary's accession to the European Union, offered by some leading Hungarian sociologists , in which he tried to place the views of these authors in a value sociological system by Charles Morris and Geert Hofstede . In Morris’ case, this involved recourse (...)
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  33.  73
    Undertermination and Theory-Ladenness Against Impartiality. A Defence of Value Free Science and Value-Laden Technology.Nicla Vassallo - forthcoming - ProtoSociology 53.
  34.  50
    The Fallacies of 'New Dialectics' and Value-Form Theory.Guglielmo Carchedi - 2009 - Historical Materialism 17 (1):145-169.
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  35. Theory and Cultural Value.Steven Connor - 1992 - Blackwell.
     
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  36.  4
    Integration Theory Applied to Judgments of the Value of Information.James Shanteau & Norman H. Anderson - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 92 (2):266.
  37.  1
    Experimental Studies of the Judgmental Theory of Feeling: III. The Absolute Shift in Affective Value Conditioned by Learned Reactions.H. N. Peters - 1939 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 24 (1):73.
  38. The Labour Theory of Value in Karl Marx.H. W. B. Joseph - 1923 - Oxford University Press.
     
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  39.  95
    Value Theory.Thomas Hurka - 2006 - In David Copp (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ethical Theory. Oxford University Press. pp. 357--379.
    This chapter surveys a variety of views about which states of affairs are intrinsically good, that is, in themselves or apart from their consequences. It considers the claims to intrinsic value of such states of individuals as pleasure, the fulfillment of desire, knowledge, achievement, moral virtue, and personal relationships; the different ways such goods can be compared and aggregated both within and across individual lives; and the possibility, given a principle of “organic unities,” of goods located in wholes larger (...)
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  40.  34
    Political Marxism and Value Theory: Bridging the Gap Between Theory and History.Samuel Knafo - 2007 - Historical Materialism 15 (2):75-104.
  41.  42
    An Adamsian Theory of Intrinsic Value.Scott Hill - 2011 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 14 (3):273-289.
    In this paper I develop a theological account of intrinsic value drawn from some passages in Robert Merrihew Adams’ book Finite and Infinite Goods. First I explain why Adams’ work on this topic is interesting, situate his theory within the broader literature on intrinsic value, and draw attention to some of its revisionist features. Next I state the theory, raise some problems for it, and refine it in light of those problems. Then I illustrate how the (...)
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  42.  4
    The Logical Construction of Value-Theory: More on Fine and Saad-Filho.Jim Kincaid - 2009 - Historical Materialism 17 (3):208-220.
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  43. Back to the Sources of Value Theory and Practical Philosophy.Yvanka B. Raynova - 2016 - Labyrinth 18 (2):5-6.
    Editorial, introducing the issue on Aristotle, 2016/2.
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  44.  35
    Stakeholder Theory, Fact/Value Dichotomy, and the Normative Core: How Wall Street Stops the Ethics Conversation. [REVIEW]Lauren S. Purnell & R. Edward Freeman - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 109 (1):109-116.
    A review of the stakeholder literature reveals that the concept of "normative core" can be applied in three main ways: philosophical justification of stakeholder theory, theoretical governing principles of a firm, and managerial beliefs/values influencing the underlying narrative of business. When considering the case of Wall Street, we argue that the managerial application of normative core reveals the imbedded nature of the fact/value dichotomy. Problems arise when the work of the fact/value dichotomy contributes to a closed-core institution. (...)
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  45. Discourse Grammars and the Structure of Mathematical Reasoning II: The Nature of a Correct Theory of Proof and Its Value.John Corcoran - 1971 - Journal of Structural Learning 3 (2):1-16.
    1971. Discourse Grammars and the Structure of Mathematical Reasoning II: The Nature of a Correct Theory of Proof and Its Value, Journal of Structural Learning 3, #2, 1–16. REPRINTED 1976. Structural Learning II Issues and Approaches, ed. J. Scandura, Gordon & Breach Science Publishers, New York, MR56#15263. -/- This is the second of a series of three articles dealing with application of linguistics and logic to the study of mathematical reasoning, especially in the setting of a concern for (...)
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  46.  73
    Engaging Reason: On the Theory of Value and Action.Joseph Raz - 1999 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Joseph Raz presents a penetrating exploration of the interdependence of value, reason, and the will. The essays illuminate a wide range of questions concerning fundamental aspects of human thought and action. The book is a summation of many years of original, compelling, and influential work by a major contemporary philosopher.
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  47. Science and Ethics: Toward a Theory of Ethical Value.John R. Welch - 1994 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 25 (2):279 - 292.
    This article sketches descriptive and normative components of a theory of ethical value. The normative component, which receives the lion’s share of attention, is developed by adapting Laudan’s levels of scientific discourse. The resulting levels of ethical discourse can be critically addressed through the use of inductive inference, falsification, and causal inference. These techniques are likewise appropriate to the corresponding levels of scientific discourse.
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  48.  62
    Stakeholder Theory, Value, and Firm Performance.Jeffrey S. Harrison & Andrew C. Wicks - 2013 - Business Ethics Quarterly 23 (1):97-124.
    This paper argues that the notion of value has been overly simplified and narrowed to focus on economic returns. Stakeholder theory provides an appropriate lens for considering a more complex perspective of the value that stakeholders seek as well as new ways to measure it. We develop a four-factor perspective for defining value that includes, but extends beyond, the economic value stakeholders seek. To highlight its distinctiveness, we compare this perspective to three other popular performance (...)
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  49.  59
    Epistemic Value Theory and Judgment Aggregation.Don Fallis - 2005 - Episteme 2 (1):39-55.
    The doctrinal paradox shows that aggregating individual judgments by taking a majority vote does not always yield a consistent set of collective judgments. Philip Pettit, Luc Bovens, and Wlodek Rabinowicz have recently argued for the epistemic superiority of an aggregation procedure that always yields a consistent set of judgments. This paper identifies several additional epistemic advantages of their consistency maintaining procedure. However, this paper also shows that there are some circumstances where the majority vote procedure is epistemically superior. The epistemic (...)
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  50.  9
    Teleofunctions and Oncomice: The Case for Revising Varner's Value Theory.Craig Delancey - 2004 - Environmental Ethics 26 (2):171-188.
    The view that organisms deserve moral respect because they have their own purposes is often grounded in a specification of the biological functions that the organism has. One way to identify such functions, adopted by Gary Varner, is to determine the etiology of some behavior based on the evolution of the structures enabling it. This view suffers from some unacceptable problems, including that some organisms with profound defects will by definition have a welfare interest in their defects. For example, this (...)
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